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Adewale L Oyeyemi, Terry L Conway, Rufus A Adedoyin, Kingsley K Akinroye, Richmond Aryeetey, Felix Assah, Kelli L Cain, Kavita A Gavand, Sandra S Kasoma, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Estelle V Lambert, Richard Larouche, Sarah J Mos, Reginald Ocansey, Vincent O Onywera, Antonio Prista, Mark S Tremblay, James F Sallis
PURPOSE: Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Abdunoor M Kabanywanyi, Rita Baiden, Ali M Ali, Muhidin K Mahende, Bernhards R Ogutu, Abraham Oduro, Halidou Tinto, Margaret Gyapong, Ali Sie, Esperanca Sevene, Eusebio Macete, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Alex Adjei, Guillaume Compaoré, Innocent Valea, Isaac Osei, Abena Yawson, Martin Adjuik, Raymond Akparibo, Mwaka A Kakolwa, Salim Abdulla, Fred Binka
The antimalarial drug piperaquine is associated with delayed ventricular depolarization, causing prolonged QT interval (time taken for ventricular de-polarisation and re-polarisation). There is a lack of safety data regarding dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, which has limited its use. We created a platform where electrocardiograms (ECG) were performed in public hospitals for the safety assessment of DHA/PPQ, at baseline before the use of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim®), and on day 3 (before and after administration of the final dose) and day 7 post-administration...
2016: PloS One
António Dos Anjos Luis, Pedro Cabral
BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is important information that can be extracted from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and used in effective healthcare planning. The aim of this study is to measure the geographic accessibility of population to existing Healthcare Centers (HC), and to estimate the number of persons served by the health network of Mozambique...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ivan Manhiça, Nilesh Bhatt, Nália Ismael, Egidio Nhavene, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdileia Veloso, Cremildo Maueia, Orvalho Augusto, Ilesh Jani, Eduardo Samo Gudo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Mariana Mirabel, Matthias Lachaud, Lucile Offredo, Cécile Lachaud, Benjamin Zuschmidt, Beatriz Ferreira, Daniel Sidi, Sylvain Chauvaud, Phang Sok, Alain Deloche, Eloi Marijon, Xavier Jouven
BACKGROUND: Access to cardiac surgery is limited in low-income settings, and data on patient outcomes are scarce. AIMS: To assess characteristics, surgical procedures and outcomes in patients undergoing open-heart surgery in low-income settings. METHODS: This was a cohort study (2001-2011) in two low-income countries, Cambodia and Mozambique, where cardiac surgery had been promoted by visiting non-governmental organizations. RESULTS: In Cambodia and Mozambique, respectively, 1332 and 767 consecutive patients were included; 547 (41...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Helena Boene, Marianne Vidler, Orvalho Augusto, Mohsin Sidat, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Diane Sawchuck, Rahat Qureshi, Peter von Dadelszen, Khátia Munguambe, Esperança Sevene
BACKGROUND: Mozambique has drastically improved an array of health indicators in recent years, including maternal mortality rates which decreased 63 % from 1990-2013 but the rates still high. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia constitute the third major cause of maternal death in the country. Women in rural areas, with limited access to health facilities are at greatest risk. This study aimed to assess the current state of knowledge and the regular practices regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by community health workers in southern Mozambique...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
Tabassum Firoz, Marianne Vidler, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Helena Boene, Rogério Chiaú, Esperança Sevene, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: Mozambique has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The main influences on maternal health encompass social, economic, political, environmental and cultural determinants of health. To effectively address maternal mortality in the post-2015 agenda, interventions need to consider the determinants of health so that their delivery is not limited to the health sector. The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify key community groups' perspectives on the perceived determinants of maternal health in rural areas of southern Mozambique...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
Alan Poling, Emilio Valverde, Negussie Beyene, Christiaan Mulder, Christophe Cox, Georgies Mgode, Timothy L Edwards
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in poor countries because sensitive diagnostic tools are unavailable. In 2014, our pouched rats evaluated sputum from 21,600 Tanzanians and 9,048 Mozambicans whose sputum had previously been evaluated by microscopy, the standard diagnostic for TB. Evaluation by the rats revealed 1,412 new patients with active TB in Tanzania and 645 new patients in Mozambique, increases of 39% and 53%, respectively, when compared to detections by microscopy alone. These results provide further support for the applied use of scent-detecting rats...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Jacqueline Rivera, Rebecca Olson, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT...
October 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Mary V Kinney, Jeffrey Michael Smith, Tanya Doherty, Jorge Hermida, Karen Daniels, José M Belizán
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, remain one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and are contributory in many foetal/newborn deaths. This editorial discusses a supplement of seven papers which provide the results of the first round of the CLIP (Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia) Feasibility Studies. These studies report a number of enablers and barriers in each setting, which have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomized trial (cRCT) aimed at reducing pre-eclampsia-related, and all-cause, maternal and perinatal mortality and major morbidity using community-based identification and treatment of pre-eclampsia in selected geographies of Nigeria, Mozambique, Pakistan and India...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Health
Ibitola O Asaolu, Jayleen K Gunn, Katherine E Center, Mary P Koss, Juliet I Iwelunmor, John E Ehiri
INTRODUCTION: In spite of a high prevalence of HIV infection among adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth in the region remains sub-optimal. The objective of this study was to assess factors that influence uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth aged 15-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This study used the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from countries that represent four geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa: Congo (Brazzaville), representing central Africa (DHS 2011-2012); Mozambique, representing southern Africa (DHS 2011); Nigeria, representing western Africa (DHS 2013); and Uganda, representing eastern Africa (DHS 2011)...
2016: PloS One
Clara Pons-Duran, Raquel González, Llorenç Quintó, Khatia Munguambe, Joan Tallada, Denise Naniche, Charfudin Sacoor, Elisa Sicuri
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. METHODS: Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyze the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the non-linearity of covariates...
October 1, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Zenith Gaye A Orozco, Satoshi Soma, Toyoji Kaneko, Soichi Watanabe
The tissue distribution of slc15a1a, a gene that encodes an oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, and its response to fasting and refeeding were investigated in the intestinal epithelium of Mozambique tilapia for a better understanding of its role on nutrient absorption. The slc15a1a was predominantly expressed in the absorptive epithelia of the anterior part of the intestine, suggesting that digested oligopeptides are primarily absorbed in the anterior intestine. The response of slc15a1a to fasting was evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14days after the last feeding...
September 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Harindranath Cholleti, Juliette Hayer, Ana Paula Abilio, Fernando Chanisso Mulandane, Jenny Verner-Carlsson, Kerstin I Falk, Jose M Fafetine, Mikael Berg, Anne-Lie Blomström
Mosquitoes carry a wide variety of viruses that can cause vector-borne infectious diseases and affect both human and veterinary public health. Although Mozambique can be considered a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases due to factors such as a rich vector population and a close vector/human/wildlife interface, the viral flora in mosquitoes have not previously been investigated. In this study, viral metagenomics was employed to analyze the viral communities in Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes in the Zambezia province of Mozambique...
2016: PloS One
David Bishai, Melissa Sherry, Claudia C Pereira, Sergio Chicumbe, Francisco Mbofana, Amy Boore, Monica Smith, Leonel Nhambi, Nagesh N Borse
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the development of a self-audit tool for public health and the associated methodology for implementing a district health system self-audit tool that can provide quantitative data on how district governments perceive their performance of the essential public health functions. METHODS: Development began with a consensus-building process to engage Ministry of Health and provincial health officers in Mozambique and Botswana. We then worked with lists of relevant public health functions as determined by these stakeholders to adapt a self-audit tool describing essential public health functions to each country's health system...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Ashvin Ashok, Michael Brison, Yann LeTallec
While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance...
September 23, 2016: Vaccine
Ana Jacinto, Mahomed Riaz Mobaracaly, Momade Bay Ustáb, Cassimo Bique, Cassandra Blazer, Karen Weidert, Ndola Prata
Mozambique has witnessed a climbing total fertility rate in the last 20 years. Nearly one-third of married women have an unmet need for family planning, but the supply of family planning services is not meeting the demand. This study aimed to explore the safety and effectiveness of training 2 cadres of community health workers-traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs) (polyvalent elementary health workers)-to administer the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and to provide evidence to policy makers on the feasibility of expanding community-based distribution of DMPA in areas where TBAs and APEs are present...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Isabel M Smallegange, Isabelle B C van der Ouderaa, Yara Tibiriçá
BACKGROUND: The trade in manta ray gill plates has considerably increased over the last two decades. The resulting increases in ray mortality, in addition to mortality caused by by-catch, has caused many ray populations to decrease in size. The aim of this study was to ascertain how yearling and juvenile growth and survival, and adult survival and reproduction affect reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) population change, to increase our understanding of manta ray demography and thereby improve conservation research and measures for these fish...
2016: PeerJ
Dvora Joseph Davey, José António Nhavoto, Orvalho Augusto, Walter Ponce, Daila Traca, Alexandre Nguimfack, Cesar Palha de Sousa
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether regular mobile phone text reminders improved patients' retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) care in Mozambique. DESIGN: SMSaúde was a randomized control trial of HIV-infected patients on ART who received regular text message reminder vs. standard of care at 3 public health facilities in Maputo Province, Mozambique. The primary outcome was retention in HIV care. Between November 2011 and March 2012, 830 eligible HIV-infected patients on ART were randomized 1:1 to the text reminder intervention or standard of care...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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