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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640795/progress-toward-containment-of-poliovirus-type-2-worldwide-2017
#1
Nicoletta Previsani, Harpal Singh, Jeanette St Pierre, Liliane Boualam, Jacqueline Fournier-Caruana, Roland W Sutter, Michel Zaffran
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Only one of the three serotypes, wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 (WPV1), is still circulating, and the numbers of cases and countries with endemic transmission are at record lows. With the certification of wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) eradication in 2015 and the global replacement of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) containing Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with bivalent OPV containing only Sabin poliovirus types 1 and 3 during April-May 2016, poliovirus type 2 (PV2) is now an eradicated pathogen...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637472/variability-in-p1-gene-redefines-phylogenetic-relationships-among-cassava-brown-streak-viruses
#2
Willard Mbewe, Fred Tairo, Peter Sseruwagi, Joseph Ndunguru, Siobain Duffy, Ssetumba Mukasa, Ibrahim Benesi, Samar Sheat, Marianne Koerbler, Stephan Winter
BACKGROUND: Cassava brown streak disease is emerging as the most important viral disease of cassava in Africa, and is consequently a threat to food security. Two distinct species of the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae) cause the disease: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). To understand the evolutionary relationships among the viruses, 64 nucleotide sequences from the variable P1 gene from major cassava producing areas of east and central-southern Africa were determined...
June 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632739/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-tool-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-pediatric-deaths-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#3
Quique Bassat, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Tacilta Nhampossa, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sónia Bandeira, Calvino Sambo, Valeria Chicamba, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Pau Cisteró, Alfredo Mayor, Anelsio Cossa, Inacio Mandomando, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Jordi Vila, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Clara Menéndez, Jaume Ordi
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the world has witnessed unprecedented progress in child survival. However, our knowledge of what is killing nearly 6 million children annually in low- and middle-income countries remains poor, partly because of the inadequacy and reduced precision of the methods currently utilized in these settings to investigate causes of death (CoDs). The study objective was to validate the use of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) approach as an adequate and more acceptable substitute for the complete diagnostic autopsy (CDA) for pediatric CoD investigation in a poor setting...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#4
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631528/determined-to-stop-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-desire-to-have-no-more-children-in-rural-mozambique
#5
Sarah R Hayford, Victor Agadjanian
Classic demographic theories conceptualize desired family size as a fixed goal that guides fertility intentions over the childbearing years. However, a growing body of research shows that fertility plans, even nominally long-term plans for completed childbearing, change in response to short-term conditions. Because of data limitations, much of this research has focused on low-fertility contexts, but short-term conditions are likely to be even more important in high-fertility contexts. This paper uses three waves of survey data collected in rural Mozambique to study predictors of the desire to stop childbearing in a context of relatively high fertility and high individual and social instability...
June 20, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622368/minimal-genetic-change-in-vibrio-cholerae-in-mozambique-over-time-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#6
Marcelino Garrine, Inácio Mandomando, Delfino Vubil, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sozinho Acacio, Shan Li, Joseph N Paulson, Mathieu Almeida, Daryl Domman, Nicholas R Thomson, Pedro Alonso, Oscar Colin Stine
Although cholera is a major public health concern in Mozambique, its transmission patterns remain unknown. We surveyed the genetic relatedness of 75 Vibrio cholerae isolates from patients at Manhiça District Hospital between 2002-2012 and 3 isolates from river using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). MLVA revealed 22 genotypes in two clonal complexes and four unrelated genotypes. WGS revealed i) the presence of recombination, ii) 67 isolates descended monophyletically from a single source connected to Wave 3 of the Seventh Pandemic, and iii) four clinical isolates lacking the cholera toxin gene...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620286/audience-effects-in-territorial-defense-of-male-cichlid-fish-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-activation-of-the-brain-social-decision-making-network
#7
António Roleira, Gonçalo A Oliveira, João S Lopes, Rui F Oliveira
Animals communicate by exchanging signals frequently in the proximity of other conspecifics that may detect and intercept signals not directed to them. There is evidence that the presence of these bystanders modulates the signaling behavior of interacting individuals, a phenomenon that has been named audience effect. Research on the audience effect has predominantly focused on its function rather than on its proximate mechanisms. Here, we have investigated the physiological and neuromolecular correlates of the audience effect in a cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610205/-i-rhinobatos-i-i-austini-i-n-sp-a-new-species-of-guitarfish-rhinopristiformes-%C3%A2-rhinobatidae-from-the-southwestern-indian-ocean
#8
David A Ebert, Ofer Gon
Rhinobatos austini sp. n. is described from the southwestern Indian Ocean based on four specimens collected from the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa and from Mozambique. The new species, with one exception, can be distinguished from all other members of this genus by a prominent teardrop-shaped dark blotch on the ventral surface of its snout. Its closest congener, R. holcorhynchus, also has a prominent teardrop-shaped blotch on its snout, but the new species differs from it by a lack of prominent thorns and tubercles on it dorsal disc surface and a very striking dorsal surface colour pattern of paired spots, some forming darker transverse bands across its back...
June 11, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606162/how-behavioural-science-can-contribute-to-health-partnerships-the-case-of-the-change-exchange
#9
REVIEW
Lucie M T Byrne-Davis, Eleanor R Bull, Amy Burton, Nimarta Dharni, Fiona Gillison, Wendy Maltinsky, Corina Mason, Nisha Sharma, Christopher J Armitage, Marie Johnston, Ged J Byrne, Jo K Hart
BACKGROUND: Health partnerships often use health professional training to change practice with the aim of improving quality of care. Interventions to change practice can learn from behavioural science and focus not only on improving the competence and capability of health professionals but also their opportunity and motivation to make changes in practice. We describe a project that used behavioural scientist volunteers to enable health partnerships to understand and use the theories, techniques and assessments of behavioural science...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604773/surveillance-of-impact-of-pcv-10-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-mozambique-2013-2015
#10
Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Goitom Weldegebriel, Reggis Katsande, Linda de Gouveia, Charlotte Elizabeth Comé, Arlindo Zacarias Cuco, Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli, Cícero Dias, Juliana Caierão, Jason Mwenda Mathiu, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602910/in-vitro-screening-for-estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-using-mozambique-tilapia-and-sea-bass-scales
#11
Patrícia I S Pinto, M Dulce Estêvão, Soraia Santos, André Andrade, Deborah M Power
A wide range of estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are accumulating in the environment and may disrupt the physiology of aquatic organisms. The effects of EDCs on fish have mainly been assessed using reproductive endpoints and in vivo animal experiments. We used a simple non-invasive assay to evaluate the impact of estrogens and EDCs on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales. These were exposed to estradiol (E2), two phytoestrogens and six anthropogenic estrogenic/anti-estrogenic EDCs and activities of enzymes related to mineralized tissue turnover (TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and ALP, alkaline phosphatase) were measured...
June 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602764/first-serological-evidence-of-hantavirus-among-febrile-patients-in-mozambique
#12
Ramalho Chau, Nilesh Bhatt, Ivan Manhiça, Sandra Cândido, Nilsa de Deus, Onélia Guiliche, Almiro Tivane, Lara Virgínia Evaristo, Alexandro Guterres, Vanessa Monteiro, Jorlan Fernandes de Jesus, Renata Carvalho Oliveira, Elba Regina de Lemos, Eduardo Samo Gudo
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, occurrence of hantavirus is poorly studied and its clinical implication is unknown. The study aimed to determine the occurrence of hantavirus infection among febrile patients attending an outpatient appointment clinic at a primary health care center located in a suburban area of Maputo city in Mozambique. METHODS: Paired acute and convalescent samples from a total of 200 febrile patients aged >5years old who were recruited between March 2012 and April 2014 were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against hantavirus using and ELISA...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596630/how-to-allocate-limited-healthcare-resources-lessons-from-the-introduction-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-mozambique
#13
Zan M Dodson, Victor Agadjanian, Julia Driessen
Proper allocation of limited healthcare resources is a challenging task for policymakers in developing countries. Allocation of and access to these resources typically varies based on how need is defined, thus determining how individuals access and acquire healthcare. Using the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in southern Mozambique as an example, we examine alternative definitions of need for rural populations and how they might impact the allocation of this vital health service. Our results show that how need is defined matters when allocating limited healthcare resources and the use of need-based metrics can help ensure more optimal distribution of services...
January 2017: Applied Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595594/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-healthcare-workers-in-nampula-central-hospital-mozambique
#14
Celso Belo, Saloshni Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers in high tuberculosis burdened countries are occupationally exposed to the tuberculosis disease with uncomplicated and complicated tuberculosis on the increase among them. Most of them acquire Mycobacterium tuberculosis but do not progress to the active disease - latent tuberculosis infection. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in Nampula Central Hospital, Mozambique...
June 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594599/genetic-variants-in-the-il-4-il-13-pathway-influence-measles-vaccine-responses-and-vaccine-failure-in-children-from-mozambique
#15
Holly D Clifford, Catherine M Hayden, Siew-Kim Khoo, Denise Naniche, Inacio M Mandomando, Guicheng Zhang, Peter Richmond, Peter N Le Souëf
Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. We investigated IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4Rα polymorphisms and their impact on measles IgG responses and measles vaccine failure, in two separate cohorts: 12-month-old Australian children immunized with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 137) and a case/control cohort of children aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa (n = 89), some of whom were vaccinated, but still contracted measles (vaccine failure)...
June 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582541/epidemiology-of-rotavirus-infection-in-children-from-a-rural-and-urban-area-in-maputo-southern-mozambique-before-vaccine-introduction
#16
Nilsa de Deus, Eva João, Assa Cuamba, Marta Cassocera, Leopoldina Luís, Sozinho Acácio, Inácio Mandomando, Orvalho Augusto, Nicola Page
This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of rotavirus infections in Mozambique before vaccine introduction. Between February 2012 and September 2013, stool specimens, demographic and clinical data were collected from 384 children <5 years old hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Mavalane General Hospital and Manhiça District Hospital, southern Mozambique. The samples were tested for rotavirus A using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall prevalence of rotavirus infection was 42.4% [95% confidence interval (95CI): 37...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575010/effects-of-hiv-infection-on-maternal-and-neonatal-health-in-southern-mozambique-a-prospective-cohort-study-after-a-decade-of-antiretroviral-drugs-roll-out
#17
Raquel González, María Rupérez, Esperança Sevene, Anifa Vala, Sónia Maculuve, Helder Bulo, Arsénio Nhacolo, Alfredo Mayor, John J Aponte, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menendez
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemic is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited information exists on its impact on women and infant's health since the introduction of antiretroviral drugs in this region, where health resources are often scarce. METHODS: The effect of HIV infection on maternal health, birth outcomes and infant health was analysed in two contemporary cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected pregnant women from southern Mozambique. Pregnant women attending the first antenatal care visit were followed until one month after delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573937/using-the-commvac-taxonomy-to-map-vaccination-communication-interventions-in-mozambique
#18
Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Julie Cliff, Afiong Oku, Angela Oyo-Ita, Claire Glenton, Heather Ames, Jessica Kaufman, Sophie Hill, Yuri Cartier, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Gabriel Rada, Simon Lewin
BACKGROUND: Improved communication about childhood vaccination is fundamental to increasing vaccine uptake in low-income countries. Mozambique, with 64% of children fully vaccinated, uses a range of communication interventions to promote uptake of childhood immunisation. OBJECTIVES: Using a taxonomy developed by the 'Communicate to Vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, the study aims to identify and classify the existing communication interventions for vaccination in Mozambique and to find the gaps...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570507/trends-in-prevalence-of-advanced-hiv-disease-at-antiretroviral-therapy-enrollment-10-countries-2004-2015
#19
Andrew F Auld, Ray W Shiraishi, Ikwo Oboho, Christine Ross, Moses Bateganya, Valerie Pelletier, Jacob Dee, Kesner Francois, Nirva Duval, Mayer Antoine, Chris Delcher, Gracia Desforges, Mark Griswold, Jean Wysler Domercant, Nadjy Joseph, Varough Deyde, Yrvel Desir, Joelle Deas Van Onacker, Ermane Robin, Helen Chun, Isaac Zulu, Ishani Pathmanathan, E Kainne Dokubo, Spencer Lloyd, Rituparna Pati, Jonathan Kaplan, Elliot Raizes, Thomas Spira, Kiren Mitruka, Aleny Couto, Eduardo Samo Gudo, Francisco Mbofana, Melissa Briggs, Charity Alfredo, Carla Xavier, Alfredo Vergara, Ndapewa Hamunime, Simon Agolory, Gram Mutandi, Naemi N Shoopala, Souleymane Sawadogo, Andrew L Baughman, Adebobola Bashorun, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Mahesh Swaminathan, Dennis Onotu, Solomon Odafe, Oseni Omomo Abiri, Henry H Debem, Hank Tomlinson, Velephi Okello, Peter Preko, Trong Ao, Caroline Ryan, George Bicego, Peter Ehrenkranz, Harrison Kamiru, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Gideon Kwesigabo, Angela A Ramadhani, Kahemele Ng'wangu, Patrick Swai, Mohamed Mfaume, Ramadhani Gongo, Deborah Carpenter, Timothy D Mastro, Carol Hamilton, Julie Denison, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Olivier Koole, Kwasi Torpey, Seymour G Williams, Robert Colebunders, Julius N Kalamya, Alice Namale, Michelle R Adler, Bridget Mugisa, Sundeep Gupta, Sharon Tsui, Eric van Praag, Duc B Nguyen, Sheryl Lyss, Yen Le, Abu S Abdul-Quader, Nhan T Do, Modest Mulenga, Sebastian Hachizovu, Owen Mugurungi, Beth A Tippett Barr, Elizabeth Gonese, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Shirish Balachandra, Stephanie Behel, Trista Bingham, Duncan Mackellar, David Lowrance, Tedd V Ellerbrock
Monitoring prevalence of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (i.e., CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL) among persons starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to understand ART program outcomes, inform HIV prevention strategy, and forecast need for adjunctive therapies.*(,)(†)(,)(§) To assess trends in prevalence of advanced disease at ART initiation in 10 high-burden countries during 2004-2015, records of 694,138 ART enrollees aged ≥15 years from 797 ART facilities were analyzed...
June 2, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569807/upgrading-protected-areas-to-conserve-wild-biodiversity
#20
Robert M Pringle
International agreements mandate the expansion of Earth's protected-area network as a bulwark against the continued extinction of wild populations, species, and ecosystems. Yet many protected areas are underfunded, poorly managed, and ecologically damaged; the conundrum is how to increase their coverage and effectiveness simultaneously. Innovative restoration and rewilding programmes in Costa Rica's Área de Conservación Guanacaste and Mozambique's Parque Nacional da Gorongosa highlight how degraded ecosystems can be rehabilitated, expanded, and woven into the cultural fabric of human societies...
May 31, 2017: Nature
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