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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335029/the-challenge-of-assessing-microcephaly-in-the-context-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#1
Llorenç Quintó, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Azucena Bardají, Raquel González, Norma Padilla, Flor E Martinez-Espinosa, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez
The present article examines the impact of the current limitations of the microcephaly definition in the context of the Zika virus outbreak. It highlights its dependence on the method used for determining gestational age and other anthropometric parameters, and includes original results of prevalence of microcephaly in four countries from two different continents (Mozambique, Brazil, Guatemala and Colombia). Alternative definitions of microcephaly are proposed to allow the identification of true cases of microcephaly in a more accurate manner...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#2
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286714/true-s-beaked-whale-mesoplodon-mirus-in-macaronesia
#3
Natacha Aguilar de Soto, Vidal Martín, Monica Silva, Roland Edler, Cristel Reyes, Manuel Carrillo, Agustina Schiavi, Talia Morales, Belen García-Ovide, Anna Sanchez-Mora, Nerea Garcia-Tavero, Lisa Steiner, Michael Scheer, Roland Gockel, Dylan Walker, Enrico Villa, Petra Szlama, Ida K Eriksson, Marisa Tejedor, Monica Perez-Gil, João Quaresma, Wojtek Bachara, Emma Carroll
The True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly known member of the Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the northern hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a few stranding records from the southern hemisphere suggest a wider and antitropical distribution, extending to waters from the Atlantic coast of Brazil to South Africa, Mozambique, Australia and the Tasman Sea coast of New Zealand. This paper (i) reports the first molecular confirmation of the occurrence of the True's beaked whale at the southern limit of its distribution recorded in the northeast Atlantic: the Azores and Canary Islands (macaronesian ecoregion); (ii) describes a new colouration for this species using evidence from a whale with molecular species confirmation; and (iii) contributes to the sparse worldwide database of live sightings, including the first underwater video recording of this species and close images of a calf...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284261/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-southern-mozambique-results-of-a-population-level-survey-in-the-district-of-manhi%C3%A3-a
#4
S Valencia, D Respeito, S Blanco, R M Ribeiro, E López-Varela, V G Sequera, B Saavedra, E Mambuque, M Gómez Morillo, H Bulo, F Cobelens, E Macete, P L Alonso, J A Caminero, A L García-Basteiro
SETTING: Mozambique, one of the world's high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, has conducted only one national-level drug resistance survey, in 2007-2008. OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance patterns of laboratory-confirmed TB cases. DESIGN: This was a population-level survey conducted over a 1-year period in the district of Manhiça. All laboratory-confirmed cases were evaluated for first-line anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using liquid culture...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282648/geospatial-planning-and-the-resulting-economic-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-mozambique
#5
Leila A Haidari, Shawn T Brown, Dagna Constenla, Eli Zenkov, Marie Ferguson, Gatien de Broucker, Sachiko Ozawa, Samantha Clark, Allison Portnoy, Bruce Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that the distance to the nearest immunization location can ultimately prevent someone from getting immunized. With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine throughout the world, a major question is whether the target populations can readily access immunization. METHODS: In anticipation of HPV vaccine introduction in Mozambique, a country with a 2015 population of 25,727,911, our team developed Strategic Integrated Geo-temporal Mapping Application) to determine the potential economic impact of HPV immunization...
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279453/a-comparison-of-two-mathematical-models-of-the-impact-of-mass-drug-administration-on-the-transmission-and-control-of-schistosomiasis
#6
J E Truscott, D Gurarie, R Alsallaq, J Toor, N Yoon, S H Farrell, H C Turner, A E Phillips, H O Aurelio, J Ferro, C H King, R M Anderson
The predictions of two mathematical models describing the transmission dynamics of schistosome infection and the impact of mass drug administration are compared. The models differ in their description of the dynamics of the parasites within the host population and in their representation of the stages of the parasite lifecycle outside of the host. Key parameters are estimated from data collected in northern Mozambique from 2011 to 2015. This type of data set is valuable for model validation as treatment prior to the study was minimal...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274257/prevalence-and-determinants-of-malaria-among-children-in-zamb%C3%A3-zia-province-mozambique
#7
James G Carlucci, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Charlotte B Cherry, Melanie L Lopez, Ann F Green, Lazaro González-Calvo, Troy D Moon
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the leading cause of death among children in Mozambique. Prevalence and factors associated with malaria are not well studied among children in rural Zambézia Province. Whether prevalence of malaria varies across diverse districts within the province is unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of female heads of household was conducted during April and May 2014, a period of peak malaria transmission. Data were collected on up to two randomly selected children aged 6-59 months per household...
March 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267292/improving-early-grade-reading-outcomes-aprender-a-ler-in-mozambique
#8
REVIEW
Shirley Burchfield, Haiyan Hua, David Noyes, Willem van de Waal
The Government of Mozambique has long struggled to improve the low reading levels of children in early grades. With funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in 2012, World Education collaborated with the Ministry of Education and Human Development (MINEDH) to improve reading by developing a research-based reading intervention and testing it in two provinces. This article examines student reading performance from cohorts of second and third graders before and after a 1-year intervention compared to that of a control group and identifies factors required for successful scale-up...
March 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253283/a-flexible-method-to-model-hiv-serodiscordance-among-couples-in-mozambique
#9
Adelino J C Juga, Niel Hens, Nafissa Osman, Marc Aerts
Whereas the number of people newly infected by HIV is continuing to decline globally, the epidemic continues to expand in many parts of the world. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic has matured in many countries, it is believed that the proportion of new infections occurring within couples has risen. Across countries, including Mozambique, a sizeable proportion of couples with HIV infection are discordant. A serodiscordant couple is a couple in which one partner has tested positive for HIV and the other has not. To describe the HIV serodiscordance among couples, a variety of association measures can be used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243629/serological-screening-suggests-extensive-presence-of-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-and-mycoplasma-synoviae-in-backyard-chickens-in-southern-mozambique
#10
Augusto Messa Júnior, Paula Taunde, Ana Felicidade Zandamela, Alberto Pondja Junior, Abel Chilundo, Rosa Costa, Custódio Gabriel Bila
A total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in Mandlakazi district, Southern Mozambique, were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [ELISA] kits. Anti-MG and anti-MS antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% CI 39.1-57.8] and 84.5% [95% CI 76.8-90.4], respectively. The risk of being seropositive for both diseases was higher [P < 0...
2017: Journal of veterinary medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242070/feasibility-of-using-regional-sentinel-surveillance-to-monitor-the-rotavirus-vaccine-impact-effectiveness-and-intussusception-incidence-in-the-african-region
#11
Inácio Mandomando, Goitom Weldegebriel, Nilsa de Deus, Jason M Mwenda
The 9th African rotavirus symposium was held in Maputo, Mozambique from the 8th to 10th of December 2015, including a total of 101 delegates from 17 countries, 15 of which were African countries. This forum brought together participants with various expertise including scientists, clinicians, immunization program managers, public health officials and policymakers. By the time of the symposium, 29/47 (61%) of countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their routine immunization program...
February 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241813/anaemia-in-hospitalised-preschool-children-from-a-rural-area-in-mozambique-a-case-control-study-in-search-for-aetiological-agents
#12
Cinta Moraleda, Ruth Aguilar, Llorenç Quintó, Tacilta Nhampossa, Montserrat Renom, Augusto Nhabomba, Sozinho Acácio, John J Aponte, Delino Nhalungo, Ariel H Achtman, Louis Schofield, Helder Martins, Eusebio Macete, Pedro L Alonso, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Young children bear the world's highest prevalence of anaemia, the majority of which is of multifactorial aetiology, which in turn hampers its successful prevention. Even moderate degrees of anaemia are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Despite this evidence, there is a lack of effective preventive programs and absence of consensus in the safety of iron supplementation in malaria areas, which reflects the poor understanding of the contribution of different aetiologies to anaemia...
February 28, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240367/first-description-of-htlv-1-2-seroprevalence-in-hiv-infected-inmates-in-mozambique
#13
Ângelo Augusto, Orvalho Augusto, Atija Taquimo, Carina Nhachigule, Narcisa Siyawadya, Nelson Tembe, Nilesh Bhatt, Francisco Mbofana, Eduardo Samo Gudo
No study has yet been conducted to estimate the burden of co-infection of HIV and HTLV-1/2 in inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate prevalence of co-infection in inmates in Mozambique, a total of 2140 inmates were screened for HIV, of which 515 were HIV seropositive. All HIV seropositive inmates were further screened for HTLV infection, and 8 (1.55%) were co-infected. Co-infection was higher in females [3.45% (2/58; CI: 0.42-11.91)] as compared to males [1.35% (6/445; CI: 0.55-3.06)]. Early screening of HTLV in prisons is urgently needed in Mozambique in order to improve the care provided to incarcerated individuals, including initiation of ART...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226051/discourses-on-short-coursetherapy-for-tuberculosis-control
#14
Fernando Mitano, Amélia Nunes Sicsú, Mônica Cristina Ribeiro Alexandre D Auria de Lima, Rarianne Carvalho Peruhype, Simone Terezinha Protti, Pedro Fredemir Palha
Objective: to analyze the meanings produced through the experiences and perceptions of healthcare professionals on the implementation of the strategy of directly observed treatment short course for tuberculosis control. Method: qualitative study carried out in Mozambique with 15 healthcare professionals. Inclusion criteriawerehaving acted in the Tuberculosis Control Program for more than one year, and exercising professional activity at the time of interview. A semi-structured script was used for data collection, and individual interviews were recorded...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225519/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-preseroconversion-from-postseroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#15
Lucia Pastor, Erica Parker, Jorge Carrillo, Victor Urrea, Laura Fuente-Soro, Durval Respeito, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection, HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient nonspecific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response, and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV-specific antibodies. In this study, we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction before completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify acute HIV infection in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212393/infant-mortality-and-morbidity-associated-with-preterm-and-small-for-gestational-age-births-in-southern-mozambique-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Azucena Bardají, Raquel González, Arsenio Nhacolo, Betuel Sigauque, Charfudin Sacoor, María Rupérez, Elisa Sicuri, Quique Bassat, Esperança Sevene, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with adverse outcomes during the first stages of life. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm and SGA births during the first year of life in a rural area of Southern Mozambique. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using previously collected data from children born at the Manhiça District Hospital in two different periods (2003-2005 and 2010-2012)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192523/bead-based-immunoassay-allows-sub-picogram-detection-of-histidine-rich-protein-2-from-plasmodium-falciparum-and-estimates-reliability-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests
#17
Eric Rogier, Mateusz Plucinski, Naomi Lucchi, Kimberly Mace, Michelle Chang, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Baltazar Candrinho, James Colborn, Rafael Dimbu, Filomeno Fortes, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, John Barnwell
Detection of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum provides evidence for active or recent infection, and is utilized for both diagnostic and surveillance purposes, but current laboratory immunoassays for HRP2 are hindered by low sensitivities and high costs. Here we present a new HRP2 immunoassay based on antigen capture through a bead-based system capable of detecting HRP2 at sub-picogram levels. The assay is highly specific and cost-effective, allowing fast processing and screening of large numbers of samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192163/the-role-of-kenya-in-the-trans-african-spread-of-maize-streak-virus-strain-a
#18
Daniel Pande, Eugene Madzokere, Penelope Hartnady, Simona Kraberger, James Hadfield, Karyna Rosario, Anja Jäschke, Adérito L Monjane, Betty E Owor, Mathews M Dida, Dionne N Shepherd, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins
Maize streak virus (MSV), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is the most important viral pathogen of Africa's staple food crop, maize. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that the most widely-distributed and common MSV variant, MSV-A1, has been repeatedly traversing Africa over the past fifty years with long-range movements departing from either the Lake Victoria region of East Africa, or the region around the convergence of Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique in southern Africa. Despite Kenya being the second most important maize producing country in East Africa, little is known about the Kenyan MSV population and its contribution to the ongoing diversification and trans-continental dissemination of MSV-A1...
February 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187629/review-of-the-genus-i-lanchnophorus-i-hemiptera-heteroptera-rhyparochromidae-with-description-of-three-new-species-and-other-nomenclatural-changes
#19
Petr Kment, Attilio Carapezza, Zdeněk Jindra, Előd Kondorosy
The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187234/the-research-and-implementation-continuum-of-biofortified-sweet-potato-and-maize-in-africa
#20
Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Anna-Marie Ball, Chisela Kaliwile, Kevin V Pixley
The enhancement of sweet potato and maize with provitamin A carotenoids has been part of HarvestPlus's research continuum since the formation of the biofortification project. This review includes case studies of biofortification strategies used for sweet potato in Uganda and orange maize in Zambia. The current status of the science and release of biofortified varieties was reviewed by three scientists who were part of the HarvestPlus program for more than a decade with input from a scientist who experienced orange maize dissemination in Zambia...
February 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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