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Non tuberculosis mycobacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332619/clinical-characteristics-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-infections-in-bamako-mali
#1
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321924/lung-mycobacterium-avium-developed-after-removing-an-acupuncture-needle-from-the-lung
#2
Mikihito Saito, Hajime Kasai, Kengo Shimazu, Takashi Urushibara, Tomohiko Iida, Toshihide Shinozaki
Acupuncture needles can cause non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) infection on the skin, but there are no reports that acupuncture needles inserted into the lung have caused lung NTM infection. A 63-year-old woman, who underwent removal of a broken acupuncture needle inserted into the lung nine years ago, was admitted with nodules in the right lung. The shadow was positioned where the needle had existed. Partial lung resection of the right lower lobe was performed, and the resected area showed caseous necrosis histopathologically...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319836/tbc-kan-p%C3%A3-visas-med-pcr-%C3%A2-men-bara-i-direktpositiva-luftv%C3%A3-gsprov
#3
Bodil Jönsson, Elisabet Lönnermark, Malin Ridell
TB can be detected with PCR - but only in smear-positive respiratory samples Unnecessary and inappropriate clinical requests represent a great waste of time and money and may also result in false diagnoses. PCR-techniques, such as Cobas TaqMan MTB, are used for rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB).  These assays are only validated for respiratory specimens, but they are commonly requested also for non-respiratory specimens.  These assays perform well in smear-positive respiratory samples, while the sensitivities are quite unsatisfactory for both respiratory and non-respiratory smear-negatives samples...
January 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310592/characterization-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-from-humans-and-water-in-an-agropastoral-area-in-zambia
#4
Ngula Monde, Musso Munyeme, Adrian Muwonge, John Bwalya Muma, Sydney Malama
BACKGROUND: The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation of these organisms for better patient management, consequently reducing the burden of these infections...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281992/rapidly-growing-mycobacterial-infection-a-recognized-cause-of-early-onset-prosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Anupop Jitmuang, Varah Yuenyongviwat, Keerati Charoencholvanich, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274054/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-mycobacterial-infections-in-farm-and-trade-cattle-in-southwestern-nigeria
#6
Victor O Akinseye, Muideen D Adebayo, Oghenekaro O Genesis, Olubukola D Adelakun, Simeon I B Cadmus
We evaluated the prevalence of mycobacterial infections (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) and their associated risk factors among cattle herds and trade cattle in southwestern Nigeria. Through cross-sectional study design, cattle herds from three locations were screened using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test based on two diagnostic standards; more than 4 mm (˃ 4 mm) and more than 2 mm (˃ 2 mm) cut-off points. Abattoir study involved screening trade cattle for tuberculous lesions...
December 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260746/-the-spectrum-of-primary-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-relation-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status
#7
V N Zimina, O E Mikova, T A Varetskaya, D A Oborin, S Yu Degtyareva, V I Sergevnin
AIM: To estimate the detection rate and spectrum of primary drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) in patients with tuberculosis (TB) in relation to their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in a region with high HIV infection rates (the Perm Territory) and to compare of drug-resistant MBT (DR-MBT) in patients with HIV/TB co-infection, by using phenotypic and molecular genetic testing (MGT) methods. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The results of sputum bacteriological examination were analyzed in 178 HIV-infected patients and 354 non-HIV-infected individuals with a TB diagnosis made in the period July 1, 2014 to August 1, 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250924/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-lymph-nodes-and-faecal-samples-of-healthy-slaughtered-cattle-and-the-abattoir-environment
#8
G Ghielmetti, U Friedel, S Scherrer, E Sarno, P Landolt, O Dietz, M Hilbe, C Zweifel, R Stephan
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are reported as emerging disease in many countries worldwide. The occurrence of NTM in different hosts and their implication as obligate or opportunistic pathogen remain largely unclear. Lymph nodes and faecal samples of clinically healthy Swiss cattle at slaughter were analysed for the presence of NTM. Based on the examined lymph nodes, NTM were detected in 20% of 108 cattle originating from different premises. The 22 isolates belonged to five different species of Mycobacteria (M...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242190/the-rv2633c-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-a-non-heme-di-iron-catalase-with-a-possible-role-in-defenses-against-oxidative-stress
#9
Zhongxin Ma, Kyle T Strickland, Michelle D Cherne, Esha Sehanobish, Kyle H Rohde, William T Self, Victor L Davidson
The Rv2633c gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rapidly upregulated after macrophage infection, suggesting that Rv2633c is involved in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, the activity and role of the Rv2633c protein in host colonization is unknown. Here, we analyzed the Rv2633c protein sequence, which revealed the presence of an HHE cation-binding domain common in hemerythrin-like proteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rv2633c is a member of a distinct subset of hemerythrin-like proteins exclusive to mycobacteria...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207758/mycobacterium-fortuitum-infection-at-umbilical-hernioplasty-site
#10
Bharti Chogtu, Daliparty Vasudev Malik, Rahul Magazine, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy
Non Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of rapidly growing mycobacteria and are generally considered to be of low virulence. Of late, there has been an increase in incidence of infections due to these organisms. Among them, Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M. abscessus are the common species which have been identified. Though they are occasionally implicated in pulmonary infections, NTM are very commonly associated with cutaneous infections, especially surgical site infections. Identification of NTM infection at such sites should be suspected when there is delayed healing of the wound...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174965/il-6-release-of-rv0183-antigen-stimulated-whole-blood-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-active-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Yongliang Liu, Xiaofei Li, Wei Liu, Yang Liu, Zhouyue Zhong, Lili Wang, ShengXiang Ge, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
OBJECTIVE: New tests for diagnosing active tuberculosis (aTB) are urgently needed, and TB antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity can be expected to develop new testing methods of aTB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rv0183 protein, the only monoglyceride lipase identified in mycobacteria, was used to stimulate freshly heparin-treated whole blood. The Rv0183-specific cytokines/chemokines response associated with aTB was screened firstly with 4 aTB patients and 4 LTBIs, and further evaluated in 192 suspected aTB patients and 372 healthy individuals...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171825/guardians-of-the-mycobacterial-genome-a-review-on-dna-repair-systems-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Amandeep Singh
The genomic integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is continuously threatened by the harsh survival conditions inside host macrophages, due to immune and antibiotic stresses. Faithful genome maintenance and repair must be accomplished under stress for the bacillus to survive in the host, necessitating a robust DNA repair system. The importance of DNA repair systems in pathogenesis is well established. Previous examination of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed homologues of almost all the major DNA repair systems, i...
November 24, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169355/a-comparison-of-liquid-and-solid-culture-for-determining-relapse-and-durable-cure-in-phase-iii-tb-trials-for-new-regimens
#13
Patrick P J Phillips, Carl M Mendel, Andrew J Nunn, Timothy D McHugh, Angela M Crook, Robert Hunt, Anna Bateson, Stephen H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis kills more people than any other infectious disease, and new regimens are essential. The primary endpoint for confirmatory phase III trials for new regimens is a composite outcome that includes bacteriological treatment failure and relapse. Culture methodology is critical to the primary trial outcome. Patients in clinical trials can have positive cultures after treatment ends that may not necessarily indicate relapse, which was ascribed previously to laboratory cross-contamination or breakdown of old lesions...
November 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167798/uncovering-the-hidden-complexity-and-strategies-for-diagnosing-latent-tuberculosis
#14
EDITORIAL
Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Tuberculosis produces two clinical manifestations: active and latent (non-apparent) disease. The latter is estimated to affect one-third of the world population and constitutes a source of continued transmission should the disease emerge from its hidden state (reactivation). Methods to diagnose latent TB have been evolving and aim to detect the disease in people who are truly infected with M. tuberculosis, versus those where other mycobacteria, or even other pathologies not related to TB, are present. The current use of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches may lead to improved detection methods in the coming years...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134263/diminished-susceptibility-of-african-americans-to-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#15
Jerome M Reich, Jong S Kim
The incidence of three granulomatous response diseases-sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease-differ markedly in African-Americans versus Caucasians. In reviewing a large compendium of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis, we noted that complicating infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria was relatively infrequent among individuals of African-American descent, confirming previous observations of their inherent resistance. Disease-specific variance among African-Americans in the efficacy of their granulomatous response suggests a nexus, a mediating, immunological mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124568/pkng-supports-mycobacterial-adaptation-in-acidic-environment
#16
Ruchi Paroha, Rashmi Chourasia, Rajesh Mondal, Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has the remarkable ability to adapt to the hostile environment inside host cells. Eleven eukaryotic like serine-threonine protein kinases (STPKs) are present in Mtb. Protein kinase G (PknG) has been shown to promote mycobacterial survival inside host cells. A homolog of PknG is also present in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS), a fast grower, non-pathogenic mycobacterium. In the present study, we have analyzed the role of PknG in mycobacteria during exposure to acidic environment...
November 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109708/differential-identification-of-mycobacterial-species-using-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#17
Azar D Khosravi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Ali Teimoori
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing wordwide. Due to the difference in treatment of NTM infections and tuberculosis, rapid species identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates is necessary for the effective management of mycobacterial diseases treatment and their control strategy. In this study, a cost-effective technique, real-time PCR coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, was developed for the differentiation of Mycobacterial species using a novel rpoBC sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107333/granzyme-b-disrupts-central-metabolism-and-protein-synthesis-in-bacteria-to-promote-an-immune-cell-death-program
#18
Farokh Dotiwala, Sumit Sen Santara, Andres Ariel Binker-Cosen, Bo Li, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Judy Lieberman
Human cytotoxic lymphocytes kill intracellular microbes. The cytotoxic granule granzyme proteases released by cytotoxic lymphocytes trigger oxidative bacterial death by disrupting electron transport, generating superoxide anion and inactivating bacterial oxidative defenses. However, they also cause non-oxidative cell death because anaerobic bacteria are also killed. Here, we use differential proteomics to identify granzyme B substrates in three unrelated bacteria: Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacteria tuberculosis...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072097/antimycobacterial-activity-of-nitrogen-heterocycles-derivatives-7-pyridine-4-yl-indolizine-derivatives-part-vii-8-12
#19
Anda-Mihaela Olaru, Violeta Vasilache, Ramona Danac, Ionel I Mangalagiu
A series of 13 compounds having a monoindolizine mono-salt skeleton was designed and synthesised in order to evaluate their antimycobacterial activity. The synthesis is efficient, involving only three steps: two alkylations and one 3 + 2 dipolar cycloaddition. The antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv grown under aerobic conditions was evaluated, eight compounds showing a very good antimycobacterial activity. SAR correlation reveals a certain influence of the R substituent from the para position of benzoyl moiety at position 3 of indolizine...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062247/frequency-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacteria-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#20
Ezgi Ulusoy, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Güzide Aksu, Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Necil Kütükçüler
AIM: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
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