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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724011/the-aids-epidemic-and-the-mozambican-society-of-medicines-an-analysis-of-brazilian-cooperation
#1
Maíra da Silva Fedatto
This article analyzes the Brazilian South South Cooperation in Health in Mozambique, specifically the fight against the AIDS Epidemic through the Antiretroviral Factory, in light of the concept of Structural Cooperation in Health, and with a basis in the literature on Cooperation for Development and Global Health. Thus, the article is divided into four parts: (i) a historical-bibliographic review of health as an International Relations issue; (ii) an overview of the field of health in Mozambique; (iii) an historical-political-conceptual debate about both types of International Cooperation for Development: North-South Cooperation and South-South Cooperation; (iv) a study about the antiretroviral factory, better known as the Mozambican Society of Medicines (Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos)...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724008/an-analysis-of-the-major-challenges-and-obstacles-for-international-technical-cooperation-in-health-brazil-mozambique
#2
Eduardo Mazzaroppi Barao Pereira
Health has become a priority issue on the agenda in relation to Brazilian international technical cooperation in the last decade. This applies to Mozambique which is a strategic partner of Brazil's when one takes into consideration the volume of projects that have been undertaken between the two countries and the available resources on offer. There has been a shift in the foreign policy paradigm which has resulted in a new Brazilian foreign policy posture that promotes bilateral agreements and international cooperation...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721170/an-epidemic-of-spastic-paraparesis-of-unknown-aetiology-in-northern-mozambique
#3
Cátia Luciana Abdulfattáhe Taibo, Julie Cliff, Hans Rosling, Casey Daniel Hall, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Joseph Asamoah Frimpong
This case study is based on a real-life outbreak investigation undertaken in Mozambique in 1981. This case study describes and promotes one particular approach to unknown disease outbreak investigation. Investigational procedures, however, may vary depending on location and outbreak. It is anticipated that the epidemiologist investigating an unknown disease outbreak will work within the framework of a "multidisciplinary investigation team". It is through the collaborative efforts of this team, with each member playing a critical role, that outbreak investigations are successfully completed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720787/comparison-between-an-african-town-and-a-neighbouring-village-shows-delayed-but-not-decreased-sleep-during-the-early-stages-of-urbanisation
#4
Andrew D Beale, Mario Pedrazzoli, Bruno da Silva B Gonçalves, Felipe Beijamini, Núbia E Duarte, Kieren J Egan, Kristen L Knutson, Malcolm von Schantz, Laura C Roden
The well-established negative health outcomes of sleep deprivation, and the suggestion that availability of electricity may enable later bed times without compensating sleep extension in the morning, have stimulated interest in studying communities whose sleep pattern may resemble a pre-industrial state. Here, we describe sleep and activity in two neighbouring communities, one urban (Milange) and one rural (Tengua), in a region of Mozambique where urbanisation is an ongoing process. The two communities differ in the amount and timing of daily activity and of light exposure, with later bedtimes (≈1 h) associated with more evening and less daytime light exposure seen in the town of Milange...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719286/the-economic-value-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-and-indoor-residual-spraying-implementation-in-mozambique
#5
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Nathan T B Stone, Shufang Zhang, Shawn T Brown, Chandrani Chatterjee, Jay V DePasse, Eli Zenkov, Olivier J T Briët, Chandana Mendis, Kirsi Viisainen, Baltazar Candrinho, James Colborn
AbstractMalaria-endemic countries have to decide how much of their limited resources for vector control to allocate toward implementing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) versus indoor residual spraying (IRS). To help the Mozambique Ministry of Health use an evidence-based approach to determine funding allocation toward various malaria control strategies, the Global Fund convened the Mozambique Modeling Working Group which then used JANUS, a software platform that includes integrated computational economic, operational, and clinical outcome models that can link with different transmission models (in this case, OpenMalaria) to determine the economic value of vector control strategies...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716790/human-papillomavirus-prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-among-young-women-and-men-in-maputo-city-mozambique
#6
Viegas Edna Omar, Augusto Orvalho, Ismael Nália, Kaliff Malin, Lillsunde-Larsson Gabriella, Ramqvist Torbjörn, Nilsson Charlotta, Falk Kerstin, Osman Nafissa, Jani Ilesh Vindorai, Andersson Sören
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known cause of cervical cancer, the second most frequent cancer in female African populations. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of HPV infections and the genotype distribution in young adults aged 18-24, in Maputo city, Mozambique, and to assess the suitability of commercially available HPV vaccines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2011 at a youth clinic in Maputo Central Hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716154/new-insights-from-gorongosa-national-park-and-niassa-national-reserve-of-mozambique-increasing-the-genetic-diversity-of-trypanosoma-vivax-and-trypanosoma-vivax-like-in-tsetse-flies-wild-ungulates-and-livestock-from-east-africa
#7
Carla Mf Rodrigues, Herakles A Garcia, Adriana C Rodrigues, André G Costa-Martins, Carlos L Pereira, Dagmar L Pereira, Zakaria Bengaly, Luis Neves, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Marta Mg Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is a major pathogen of livestock in Africa and South America (SA), and genetic studies limited to small sampling suggest greater diversity in East Africa (EA) compared to both West Africa (WA) and SA. METHODS: Multidimensional scaling and phylogenetic analyses of 112 sequences of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene and 263 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITS rDNA) were performed to compare trypanosomes from tsetse flies from Gorongosa National Park and Niassa National Reserve of Mozambique (MZ), wild ungulates and livestock from EA, and livestock isolates from WA and SA...
July 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715465/multiplexing-detection-of-igg-against-plasmodium-falciparum-pregnancy-specific-antigens
#8
Ana Maria Fonseca, Llorenç Quinto, Alfons Jiménez, Raquel González, Azucena Bardají, Sonia Maculuve, Carlota Dobaño, Maria Rupérez, Anifa Vala, John J Aponte, Esperanza Sevene, Eusebio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women exposed to Plasmodium falciparum generate antibodies against VAR2CSA, the parasite protein that mediates adhesion of infected erythrocytes to the placenta. There is a need of high-throughput tools to determine the fine specificity of these antibodies that can be used to identify immune correlates of protection and exposure. Here we aimed at developing a multiplex-immunoassay to detect antibodies against VAR2CSA antigens. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed two multiplex-bead arrays, one composed of 3 VAR2CSA recombinant-domains (DBL3X, DBL5Ɛ and DBL6Ɛ) and another composed of 46 new peptides covering VAR2CSA conserved and semi-conserved regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712360/resisting-and-tolerating-p-falciparum-in-pregnancy-under-different-malaria-transmission-intensities
#9
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Emmanuel Mbuba, Raquel González, Pau Cisteró, Simon Kariuki, Esperança Sevene, María Rupérez, Ana Maria Fonseca, Anifa Vala, Sonia Maculuve, Alfons Jiménez, Llorenç Quintó, Peter Ouma, Michael Ramharter, John J Aponte, Arsenio Nhacolo, Achille Massougbodji, Valerie Briand, Peter G Kremsner, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Michel Cot, Clara Menéndez, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. METHODS: P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707630/how-innovative-and-conventional-curricula-prepare-medical-students-for-practice-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comparative-study-from-mozambique
#10
Janneke M Frambach, Beatriz A F Manuel, Afonso M T Fumo, Bernard Groosjohan, Cees P M Van Der Vleuten, Erik W Driessen
BACKGROUND: Medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa is in need of reform to promote the number and quality of physicians trained. Curriculum change and innovation in this region, however, face a challenging context that may affect curriculum outcomes. Research on outcomes of curriculum innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. We investigated curriculum outcomes in a Sub-Saharan African context by comparing students' perceived preparedness for practice within three curricula in Mozambique: a conventional curriculum and two innovative curricula...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704560/performance-characteristics-of-finger-stick-dried-blood-spots-dbs-on-the-determination-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-treatment-failure-in-a-pediatric-population-in-mozambique
#11
Joy Chang, Amina de Sousa, Jennifer Sabatier, Mariamo Assane, Guoqing Zhang, Dulce Bila, Paula Vaz, Charity Alfredo, Loide Cossa, Nilesh Bhatt, Emilia H Koumans, Chunfu Yang, Emilia Rivadeneira, Ilesh Jani, James C Houston
Quantitative plasma viral load (VL) at 1000 copies /mL was recommended as the threshold to confirm antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure by the World Health Organization (WHO). Because of ongoing challenges of using plasma for VL testing in resource-limited settings (RLS), especially for children, this study collected 717 DBS and paired plasma samples from children receiving ART ≥1 year in Mozambique and compared the performance of DBS using Abbott's VL test with a paired plasma sample using Roche's VL test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696875/status-and-challenges-of-care-in-africa-for-adults-with-congenital-heart-defects
#12
Frank Edwin, Liesl Zühlke, Heba Farouk, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Kow Entsua-Mensah, Desrie Delsol-Gyan, Fidelia Bode-Thomas, Andre Brooks, Blanche Cupido, Mark Tettey, Ernest Aniteye, Martin M Tamatey, Kofi B Gyan, Jacques Cabral Tantchou Tchoumi, Mohamed-Adel Elgamal
The 54 countries in Africa have an estimated total annual congenital heart defect (CHD) birth prevalence of 300,486 cases. More than half (51.4%) of the continental birth prevalence occurs in only seven countries. Congenital heart disease remains primarily a pediatric health issue in Africa because of the deficient health-care systems: the adults with CHD made up just 10% of patients with CHD in Ghana, and 13.7% of patients with CHD presenting for surgery in Mozambique. With Africa's population projected to double in the next 35 years, the already deficient health systems for CHD care will suffer unbearable strain unless determined and courageous action is undertaken by the African leaders...
July 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692541/the-value-of-point-of-care-cd4-and-laboratory-viral-load-in-tailoring-art-monitoring-strategies-to-resource-limitations
#13
Emily P Hyle, Ilesh V Jani, Katherine L Rosettie, Robin Wood, Benjamin Osher, Stephen Resch, Pamela P Pei, Paolo Maggiore, Kenneth A Freedberg, Trevor Peter, Robert A Parker, Rochelle P Walensky
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load (VL) monitoring compared to current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN/METHODS: We use the CEPAC-I model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER, $/year of life saved [YLS]) of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689274/impact-of-glutathione-transferases-genes-polymorphisms-in-nevirapine-adverse-reactions-a-possible-role-for-gstm1-in-sjs-ten-susceptibility
#14
Cinzia Ciccacci, Andrea Latini, Cristina Politi, Sandro Mancinelli, Maria C Marazzi, Giuseppe Novelli, Leonardo Palombi, Paola Borgiani
PURPOSE: Nevirapine (NVP) is used in developing countries as first-line treatment of HIV infection. Unfortunately, its use is associated with common serious adverse drug reactions, such as liver toxicity and the most severe and rare Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes code for enzymes involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs. We hypothesized that this gene variability could be implicated in NVP adverse reactions. METHODS: We analyzed the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes by multiplex PCR in a population of 181 patients from Mozambique, treated with NVP...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688979/remarkable-richness-of-trypanosomes-in-tsetse-flies-glossina-morsitans-morsitans-and-glossina-pallidipes-from-the-gorongosa-national-park-and-niassa-national-reserve-of-mozambique-revealed-by-fluorescent-fragment-length-barcoding-fflb
#15
Herakles A Garcia, Carla M F Rodrigues, Adriana C Rodrigues, Dagmar L Pereira, Carlos L Pereira, Erney P Camargo, P B Hamilton, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosomes of African wild ungulates transmitted by tsetse flies can cause human and livestock diseases. However, trypanosome diversity in wild tsetse flies remains greatly underestimated. We employed FFLB (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) for surveys of trypanosomes in tsetse flies (3086) from the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) and Niassa National Reserve (NNR) in Mozambique (MZ), identified as Glossina morsitans morsitans (GNP/NNR=77.6%/90.5%) and Glossina pallidipes (22.4%/9.5%). Trypanosomes were microscopically detected in 8...
July 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678644/the-pathology-of-eclampsia-an-autopsy-series
#16
Jonathan L Hecht, Jaume Ordi, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo R Ismail, Zsuzsanna K Zsengeller, S Ananth Karumanchi, Seymour Rosen
OBJECTIVE: We describe the main lesions in the liver, brain, and kidney from autopsies of women who died of eclampsia and characterize the endothelial injury. METHODS: Cases were identified from a study involving 317 maternal deaths (2003-2006) conducted at the Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo, Mozambique) in association with ISGlobal (Barcelona, Spain). Histology slides along with stains for endothelial, histiocyte, and platelet markers (CD31, CD34, CD68, CD42B) were reviewed to identify the relevant lesions...
July 5, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676121/developing-nurse-medication-safety-training-in-a-health-partnership-in-mozambique-using-behavioural-science
#17
Eleanor Rose Bull, Corina Mason, Fonseca Domingos Junior, Luana Vendramel Santos, Abigail Scott, Debo Ademokun, Zeferina Simião, Wingi Manzungu Oliver, Fernando Francisco Joaquim, Sarah M Cavanagh
BACKGROUND: Globally, safe and effective medication administration relies on nurses being able to apply strong drug calculation skills in their real-life practice, in the face of stressors and distractions. These may be especially prevalent for nurses in low-income countries such as Mozambique and Continuing Professional Development post-registration may be important. This study aimed to 1) explore the initial impact of an international health partnership's work to develop a drug calculation workshop for nurses in Beira, Mozambique and 2) reflect upon the role of health psychologists in helping educators apply behavioural science to the training content and evaluation...
July 4, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657963/maternal-hiv-infection-is-an-important-health-determinant-in-non-hiv-infected-infants
#18
María Rupérez, Raquel González, Sonia Maculuve, Llorenç Quintó, Elisa López-Varela, Orvalho Augusto, Anifa Vala, Arsénio Nhacolo, Esperança Sevene, Denise Naniche, Clara Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: To assess morbidity and mortality in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children to help guiding appropriate clinical care and effective preventive interventions. DESIGN: This is a longitudinal study comparing two cohorts of children; one born to HIV-infected women and the other born to HIV-uninfected women. METHODS: We have analyzed prospectively obtained information on nutritional status, morbidity and mortality from 966 HEU and 909 HIV-unexposed infants followed up until their first 18 months of life at a referral health facility in southern Mozambique...
July 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656634/satellite-data-and-machine-learning-for-weather-risk-management-and-food-security
#19
Enrico Biffis, Erik Chavez
The increase in frequency and severity of extreme weather events poses challenges for the agricultural sector in developing economies and for food security globally. In this article, we demonstrate how machine learning can be used to mine satellite data and identify pixel-level optimal weather indices that can be used to inform the design of risk transfers and the quantification of the benefits of resilient production technology adoption. We implement the model to study maize production in Mozambique, and show how the approach can be used to produce countrywide risk profiles resulting from the aggregation of local, heterogeneous exposures to rainfall precipitation and excess temperature...
June 27, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652164/schistosoma-haematobium-a-delayed-cause-of-hematuria
#20
Wei Phin Tan, Thomas Hwang, Ji-Weon Park, Lev Elterman
A 22-year-old African-American man with recurrent episodes of gross hematuria for 6 months presented to the clinic for evaluation. A thorough history revealed that the patient emigrated from Mozambique to the United States 12 years ago. Urine culture was negative for a urinary tract infection. Cystoscopy revealed 4 lesions in the bladder. Biopsy of the bladder lesion revealed severe cystitis and Schistosoma Haematobium. The patient later confirmed that he used to swim in rivers and streams back in Africa. He completed a course of praziquantel and his gross hematuria resolved...
June 23, 2017: Urology
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