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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773279/-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-cervical-adenitis-in-children-2-cases
#1
N Sigg, S Bailleul, J-M Turmel, G Legrand, S Kettani, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in immunocompetent children. Nevertheless, it is poorly known by dermatologists. Its incidence, which is currently increasing since the cessation of BCG vaccination in 2007, raises several issues regarding its pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report two cases of NTM adenitis: one in a 2-year-old girl vaccinated with BCG and one in an unvaccinated 22-month-old boy, in whom a misleading presentation led to delayed diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#2
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740727/the-first-case-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-small-vessel-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#3
REVIEW
Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer, Patrick Liang
To present an unrecognized vascular complication of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy administered for superficial bladder carcinoma. We also review the potential mimickers for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) as well as complications of intravesical BCG therapy. An 89-year-old Caucasian man with a history of relapsing high-grade bladder carcinoma treated with intravesical BCG presented with recurring episodes of right upper limb paresthesia with clumsiness and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed multiple predominantly left-sided frontotemporal micronodular peri-vascular lesions...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739437/induction-of-the-acid-inducible-lipf-promoter-is-reversibly-inhibited-in-ph-ranges-of-ph-4-2-4-0
#4
Rachelle Torres, Donna Dorriz, Beatrice Saviola
OBJECTIVE: In the human body pathogenic mycobacteria encounter low pH within the phagosomes of macrophages where they reside after being internalized by the host cell. Low pH within macrophages has been shown to induce expression of a variety of genes within these bacteria. It had been previously observed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipF promoter is transcriptionally upregulated between pHs 4.5-6.4 in Mycobacterium smegmatis, with an upper pH limit of 6.4 capable of promoter induction...
May 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707345/hiv-negative-pulmonary-disease-caused-by-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-southern-brazil-clinical-and-microbiological-characterization
#5
Fernanda Guioti Puga, Renata Helena Candido Pocente, Erica Chimara, Valdes Roberto Bollela
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been identified with increasing frequency in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to characterize NTM isolates in respiratory specimens from patients with pulmonary disease and to correlate this with clinical/radiological findings, decision to start treatment and outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed and included all patients who had at least one NTM isolated in respiratory specimens between 2011 and 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702266/genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-yongonense-rt-955-2015-isolate-from-a-patient-misdiagnosed-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-first-clinical-isolate-in-tanzania
#6
Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa, Dong-Jin Kim, Esther Ngadaya, Jongsik Chun, Sung-Min Ha, Pammla Petrucka, Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Rudovick R Kazwala, Sayoki G Mfinanga
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium yongonense is a recently described novel species belonging to Mycobacterium avium complex which is the most prevalent etiology of non-tuberculous mycobacteria associated with pulmonary infections, and posing tuberculosis diagnostic challenges in high-burden, resource-constrained settings. METHODS: We used whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative microbial genomic analyses to characterize the isolate from a patient diagnosed with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) after relapse...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687767/growth-characteristics-of-liquid-cultures-increase-the-reliability-of-presumptive-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#7
Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Isis Moreira Felippe, Juliana Failde Gallo, Erica Chimara, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Rosangela Siqueira de Oliveira
We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679902/new-lipophilic-isoniazid-derivatives-and-their-1-3-4-oxadiazole-analogues-synthesis-antimycobacterial-activity-and-investigation-of-their-mechanism-of-action
#8
Rudolf Vosátka, Martin Krátký, Markéta Švarcová, Jiří Janoušek, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jan Madacki, Stanislav Huszár, Katarína Mikušová, Jana Korduláková, František Trejtnar, Jarmila Vinšová
The development of novel drugs is essential for the treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections in future. A series of N-alkyl-2-isonicotinoylhydrazine-1-carboxamides was synthesized from isoniazid (INH) and then cyclized to N-alkyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amines. All derivatives were characterised spectroscopically. The compounds were screened for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against susceptible and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb.) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM; M...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661879/accelerating-early-anti-tuberculosis-drug-discovery-by-creating-mycobacterial-indicator-strains-that-predict-mode-of-action
#9
Maikel Boot, Susanna Commandeur, Amit K Subudhi, Meriem Bahira, Trever C Smith, Abdallah M Abdallah, Mae van Gemert, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Bree B Aldridge, Arnab Pain, Alexander Speer, Wilbert Bitter
Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649975/characterising-resuscitation-promoting-factor-fluorescent-fusions-in-mycobacteria
#10
Iria Uhía, Nitya Krishnan, Brian D Robertson
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation promoting factor proteins (Rpfs) are peptidoglycan glycosidases capable of resuscitating dormant mycobacteria, and have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. However, the specific roles and localisation of each of the 5 Rpfs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain mostly unknown. In this work our aim was to construct fluorescent fusions of M. tuberculosis Rpf proteins as tools to investigate their function. RESULTS: We found that Rpf-fusions to the fluorescent protein mCherry are functional and able to promote cell growth under different conditions...
April 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643203/evaluation-of-the-vitek-ms-v3-0-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-system-for-identification-of-mycobacterium-and-nocardia-species
#11
Barbara A Body, Melodie A Beard, E Susan Slechta, Kimberly E Hanson, Adam P Barker, N Esther Babady, Tracy McMillen, Yi-Wei Tang, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Elena Iakhiaeva, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Terry Smith, Richard J Wallace, S Turner, L Curtis, Susan Butler-Wu, Jenna Rychert
This multi-center study was designed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of the VITEK MS v3.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system for identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species compared to DNA sequencing. A total of 963 clinical isolates representing 51 taxa were evaluated. In all, 663 isolates were correctly identified to the species level (69%) with another 231 (24%) correctly identified to the complex or group level. Fifty-five isolates (6%) could not be identified despite repeat testing...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618088/cell-wall-synthesis-and-ribosome-maturation-are-co-regulated-by-an-rna-switch-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Stefan Schwenk, Alexandra Moores, Irene Nobeli, Timothy D McHugh, Kristine B Arnvig
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on the ability to switch between active growth and non-replicating persistence, associated with latent TB infection. Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are essential for the transition between these states. Rpf expression is tightly regulated as these enzymes are able to degrade the cell wall, and hence potentially lethal to the bacterium itself. We have identified a regulatory element in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of rpfB. We demonstrate that this element is a transcriptionally regulated RNA switch/riboswitch candidate, which appears to be restricted to pathogenic mycobacteria, suggesting a role in virulence...
March 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601187/characterization-of-tetrahydrolipstatin-and-stereo-derivatives-on-the-inhibition-of-essential-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipid-esterases
#13
Christopher M Goins, Thanuja D Sudasinghe, Xiaofan Liu, Yanping Wang, George A O'Doherty, Donald R Ronning
Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) is a covalent inhibitor of many serine esterases. In mycobacteria, THL has been found to covalently react with 261 lipid esterases upon treatment of Mycobacterium bovis cell lysate. However, the covalent adduct is considered unstable in some cases due to the hydrolysis of the enzyme-linked THL adduct resulting in catalytic turnover. In this study, a library of THL stereo-derivatives was tested against three essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid esterases of interest for drug development to assess how the stereochemistry of THL affects respective enzyme inhibition and allows for cross-enzyme inhibition...
March 30, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600220/mycobacteria-intracellulare-spondylodiscitis-presenting-as-progressive-consecutive-vertebral-sclerosis-a-case-report
#14
Kunal Shah, Gaurang Atodaria, Milind Patwardhan, Abhay Nene
Introduction: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are slow-growing organisms affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. As compared to tuberculosis, they pose formidable challenge in successful management beginning with diagnosis extending through its treatment. Case Report: Our case highlights unusual spinal presentation of NTM, intricacies in diagnosis, and successful management. Conclusion: As the prevalence of NTM is rising, it is important as clinicians to understand unique aspects which differ from tuberculosis for appropriate and successful treatment...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563388/prevalence-of-opportunistic-infections-and-causes-of-death-among-hospitalized-hiv-infected-patients-in-sichuan-china
#15
Wenwen Pang, Pengcheng Shang, Qingfeng Li, Jiao Xu, Lei Bi, Jing Zhong, Xiaofang Pei
Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different climates and socio-economic conditions. We, therefore, carried out the retrospective study at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of OIs, predictors of OIs, and risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV-infected patients. Sichuan in West China is characterized by the largest population living with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) across China...
March 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559518/paradigm-for-diagnosing-mycobacterial-disease-direct-detection-and-differentiation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-clinical-specimens-using-multiplex-real-time-pcr
#16
Jeong-Uk Kim, Dae-Shick Ryu, Choong-Hwan Cha, Seon-Hee Park
AIMS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are clinically different, and the rapid detection and differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM is crucial for patient management and infection control. Given the slow growth of most pathogenic mycobacteria, nucleic acid amplification assays are excellent tools for direct identification of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. Recently, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed that can directly detect 20 mycobacterial species in clinical specimens...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559101/cross-reactive-immune-responses-in-cattle-arising-from-exposure-to-mycobacterium-bovis-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria
#17
A O Jenkins, E Gormley, N Gcebe, G T Fosgate, A Conan, C Aagaard, A L Michel, V P M G Rutten
Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle may be compromised in areas where there are high rates of exposure to environmental/non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This cross reaction of immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens shared with NTMs can result in reduced specificity of commonly used diagnostic tests including tuberculin skin tests and the interferon gamma assay (IFN-ɣ). In this study we assessed the cross-reactive immune responses of M. bovis (infected) and NTM exposed animals to M. bovis and M...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558492/comparative-analysis-of-volatile-organic-compounds-for-the-classification-and-identification-of-mycobacterial-species
#18
Anne Küntzel, Peter Oertel, Sina Fischer, Andreas Bergmann, Phillip Trefz, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler
BACKGROUND: Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause serious zoonotic diseases in mammals, for example tuberculosis in humans, dogs, parrots, and elephants (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and in ruminants and humans (caused by M. bovis and M. caprae). Pulmonary diseases, lymphadenitis, skin diseases, and disseminated diseases can be caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species are currently done by culture isolation. The established diagnostic protocols comprise several steps that allow species identification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555701/esx-paralogs-are-functionally-equivalent-to-esx-1-proteins-but-are-dispensable-for-virulence-in-m-marinum
#19
Rachel E Bosserman, Cristal Reyna Thompson, Kathleen R Nicholson, Patricia A Champion
Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous pathogen of poikilothermic fish and an opportunistic human pathogen. Like tuberculous mycobacteria, the M. marinum M strain requires the ESX-1 (ESAT-6 System 1) secretion system for virulence in host cells. EsxB and EsxA, two major virulence factors exported by the ESX-1 system, are encoded by the esxBA genes within the ESX-1 locus. Deletion of the esxBA genes abrogates ESX-1 export and attenuates M. marinum in ex vivo and in vivo models of infection. Interestingly, there are several duplications of the esxB and esxA genes ( esxB_1, esxB_2, esxA_1 , esxA_2, and esxA_3 ) in the M...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543151/mycobacterium-komaniense-sp-nov-a-rapidly-growing-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-species-detected-in-south-africa
#20
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor P M G Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita L Michel
Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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