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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087136/global-general-pediatric-surgery-partnership-the-ucla-mozambique-experience
#1
Vanda Amado, Deborah B Martins, Abraar Karan, Brittni Johnson, Shant Shekherdimian, Lee T Miller, Atanasio Taela, Daniel A DeUgarte
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There has been increasing recognition of the disparities in surgical care throughout the world. Increasingly, efforts are being made to improve local infrastructure and training of surgeons in low-income settings. The purpose of this study was to review the first 5-years of a global academic pediatric general surgery partnership between UCLA and the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, Mozambique. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was utilized to perform an ongoing needs assessment...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086893/seasonal-variation-in-geographical-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-regions-of-southern-mozambique
#2
Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Nadine Schuurman, Charfudin Sacoor, Helena Edith Boene, Faustino Vilanculo, Marianne Vidler, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe, Tabassum Firoz
BACKGROUND: Geographic proximity to health facilities is a known determinant of access to maternal care. Methods of quantifying geographical access to care have largely ignored the impact of precipitation and flooding. Further, travel has largely been imagined as unimodal where one transport mode is used for entire journeys to seek care. This study proposes a new approach for modeling potential spatio-temporal access by evaluating the impact of precipitation and floods on access to maternal health services using multiple transport modes, in southern Mozambique...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078676/the-ultrastructural-characterization-of-mitochondria-rich-cells-as-a-response-to-variations-in-salinity-in-two-types-of-teleostean-pseudobranch-milkfish-chanos-chanos-and-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#3
Sheng-Hui Yang, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Chao-Kai Kang, Wen-Kai Yang, Hsiu-Ni Kung, Tsung-Han Lee
The pseudobranchs of two euryhaline teleost species, the milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), were studied after acclimization to different salinities using optical and electron microscopy. The milkfish pseudobranch was the lamellae-free type, with separate lamellae along the filaments containing two groups of mitochondria (Mt)-rich cells: chloride cells (CCs) and pseudobranch type cells (PSCs). Conversely, the tilapia pseudobranch was the embedded type, covered with connective tissues and with only one group of Mt-rich PSCs...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075239/hantavirus-strains-in-east-africa-related-to-western-african-hantaviruses
#4
Jana Těšíková, Anna Bryjová, Josef Bryja, Leonid A Lavrenchenko, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Hantaviruses are RNA viruses primarily carried by rodents, soricomorphs, and bats. The data about the distribution and genetic diversity of these viruses are often limited, especially in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the majority of representatives were identified in western African localities, while only three hantaviruses have been reported in East Africa to date. In this study, a total of 1866 small mammals captured between 2009 and 2014 in various countries of Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, and Tanzania) were molecularly screened for the presence of hantaviruses...
January 11, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065186/differential-effects-of-dietary-diversity-and-maternal-characteristics-on-linear-growth-of-children-aged-6-59-months-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis
#5
Dickson A Amugsi, Zacharie T Dimbuene, Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Blessing Mberu, Alex C Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential effects of dietary diversity (DD) and maternal characteristics on child linear growth at different points of the conditional distribution of height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from nationally representative cross-sectional samples of singleton children aged 0-59 months, born to mothers aged 15-49 years. The outcome variable was child HAZ. Quantile regression was used to perform the multivariate analysis...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062682/genome-wide-association-study-of-nevirapine-hypersensitivity-in-a-sub-saharan-african-hiv-infected-population
#6
Daniel F Carr, Stephane Bourgeois, Mas Chaponda, Louise Y Takeshita, Andrew P Morris, Elena M Cornejo Castro, Ana Alfirevic, Andrew R Jones, Daniel J Rigden, Sam Haldenby, Saye Khoo, David G Lalloo, Robert S Heyderman, Collet Dandara, Elizabeth Kampira, Joep J van Oosterhout, Francis Ssali, Paula Munderi, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani, Matthew R Nelson, Arthur Holden, Panos Deloukas, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients, including hepatotoxicity, maculopapular exanthema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). OBJECTIVES: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic predisposing factors for the different clinical phenotypes associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity. METHODS: A GWAS was undertaken in a discovery cohort of 151 nevirapine-hypersensitive and 182 tolerant, HIV-infected Malawian adults...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060886/point-of-care-p24-infant-testing-for-hiv-may-increase-patient-identification-despite-low-sensitivity
#7
Bindiya Meggi, Timothy Bollinger, Nédio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Ocean Tobaiwa, Jorge I Quevedo, Osvaldo Loquiha, Lara Vojnov, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
The long delay in returning test results during early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID) often causes loss-to-follow-up prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in resource-limited settings. A point-of-care (POC) test may help overcome these challenges. We evaluated the performance of the LYNX p24 Antigen POC test in Mozambique. 879 HIV-exposed infants under 18 months of age were enrolled consecutively at three primary healthcare clinics (PHC). Lancet heel-drawn blood was tested on-site by nurses using a prototype POC test for HIV Gag p24 antigen detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056943/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-tuberculosis-care-among-health-workers-in-southern-mozambique
#8
Andrés Noé, Rafaela M Ribeiro, Rui Anselmo, Maria Maixenchs, Layce Sitole, Khatia Munguambe, Silvia Blanco, Peter le Souef, Alberto L García-Basteiro
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is more likely to be achieved if the level of knowledge regarding TB is increased among health workers managing high-risk groups. No formal assessments regarding knowledge, attitudes and practises of health workers about TB have been published for Mozambique, a country facing challenges in the fight against TB, with a fragile health system and considerable work overload of health personnel. The main objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge, identify attitudes and assess practices regarding TB care and control among health care workers of the district of Manhiça...
January 5, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052700/informing-efforts-to-reach-unaids-90-90-90-targets-a-comparison-of-characteristics-of-people-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-health-facilities-to-the-general-population-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-mozambique
#9
Stephanie Kujawski, Maria Lahuerta, Matthew R Lamb, Laurence Ahoua, Fatima Abacassamo, Batya Elul
Global targets aim to increase the number of people living with HIV (PLWH) who know their status. Using data from Mozambican facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and a population-based survey, we compared characteristics of PLWH diagnosed in HTC to the general population of PLWH to identify subgroups that are missing from the health system and may be undiagnosed. Male and female PLWH aged 50+ (PPR = 0.47, p = .0001) and with higher HIV knowledge (PPR = 0.52, p = .004) were underrepresented in HTC...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032523/hiv-fertility-intentions-and-contraception-in-the-era-of-expanded-access-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-case-study-of-rural-mozambique
#10
Victor Agadjanian, Sarah R Hayford
Provision of effective contraception to HIV-positive women of reproductive age is critical to effective management of HIV infection and prevention of both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in developing countries. This exploratory retrospective study examines contraceptive use during the prolonged post-partum period in a sample of 285 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who gave birth at four rural maternity clinics in a high HIV-prevalence region in Mozambique. Multivariate analyses show no significant variations by HIV status in contraceptive timing (mean time to first contraceptive use of 7...
December 29, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018629/the-ecological-connectivity-of-whale-shark-aggregations-in-the-indian-ocean-a-photo-identification-approach
#11
Samantha Andrzejaczek, Jessica Meeuwig, David Rowat, Simon Pierce, Tim Davies, Rebecca Fisher, Mark Meekan
Genetic and modelling studies suggest that seasonal aggregations of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at coastal sites in the tropics may be linked by migration. Here, we used photo-identification (photo-ID) data collected by both citizen scientists and researchers to assess the connectedness of five whale shark aggregation sites across the entire Indian Ocean at timescales of up to a decade. We used the semi-automated program I(3)S (Individual Interactive Identification System) to compare photographs of the unique natural marking patterns of individual whale sharks collected from aggregations at Mozambique, the Seychelles, the Maldives, Christmas Island (Australia) and Ningaloo Reef (Australia)...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003461/restriction-to-gene-flow-is-associated-with-changes-in-the-molecular-basis-of-pyrethroid-resistance-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus
#12
Kayla G Barnes, Helen Irving, Martin Chiumia, Themba Mzilahowa, Michael Coleman, Janet Hemingway, Charles S Wondji
Resistance to pyrethroids, the sole insecticide class recommended for treating bed nets, threatens the control of major malaria vectors, including Anopheles funestus Effective management of resistance requires an understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms driving resistance. Here, using genome-wide transcription and genetic diversity analyses, we show that a shift in the molecular basis of pyrethroid resistance in southern African populations of this species is associated with a restricted gene flow. Across the most highly endemic and densely populated regions in Malawi, An...
December 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998288/factors-influencing-job-preferences-of-health-workers-providing-obstetric-care-results-from-discrete-choice-experiments-in-malawi-mozambique-and-tanzania
#13
Eilish McAuliffe, Marie Galligan, Paul Revill, Francis Kamwendo, Mohsin Sidat, Honorati Masanja, Helen de Pinho, Edson Araujo
BACKGROUND: Task shifting from established health professionals to mid-level providers (MLPs) (professionals who undergo shorter training in specific procedures) is one key strategy for reducing maternal and neonatal deaths. This has resulted in a growth in cadre types providing obstetric care in low and middle-income countries. Little is known about the relative importance of the different factors in determining motivation and retention amongst these cadres. METHODS: This paper presents findings from large sample (1972 respondents) discrete choice experiments to examine the employment preferences of obstetric care workers across three east African countries...
December 20, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989273/beyond-test-and-treat-malaria-diagnosis-for-improved-pediatric-fever-management-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Emily White Johansson
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988769/hidden-diversity-in-deep-water-bandfishes-review-of-owstonia-with%C3%A2-descriptions-of-twenty-one-new-species-teleostei-cepolidae-owstoniinae
#15
William F Smith-Vaniz, G David Johnson
The bandfish family Cepolidae, comprising the subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae, is characterized, and defining characters of the three groups are identified and discussed. Characters of larvae of both subfamilies are described and illustrated. Six nominal genera of owstoniines had been proposed by various authors, but we recognize only Owstonia Tanaka. Utility of selected identification characters of the genus are discussed. Differences in lateral-line patterns have been the primary character used by some recent authors for recognition of two owstoniine genera, with Sphenanthias Weber possessing the plesiomorphic lateral-line condition...
November 8, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988651/sublittoral-and-bathyal-sea-cucumbers-echinodermata-holothuroidea-from-the-northern-mozambique-channel-with-description-of-six-new-species
#16
Yves Samyn, Didier Vandenspiegel
The 2009 expedition with the research vessel Miriky sampled the sublittoral and bathyal waters of the northern Mozambique Channel. This exploration campaign resulted in a small, but very diverse collection of holothuroids comprising 174 specimens representing 31 species, 18 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Of these species, many were hitherto unknown for Madagascar or even for the Indian Ocean, and six, Bathyplotes aymeric sp. nov., Holothuria (Cystipus) yann sp. nov., Holothuria (Stauropora) bo sp. nov., Holothuria (Metriatyla) alex sp...
November 24, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984415/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-pre-from-post-seroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#17
Lucia Pastor, Erica Parker, Jorge Carrillo, Victor Urrea, Laura Fuente-Soro, Durval Respeito, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection (AHI) HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient non-specific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV specific antibodies. In this study we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction prior to completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify AHI in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
8, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974018/risky-sexual-behaviour-among-women-does-economic-empowerment-matter-case-of-gabon-mozambique-sierra-leone-and-zambia
#18
Clifford O Odimegwu, Nicole De Wet, Pamela C Banda
The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa...
December 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957391/the-unique-deep-sea-land-connection-interactive-3d-visualization-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-bathyhedyle-boucheti-n-sp-bathyhedylidae-n-fam-the-first-panpulmonate-slug-from-bathyal-zones
#19
Timea P Neusser, Katharina M Jörger, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Ellen E Strong, Michael Schrödl
The deep sea comprises vast unexplored areas and is expected to conceal significant undescribed invertebrate species diversity. Deep waters may act as a refuge for many relictual groups, including elusive and enigmatic higher taxa, but the evolutionary pathways by which colonization of the deep sea has occurred have scarcely been investigated. Sister group relationships between shallow water and deep sea taxa have been documented in several invertebrate groups, but are unknown between amphibious/terrestrial and deep-sea species...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940114/innovative-methodology-for-recovering-titanium-and-chromium-from-a-raw-ilmenite-concentrate-by-magnetic-separation-after-modifying-magnetic-properties
#20
Jin-Fang Lv, Han-Ping Zhang, Xiong Tong, Chun-Lin Fan, Wen-Tao Yang, Yong-Xing Zheng
Raw ilmenite concentrate containing Cr can be either as a resource or as one kind of the most hazardous solid waste. In order to recover titanium and chromium from the raw concentrate which was separated from the Promenade deposit, Gaza province, Mozambique, an innovative technology using modification of magnetic property followed by magnetic separation was proposed. Magnetic property, phase and surface morphology of the sample before and after oxidizing roasting were firstly characterized by magnetism, chemistry, XRD and MLA analyses to interpret the mechanism of oxidizing roasting of the ilmenite...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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