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Fernando Mitano, Amélia Nunes Sicsú, Luciana de Oliveira Sousa, Rarianne Carvalho Peruhype, Jaqueline Garcia de Almeida Ballestero, Pedro Fredemir Palha
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the discourses of health professionals about the obstacles in the process of detection and reporting of tuberculosis cases in Mozambique. METHOD: Qualitative exploratory study with a theoretical-methodological approach of Discourse Analysis of French matrix. The study was conducted in Mozambique in 2014 at three levels: central, provincial and district. The study included 15 health professionals, 4 physicians, 6 technicians and 5 nursing professionals, who worked in the National Tuberculosis Control Program, with more than 1 year of experience...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Milan Vrtílek, Jakub Žák, Matej Polačik, Radim Blažek, Martin Reichard
The natural history of model organisms is often overlooked despite its importance to correctly interpret the outcome of laboratory studies. Ageing is particularly understudied in natural populations. To address this gap, we present lifetime demographic data from wild populations of an annual species, the turquoise killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, a model species in ageing research, and two other species of coexisting annual killifishes. Annual killifish hatch synchronously, have non-overlapping generations, and reproduce daily after reaching sexual maturity...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Licia Colli, Marco Milanesi, Elia Vajana, Daniela Iamartino, Lorenzo Bomba, Francesco Puglisi, Marcello Del Corvo, Ezequiel L Nicolazzi, Sahar S E Ahmed, Jesus R V Herrera, Libertado Cruz, Shujun Zhang, Aixin Liang, Guohua Hua, Liguo Yang, Xingjie Hao, Fuyuan Zuo, Song-Jia Lai, Shuilian Wang, Ruyu Liu, Yundeng Gong, Mahdi Mokhber, Yongjiang Mao, Feng Guan, Augustin Vlaic, Bogdan Vlaic, Luigi Ramunno, Gianfranco Cosenza, Ali Ahmad, Ihsan Soysal, Emel Ö Ünal, Mariena Ketudat-Cairns, José F Garcia, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Pietro S Baruselli, Maria E J Amaral, Rangsun Parnpai, Marcela G Drummond, Peter Galbusera, James Burton, Eileen Hoal, Yulnawati Yusnizar, Cece Sumantri, Bianca Moioli, Alessio Valentini, Alessandra Stella, John L Williams, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan
The domestic water buffalo is native to the Asian continent but through historical migrations and recent importations, nowadays has a worldwide distribution. The two types of water buffalo, i.e., river and swamp, display distinct morphological and behavioral traits, different karyotypes and also have different purposes and geographical distributions. River buffaloes from Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Mozambique, Brazil and Colombia, and swamp buffaloes from China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Brazil were genotyped with a species-specific medium-density 90K SNP panel...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, T Ichise, G Ito, N Bortey-Sam, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Many countries with incidence of malaria, including those surrounding Maputo Bay, use dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to reduce mosquitoes. This study is the first to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of marine fish from Maputo Bay contaminated with DDTs. The median for ∑DDTs was 3.8 ng/g ww (maximum 280.9 ng/g ww). The overall hazard ratio for samples was 1.5 at the 75th percentile concentration and 28.2 at the 95th percentile. These calculations show increased potential cancer risks due to contamination by DDTs, data which will help policy makers perform a risk-benefit analysis of DDT use in malaria control programs in the region...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Yvette Efevbera, Dana C McCoy, Alice J Wuermli, Theresa S Betancourt
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Chiara Trevisan, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Nicolas Praet, Alberto Pondja, Yunus Amade Assane, Pierre Dorny, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Pascal Magnussen, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia solium is endemic in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique, though the burden of the disease complex is unknown. METHODS: As part of two cross-sectional studies on human and porcine cysticercosis in the area, unique epidemiological and cost data were collected in Angónia district, Mozambique in 2007. These data provided the basis for the assessment of the societal cost of T. solium in the district, which estimates the impact of the disease on human and pig populations and includes both health and economic approaches in the analysis...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Paulo Arnaldo, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Jerónimo S Langa, Crizolgo Salvador, Pieter Guetens, Driss Chiheb, Bernardete Xavier, Luc Kestens, Sónia M Enosse, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on the mother and the child and accounts for 75,000-200,000 infant deaths every year. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. This study aimed to assess IPTp-SP coverage in mothers delivering in health facilities and at the community. In addition, factors associated with low IPTp-SP uptake and malaria adverse outcomes in pregnancy were investigated...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Bvudzai Priscilla Magadzire, Gabriel Joao, Stephanie Shendale, Ikechukwu Udo Ogbuanu
Background : A missed opportunity for vaccination (MOV) refers to any contact with health services by an individual who is eligible for vaccination, which does not result in the person receiving the vaccine doses for which he or she is eligible. A consortium of partners, including VillageReach, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique and the World Health Organization, will implement a strategy to reduce MOV in Mozambique. The strategy involves demonstrating the magnitude of missed opportunities and their causes, and exploring tailored health system interventions to reduce them, with the aim of increasing vaccination coverage and timeliness of vaccinations...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
Marit Reitsma, Shanna Bastiaan-Net, Lutske Sijbrandij, Evelien de Weert, Stefano Sforza, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Huub F J Savelkoul, Nicolette W de Jong, Harry J Wichers
The protein content and allergen composition was studied of cashews from 8 different origins (Benin, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam), subjected to different in-shell heat treatments (steamed, fried, drum-roasted). On 2D electrophoresis, 9 isoforms of Ana o 1, 29 isoforms of Ana o 2 (11 of the acidic subunit, 18 of the basic subunit), and 8 isoforms of the large subunit of Ana o 3 were tentatively identified. Based on 1D and 2D electrophoresis, no difference in allergen content (Ana o 1, 2, 3) was detected between the cashews of different origins (P > 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Beatriz Manriquez Rocha, Francisco Mbofana, Osvaldo Loquiha, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, U Vivian Ukah, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen
In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when pre-eclampsia is suspected. This operational pilot implementation of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in six antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique (six control clinics for comparison). The primary outcome was transfer to higher levels of care, following the informative PlGF assay...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Filip Huyghe, Marc Kochzius
In this contribution, we determine the genetic population structure in the Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion akallopsisos) across the Indian Ocean, and on a smaller geographic scale in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Highly restricted gene flow was discovered between populations on either side of the Indian Ocean using the control region as a mitochondrial marker (mtDNA). We verify this conclusion using 13 microsatellite markers and infer fine scale genetic structuring within the WIO. In total 387 samples from 21 sites were analysed using mtDNA and 13 microsatellite loci...
2018: PloS One
Jeannet C Bos, Jan M Prins, Mabor C Mistício, Ginto Nunguiane, Cláudia N Lang, José C Beirão, Ron A A Mathôt, Reinier M van Hest
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highly albumin-bound β-lactam ceftriaxone is frequently used for the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections. Systemic drug exposure of β-lactams can be altered in critically ill ICU patients, but pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for non-ICU SSA populations are lacking. Methods: We performed a population pharmacokinetic study in an adult hospital population in Mozambique, treated with ceftriaxone for presumptive severe bacterial infection from October 2014 to November 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Narayanan Gobi, Mani Divya, Merlin P Thangaraj, Preetham Elumalai
Recently, several immunostimulants such as β-glucan, microbial and plant products have been used as dietary supplements to combat disease outbreaks in aquaculture. The present study investigates the potential of Portunus pelagicus β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs) supplemented diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The immune-related protein β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of P. pelagicus using Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sara S Dias, Francisco Mbofana, Sheyla R Cassy, Sónia Dias, Gonçalo F Augusto, Victor Agadjanian, Maria R O Martins
The use of population-based survey data together with sound statistical methods can enhance better estimation of HIV risk factors and explain variations across subgroups of the population. The distribution and determinants of HIV infection in populations must be taken into consideration. We analysed data from the HIV Prevalence and Behaviour Survey in Mozambique aiming to find risk factors associated with HIV infection among Mozambican women. The paper provides a complex survey logistic regression model to explain the variation in HIV seropositivity using demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Chiara Boscardin, Giovanni Putoto, Elena Cuppini, Graciana Pita, Alexandra George, Laura Monno, Annalisa Saracino, Liviana Da Dalt, Angela De Palma
The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the demand for pregnancy-related health services by adolescent girls and young women in Mozambique. We analysed the patient registers for the first year of operation (2014) of the Servicios Amigos dos Adolescentes (SAAJ) [Friendly Services for Adolescents] clinics in Beira, Mozambique. These registers provide details of the service demands of, and services provided to the 8 290 adolescent girls and young women who accessed the 6 SAAJ clinics in 2014. Analysis of that record, with disaggregation of the patients according to age (9 years or less; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25 and older), show that 3 021 (36%) were pregnant or had previously been pregnant; most being girls in the 15-19 age band (59%)...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Daniel Stec, Kazuharu Arakawa, Łukasz Michalczyk
Tardigrade research in Japan dates back over 100 years, and to date, 167 species of this ecdysozoan phylum have been reported from the country. Of these species, the Macrobiotus hufelandi complex has been represented only by the nominal taxon of this group, Macrobiotus hufelandi. In this article, a new species of the hufelandi group from Japan, Macrobiotus shonaicus sp. nov., is described using integrative taxonomy. In addition to the detailed morphological and morphometric data, obtained using phase contrast light microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we provide DNA sequences of four molecular markers (both nuclear and mitochondrial)...
2018: PloS One
Khalide Azam, Nureisha Cadir, Carla Madeira, Stephen H Gillespie, Wilber Sabiiti
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are centralised, requiring long-distance transportation of specimens in most resource-limited settings. We evaluated the ability of OMNIgene.SPUTUM (OM-S) to obviate cold-chain transport of TB specimens. A two-arm (same-day and after 5 days sample processing) study was conducted to assess contamination rates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability in OM-S-treated samples against the standard decontamination procedure (SDP) in Mozambique, using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture and molecular bacterial load assay...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
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