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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507063/the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mmpl11-cell-wall-lipid-transporter-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-intracellular-growth-and-non-replicating-persistence
#1
Catherine C Wright, Fong Fu Hsu, Eusondia Arnett, Jennifer L Dunaj, Patrick M Davidson, Sophia A Pacheco, Melanie J Harriff, David M Lewinsohn, Larry S Schlesinger, Georgiana E Purdy
The mycobacterial cell wall is crucial to the host-pathogen interface since it provides a barrier against antibiotics and the host immune response. In addition, cell wall lipids are mycobacterial virulence factors. The mycobacterial membrane protein large (MmpL) proteins are cell wall lipid transporters that are important for basic mycobacterial physiology and M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. MmpL3 and MmpL11 are conserved across pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, consistent with an important role in the basic physiology of the bacterium...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463738/early-detection-of-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-magnetophoretic-immunoassay-in-liquid-culture
#2
Jeonghyo Kim, Kil-Soo Lee, Eun Bee Kim, Seungwha Paik, Chulhun L Chang, Tae Jung Park, Hwa-Jung Kim, Jaebeom Lee
Tuberculosis (TB) is an often neglected, epidemic disease that remains to be controlled by contemporary techniques of medicine and biotechnology. In this study, a nanoscale sensing system, referred to as magnetophoretic immunoassay (MPI) was designed to capture culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10 antigens effectively using two different types of nanoparticles (NPs). Two specific monoclonal antibodies against CFP-10 antigen were used, including gold NPs for signaling and magnetic particles for separation. These results were carefully compared with those obtained using the commercial mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) test via 2 sequential clinical tests (with ca...
April 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463485/nitroimidazoles-molecular-fireworks-that-combat-a-broad-spectrum-of-infectious-diseases
#3
Chee Wei Ang, Angie M Jarrad, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Arnold Thomas Blaskovich
Infectious diseases claim millions of lives every year, but with the advent of drug resistance therapeutic options to treat infections are becoming limited. There is now an urgent need to develop new and effective treatments. Nitroimidazoles are a class of antimicrobials that have remarkable broad spectrum activity against parasites, mycobacteria and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Whilst they were discovered in the 1950s, there has been renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of nitroimidazoles, particularly for treatment of parasitic infections and tuberculosis...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454654/the-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-rv3371-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-required-for-growth-arrest-and-involved-in-stress-induced-cell-wall-alterations
#4
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Gyan Chandra, Pragati Kushwaha, Garima Pant, Kavita Singh, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is important to mycobacteria both as cell envelope component and energy reservoir. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome encodes at least 15 putative TAG synthase (tgs)s. We report that one of these genes, Rv3371, specific to pathogenic mycobacteria, when expressed in M. smegmatis leads to modifications in colony morphotype, bacterial architecture, cell surface properties and elevated TAG levels. Rv3371 was found to largely localize in the cell membrane. The Rv3371 promoter is minimally active during exponential growth in vitro, however, is up-regulated under stationary phase, hypoxia, nutrient starvation, nitrosative stress, low iron, in IFN-γ activated macrophages and infected mice...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451184/combatting-amr-photoactivatable-ruthenium-ii-isoniazid-complex-exhibits-rapid-selective-antimycobacterial-activity
#5
Nichola A Smith, Pingyu Zhang, Simon E Greenough, Michael D Horbury, Guy J Clarkson, Daniel McFeely, Abraha Habtemariam, Luca Salassa, Vasilios G Stavros, Christopher G Dowson, Peter J Sadler
The novel photoactive ruthenium(ii) complex cis-[Ru(bpy)2(INH)2][PF6]2 (1·2PF6, INH = isoniazid) was designed to incorporate the anti-tuberculosis drug, isoniazid, that could be released from the Ru(ii) cage by photoactivation with visible light. In aqueous solution, 1 rapidly released two equivalents of isoniazid and formed the photoproduct cis-[Ru(bpy)2(H2O)2](2+) upon irradiation with 465 nm blue light. We screened for activity against bacteria containing the three major classes of cell envelope: Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro using blue and multi-colored LED multi-well arrays...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442574/the-r753q-polymorphism-in-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-attenuates-innate-immune-responses-to-mycobacteria-and-impairs-myd88-adapter-recruitment-to-tlr2
#6
Goutham Pattabiraman, Rahul Panchal, Andrei E Medvedev
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 plays a critical role in host defenses against mycobacterial infections. The Arg753Gln (R753Q) TLR2 polymorphism has been associated with increased incidence of tuberculosis and infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria in human populations, but the mechanisms by which this polymorphism affects TLR2 signaling are unclear. In this study, we determined the impact of the R753Q TLR2 polymorphism on macrophage sensing of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Upon infection with M. smegmatis, macrophages from knock-in (KI) mice harboring R753Q TLR2 expressed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to cells from wild-type (WT) mice but both R753Q TLR2 and WT mice exhibited comparable bacterial burdens...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438118/predictors-of-delayed-culture-conversion-among-ugandan-patients
#7
Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. The sub-study aimed at comparing TB detection rates of different culture media, within and across rifampicin-based regimens (R10, 15 and 20 mg/Kg) over a 6-month treatment follow-up period, and to establish predictors of month-2 culture non-conversion among HIV-negative TB patients enrolled at RIFATOX trial site in Uganda...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433210/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-an-emerging-threat
#8
Susana Martínez González, Arantxa Cano Cortés, Luis Alfonso Sota Yoldi, José María García García, Luz María Alba Álvarez, Juan José Palacios Gutiérrez
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates are becoming more common. The main objective of our study was to establish the number and diversity of NTM species in our region and their distribution according to the source sample, age and gender of the patients, and to analyse clinically significant isolates. METHODOLOGY: Prospective study of all NTM isolated in Asturias from 2005 to 2012. Samples were processed following internationally accepted guidelines...
April 19, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419973/antibacterial-antifungal-and-antimycobacterial-compounds-from-cyanobacteria
#9
REVIEW
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Infections from multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain progressively intractable. The search of effective antimicrobials from other possible non-conventional sources against MDR pathogenic bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria is call of the day. This review considers 121 cyanobacterial compounds or cyano-compounds with antimicrobial activities. Chemical structures of cyano-compounds were retrieved from ChemSpider and PubChem databases and were visualized by the software ChemDraw Ultra...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413773/a-m-%C3%A2-avium-complex-spondylodiscitis-in-a-middle-aged-woman-with-diabetes
#10
Irini Gerogianni, Stylianos Boutlas, Theophilos Karachalios, Eythymia Petinaki, Marianna Vlychou, K I Gourgoulianis
Spondylodiscitis, the inflammation of the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral disk space, is the reason for low back pain in a minority of cases. This is caused by various pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for 17-39% of all the cases of spondylodiscitis. On the contrast, spondylodiscitis from non tuberculous mycobacteria is extremely rare in literature. We describe a 68 -year old diabetic woman which is the first case of bone marrow involvement by M. intracellulare (member of M avium complex)with spondylodiscitis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396544/synthetic-p-ppgpp-analogue-inhibitor-of-stringent-response-in-mycobacteria
#11
Kirtimaan Syal, Kelly Flentie, Neerupma Bhardwaj, Krishnagopal Maiti, Narayanaswamy Jayaraman, Christina L Stallings, Dipankar Chatterji
Bacteria elicit an adaptive response against hostile conditions such as starvation and other kind of stresses. Their ability to survive such conditions depends on, in part, stringent response pathways. (p)ppGpp, considered to be the master regulator of stringent response, is a novel target for inhibiting the survival of the bacteria. In mycobacteria, the (p)ppGpp synthetase activity of bifunctional Rel is critical for its stress response and persistence inside the host. Our aim was to design an inhibitor of (p)ppGpp synthesis, follow efficiency through enzyme kinetics, and assess its phenotypic effects in mycobacteria...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384365/correction-high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#12
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169757.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372590/proteomic-analysis-of-protein-purified-derivative-of-mycobacterium-bovis
#13
Sante Roperto, Mariaconcetta Varano, Valeria Russo, Roberta Lucà, Monica Cagiola, Marco Gaspari, Dora Maria Ceccarelli, Giovanni Cuda, Franco Roperto
BACKGROUND: Tuberculin skin test based on in vivo intradermal inoculation of purified protein derivative from Mycobacterium bovis (bPPD) is the diagnostic test for the control and surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). METHODS: Proteomic analysis was performed on different bPPD preparations from M. bovis, strain AN5. Proteins were precipitated from bPPD solutions by TCA precipitation. The proteome of bPPD preparations was investigated by bottom-up proteomics, which consisted in protein digestion and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366154/-evaluation-of-mycobacterial-microscopy-and-culture-results-of-sureyyapasa-chest-diseases-and-chest-surgery-training-and-research-hospital-a-3-year-analysis
#14
Elçin Akduman Alaşehir, Ahmet Balıkçı, Mualla Partal, Gülay Çatmabacak, Görkem Yaman
Introduction: Effective diagnosis of tuberculosis is of great importance for transmission control and treatment success. The purpose of this study is to evaluate microscopic examination results of Ehrlich-Ziehl Neelsen (EZN) and Auramine-Rhodamine staining methods and automated BACTEC MGIT 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture results of various clinical samples in the light of recent data from the world and Turkey. Materials and Methods: Specimens that were sent from various clinics to Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from January 2012 to December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346488/comparison-of-chest-ct-findings-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-diseases-vs-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lung-disease-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-cavities
#15
Cherry Kim, So Hee Park, Sang Young Oh, Sung-Soo Kim, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim, Mi Young Kim
OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on the differences between CT findings of HIV-negative patients who have cavities with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections (TB). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 128 NTM disease patients (79 males and 49 females) with cavities in chest CT, matched for age and gender with 128 TB patients in the same period. Sputum cultures of all patients were positive for pathogens. Two independent chest radiologists evaluated the characteristics of the largest cavity and related factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#16
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337966/acid-fast-positive-and-acid-fast-negative-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-the-koch-paradox
#17
Catherine Vilchèze, Laurent Kremer
Acid-fast (AF) staining, also known as Ziehl-Neelsen stain microscopic detection, developed over a century ago, is even today the most widely used diagnostic method for tuberculosis. Herein we present a short historical review of the evolution of AF staining methods and discuss Koch's paradox, in which non-AF tubercle bacilli can be detected in tuberculosis patients or in experimentally infected animals. The conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an actively growing, AF-positive form to a nonreplicating, AF-negative form during the course of infection is now well documented...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331837/public-health-relevance-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-among-afb-positive-sputa
#18
Prabha Desikan, Karuna Tiwari, Nikita Panwalkar, Saima Khaliq, Manju Chourey, Reeta Varathe, Shaina Beg Mirza, Arun Sharma, Sridhar Anand, Manoj Pandey
BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) is used by most public health programmes to detect tuberculosis. While most AFB in countries endemic for tuberculosis are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), some may also be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The inability to differentiate NTM from MTB by sputum smear microscopy may lead to erroneous diagnoses of tuberculosis, leading in turn to inappropriate therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of consecutive sputum samples received from November 2013 to March 2015 in the Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal, India...
March 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317400/nanodiagnostics-for-tuberculosis-detection
#19
Hesham El-Samadony, Asma Althani, Mohamed Awad Tageldin, Hassan M E Azzazy
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer worldwide. End TB strategy aims at ending the TB epidemic by 2030. Early, accurate, and affordable diagnosis represents a cornerstone to achieve this goal. Innovative strategies for TB diagnostics have been introduced. However, the ideal assay is yet unavailable and conventional methods remain necessary for diagnosis. Unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs) have allowed their utilization in TB detection via targeting disease biomarkers. Area covered: Until now, around thirty-five TB NP-based assays have been partially or fully characterized...
May 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287534/rapid-one-step-enzymatic-synthesis-and-all-aqueous-purification-of-trehalose-analogues
#20
Lisa M Meints, Anne W Poston, Brent F Piligian, Claire D Olson, Katherine S Badger, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Chemically modified versions of trehalose, or trehalose analogues, have applications in biology, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical science, among other fields. For instance, trehalose analogues bearing detectable tags have been used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may have applications as tuberculosis diagnostic imaging agents. Hydrolytically stable versions of trehalose are also being pursued due to their potential for use as non-caloric sweeteners and bioprotective agents. Despite the appeal of this class of compounds for various applications, their potential remains unfulfilled due to the lack of a robust route for their production...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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