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Non tuberculosis mycobacteria

Cecilia Brambilla, Marta Llorens-Fons, Esther Julián, Estela Noguera-Ortega, Cristina Tomàs-Martínez, Miriam Pérez-Trujillo, Thomas F Byrd, Fernando Alcaide, Marina Luquin
The rough morphotypes of non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been associated with the most severe illnesses in humans. This idea is consistent with the fact that Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents a stable rough morphotype. Unlike smooth morphotypes, the bacilli of rough morphotypes grow close together, leaving no spaces among them and forming large aggregates (clumps). Currently, the initial interaction of macrophages with clumps remains unclear. Thus, we infected J774 macrophages with bacterial suspensions of rough morphotypes of M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Sharda Sharma, Zeeshan Fatima
Novel strategies to combat the ever increasing burden of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causing tuberculosis (TB) remains a global concern. The ability of MTB to sense and adapt to restricted iron conditions in the hostile environment is essential for their survival and confers the basis of their success as dreadful pathogen. The striking and clinically relevant virulence trait of MTB is its ability to form biofilms and adhere to the host cells. The present study elucidated the effect of iron deprivation on biofilm formation and cell adherence of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic surrogate of MTB...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Nikolay Molodtsov, Uladzimir Antonenka, Harald Hoffmann
Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with RealTime MTB INH/RIF Resistance (RT MTB INH/RIF), which can be applied to RT MTB positive specimens as add-on assay, the tests also indicate genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extra-pulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with the FluoroType MTB assay...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
R Kumar, R Garg, S Kant, S K Verma, R A S Kushwaha, S Kumar, A Jain
OBJECTIVE: To study the drug resistance profile of patients with suspected multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted among patients with suspected MDR-TB attending the Department of Respiratory Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India, from August 2014 to April 2015. Sputum samples obtained from 50 such patients were subjected to drug susceptibility testing against first- and second-line drugs...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Xia Yu, Pengnian Liu, Guan Liu, Liping Zhao, Yanjie Hu, Guomei Wei, Jingjing Luo, Hairong Huang
Despite increasing attention towards the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, the overall epidemiological information remains unavailable for China. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using data of 105 qualified publications from Chinese mainland. The assay demonstrated that the prevalence of NTM infections among tuberculosis suspects was 6.3% (5.4%-7.4%) in mainland, while the Southeastern region had the highest NTM prevalence at 8.6% (7.1%-10.5%). In Northern China, slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) consistituted 63...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Phillip L van der Peet, Masahiro Nagata, Sayali Shah, Jonathan M White, Sho Yamasaki, Spencer J Williams
Mincle (macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) is a C-type lectin receptor that provides the capacity for immune sensing of a range of pathogen- and commensal-derived glycolipids. Mincle can recognize mycolic and/or corynomycolic acid esters of trehalose, glycerol and glucose from mycobacteria and corynebacteria. While simple straight-chain long fatty acids (e.g. behenic acid) can substitute for mycolic acid on trehalose and glycerol and maintain robust signalling through Mincle, glucose monobehenate has been reported to be much less active than glucose monocorynomycolate (GMCM)...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Seow Hoon Saw, Joon Liang Tan, Xin Yue Chan, Kok Gan Chan, Yun Fong Ngeow
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in tuberculosis (TB). It is not clear what factors promote central nervous system invasion and pathology but it has been reported that certain strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) might have genetic traits associated with neurotropism. METHODS: In this study, we generated whole genome sequences of eight clinical strains of Mtb that were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in Malaysia, and compared them to the genomes of H37Rv and other respiratory Mtb genomes either downloaded from public databases or extracted from local sputum isolates...
2016: PeerJ
Xuzhou Wang, Feilai Xie, Qiaoling Zheng, Xingfeng Qi, Min Li, Xiaoling Zhou, Zhiyong Zheng
AIMS: This study aimed to use EDTA to retrieve paraffin-embedded tissue sections of inflammatory granulomatous lesions and increase the detection rate of tuberculosis (TB)/non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Due to the influence of chemical reagents during the fixation process, the amplification of fluorescent quantitative PCR was blocked after DNA extraction, and the results were not ideal. METHODS: Special staining technologies (acid-fast and Auramine O) and fluorescent quantitative PCR were used to detect TB/non-tuberculous mycobacteria in 125 cases of inflammatory granulomatous lesions in paraffin-embedded tissue sections with and without EDTA retrieval...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Guma Abdeldaim, Erik Svensson, Jonas Blomberg, Björn Herrmann
A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other non-respiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA)...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Oren Mayer, Paras Jain, Torin Weisbrod, Daniel Biro, Libby Ho, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Graham F Hatfull, William R Jacobs
: Mycobacteriophage DS6A is unique amongst the more than 8000 isolated mycobacteriophages due to its ability to form plaques exclusively on mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC). Speculation surrounding this specificity has led to unsupported assertions in published studies and patents that non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are wholly resistant to DS6A infection. In this study, we identified two independent, nonessential regions in the DS6A genome and replaced them with an mVenus-expressing plasmid to generate fluorescent reporter phages Φ(2)GFP12 and Φ(2)GFP13...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Matthias I Gröschel, Fadel Sayes, Roxane Simeone, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses sophisticated secretion systems, named 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) protein family secretion (ESX) systems (also known as type VII secretion systems), to export a set of effector proteins that helps the pathogen to resist or evade the host immune response. Since the discovery of the esx loci during the M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome project, structural biology, cell biology and evolutionary analyses have advanced our knowledge of the function of these systems...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Hyunjung Kim, Jehoon Lee, Hi Jeong Kwon, Kwan Hyoung Kim, Chang Dong Yeo, Jin Woo Kim, Hae Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: This study compared the diagnostic power of isothermal target and probe amplification (iTPA) with the existing real-time PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). METHOD: The two molecular methods were performed using DNA extracted directly from lower respiratory tract samples, not from the culture broth. A total of 174 non-consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled in this study. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and liquid culture with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic, USA) were performed...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Feifei Yin, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Qixuan Zhu, Ruijia Fu, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi, Kah-Meng Tee, Lihua Li, Shiuyun Qian, Wing-Cheong Yam, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen
AIMS: Rapid and accurate diagnostic assays with simultaneous microbial identification and drug resistance detection are essential for optimising treatment and control of tuberculosis. METHODS: We developed a novel multiplex (TRIOL, Tuberculosis-Rifampicin-Isoniazid-Ofloxacin-Luminex) assay using the Luminex xMAP system that simultaneously identifies Mycobacterium tuberculosis and detects resistance to first-line and second-line anti-tuberculous drugs, and compared its performance with that by PCR sequencing, using phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as the gold standard...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
I Porvaznik, I Solovič, J Mokrý
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are species other than those belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and do not cause leprosy. NTM are generally free-living organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment. There have been more than 140 NTM species identified to-date. They can cause a wide range of infections, with pulmonary infections being the most frequent (65-90 %). There is growing evidence that the incidence of NTM lung diseases and associated hospitalizations are on the rise, mainly in regions with a low prevalence of tuberculosis...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
D Huet, B Godbert, J Hermann, J-M Zordan, F Chabot, C Andréjak
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium malmoense can be difficult to diagnose. These difficulties can be responsible for a delay in the implementation of optimal treatment. Moreover, the treatment is not standardized. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed a Mycobacterium malmoense pulmonary infection whose diagnosis was delayed due to initial suspicion of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Once the diagnosis was confirmed, the patient was treated empirically with rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin for 12 months after culture conversion, giving a total of 15 months...
September 14, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Alvaro A Ordonez, Edward A Weinstein, Lauren E Bambarger, Vikram Saini, Yong S Chang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah H Klunk, Michael E Urbanowski, Kimberly L Moulton, Allison M Murawski, Supriya Pokkali, Alvin S Kalinda, Sanjay K Jain
: The modern patient is increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections including those due to multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Noninvasive whole-body analysis with pathogen-specific imaging technologies can significantly improve patient outcomes by rapidly identifying a source of infection and monitoring the response to treatment, but no such technology exists clinically. METHODS: We systematic screened 961 random, radiolabeled molecules in silico as substrates for essential metabolic pathways in bacteria, followed by in vitro uptake in representative bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mycobacteria...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Garrett C Moraski, Natalie Seeger, Patricia A Miller, Allen G Oliver, Helena I Boshoff, Sanghyun Cho, Surafel Mulugeta, Jeffery R Anderson, Scott G Franzblau, Marvin J Miller
Increasing interest in the potent anti-tuberculosis activity and the novel target (QcrB) of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides encouraged extended structure-activity relationship studies of additional scaffolds. This study reports on the in vitro profiling of the imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carboxamides as a new promising class of anti-tuberculosis compounds endowed with nanomolar potency against replicating and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as well as low toxicity to VERO cells. Compounds 6, 16, and 17 had MIC values <10 nM and toxicity >100 μM...
June 10, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Manoj Thakur, Mohan B J Kumar, K Muniyappa
Much is known about the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway; however, very little is understood about the proteins involved and the molecular mechanism of NER in mycobacteria. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), which exists in solution as a monomer, binds to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. A systematic examination of MtUvrB substrate specificity reveals that it associates preferentially with single-stranded DNA, duplexes with 3' or 5' overhangs, and linear duplex DNA with splayed arms...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Christopher Vinnard, Sarah Longworth, Alyssa Mezochow, Amee Patrawalla, Barry N Kreiswirth, Keith Hamilton
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are a diverse group of organisms related to M. tuberculosis and cause a wide range of human disease. Unlike tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is not reportable to public health authorities in the United States (US), and the total burden of disease is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the mortality burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in the US over a 15-year period, and to identify temporal trends...
September 8, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jeremy S Nayagam, Claire Mullender, Catherine Cosgrove, Andrew Poullis
AIM: To review all cases of abdominal tuberculosis (ATB) for demographic details, diagnostic work up and evidence of vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with ATB from June 2003 to August 2013 at St George's Hospital, London. Demographic data was available from the local tuberculosis database. Further clinical information was collected from electronic patient records, including radiology, endoscopy, microbiology, histology, biochemistry and serology...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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