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Franziska Gaunitz, Sabrina Lehmann, Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis, Markus A Rothschild, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
This case report centres on the post-mortem distribution of the synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA and its metabolites in the case of a 27-year-old man found dead after falling from the 24th floor of a high-rise building. Toxicological analysis of post-mortem samples confirmed, besides consumption of the synthetic cannabinoids MDMB-CHMICA (1.7 ng/mL femoral blood) and EG-018, the abuse of THC (9.3 ng/mL femoral blood), amphetamine (1050 ng/mL femoral blood), MDMA (275 ng/mL femoral blood), and cocaine. Regarding EG-018 and cocaine, only traces were detected in heart blood as well as in the brain (EG-018) and urine (cocaine), respectively, which is why no quantification was conducted in the femoral blood sample...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Elisabetta Bertol, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Diego Palumbo, Jennifer P Pascali, Fabio Vaiano
In case of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), the evidence is frequently anecdotal, with few investigations based on scientific evidences being carried out and thus most cases are diagnosed as an acute drug or alcohol intoxication. The reason may lay in the lack of specific knowledge by the victim on the possibility to retrospectively study the allegedly events and to the absence of standardized and shared protocols among health, forensic and police subjects. On this basis, in 2015 the Unit of Forensic Toxicology of University of Florence and the Sexual Assaults Centre in Hospital Careggi have fixed a common protocol to be applied in case of DFSA...
August 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marek Gryz, Małgorzata Lehner, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Adam Płaźnik
Dopaminergic system activity in limbic structures (reward system) is related to motivational processes and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Stress conditions can cause dopaminergic dysfunction, reduce motivational processes and induce compensatory drug use. The susceptibility to stress is characterized by individual variability. Psychostimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives act as positive reinforcers, affecting mood changes. Prolonged use of psychoactive substances can cause persistent plastic changes in the limbic system (disruption of neurogenesis, neurons atrophy), resulting in addictions or other forms of psychopathology like mood disorders...
June 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Deborah de Paula Romeu, Luciene Maria Ribeiro, Vagner Roberto Antunes
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a peptide commonly studied in the feeding behavior, but it exerts an important role in the autonomic and cardiovascular control as well. It is known that exogenous administration of CART in the central nervous system can elicit increase in blood pressure of both conscious and anesthetized rodents, but little is known whether these central effects might differ between lean and obese animals. We have recently shown that diet-induced obese mice that developed hypertension presented an upregulation of CART levels in the dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus, while obese normotensive ones had not...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Michael Wasko, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Christopher K Surratt
The West African iboga plant has been used for centuries by the Bwiti and Mbiri tribes to induce hallucinations during religious ceremonies. Ibogaine, the principal alkaloid responsible for iboga's psychedelic properties, was isolated and sold as an antidepressant in France for decades before its adverse effects precipitated its removal from the market. An ibogaine resurgence in the 1960s was driven by U.S. heroin addicts who claimed that ibogaine cured their opiate addictions. Behavioral pharmacologic studies in animal models provided evidence that ibogaine could blunt self-administration of not only opiates but cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine...
September 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Taylor L Scott, Cole Vonder Haar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects over 2.8 million people annually, and has been shown to increase motor impulsivity in both humans and animals. However, the root cause of this behavioral disinhibition is not fully understood. The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether timing behavior is disrupted after TBI, which could potentially explain increases in impulsive responding. Twenty-one male three-month old Long-Evans rats were trained on a fixed interval-18 s schedule. Following training, rats were placed on the Peak Interval Procedure, with intermittent peak trials...
September 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Thomas Plecko, Kevin Berbalk, Eberhard Wieland, Maria Shipkova
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is increasingly used as an alternative sample matrix in drug of abuse screening. Screening is commonly performed by immunoassays and results confirmed using laborious gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based methods. Therefore, an easy to operate ion trap mass spectrometric (IT-MS) commercial screening method (Toxtyper; Bruker Daltronik, Bremen, Germany) combined with a laboratory-developed sample preparation procedure has been evaluated for their application to OF...
October 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Maria Papathanou, Meaghan Creed, Matthijs C Dorst, Zisis Bimpisidis, Sylvie Dumas, Hanna Pettersson, Camilla Bellone, Gilad Silberberg, Christian Lüscher, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
Expression of the Vglut2/Slc17a6 gene encoding the Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons enables these neurons to co-release glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a feature of putative importance to drug addiction. For example, it has been shown that conditional deletion of Vglut2 gene expression within developing DA neurons in mice causes altered locomotor sensitization to addictive drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, in adulthood. Alterations in DA neurotransmission in the mesoaccumbal pathway has been proposed to contribute to these behavioral alterations but the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kelsey S Hideshima, Ashkhan Hojati, Justin M Saunders, Doan M On, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Jong M Shin, Ana Sánchez-González, Cassandra M Dunn, Alexander B Pais, Anthony C Pais, Michael F Miles, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Javier González-Maeso
BACKGROUND: Serotonin 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are neurotransmitter G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the signaling mechanisms underlying psychosis and schizophrenia treatment. Previous findings in mGlu2 knockout (KO) mice suggested that mGlu2 is necessary for head-twitch behavior, a rodent phenotype characteristic of hallucinogenic 5-HT2A receptor agonists. However, the role of mGlu2 in the behavioral effects induced by antipsychotic drugs remains poorly understood...
September 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Karen Curtin, Annette E Fleckenstein, Brooks R Keeshin, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Perry F Renshaw, Ken R Smith, Glen R Hanson
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity and involves dysregulated dopaminergic pathways. Dopaminergic agents (i.e., amphetamine and methylphenidate) are thus prescribed to treat ADHD. As little is known regarding long-term consequences of either ADHD or its treatment, the objective of this study was to determine if either alters the risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, including Parkinson's disease. Statewide medical records from 1996 to 2016 were retrieved from the Utah Population Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study...
September 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia, Celia García-Jiménez, Enrique Fernández-Mondéjar, Julián Fernando Calderón-Garcia, Fidel López-Espuela, Cristina Franco-Antonio, Sergio Rico-Martín, Pablo Lardelli-Claret
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between the presence and type of drug detected and trauma recidivism in a cohort of patients admitted due to trauma. METHOD: A cohort study was conducted based on data from a project where the presence of alcohol and other drugs (cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opiates and benzodiazepines) was analysed in 1,187 patients aged 16 to 70 years admitted due to trauma. The patients were followed for a period of between 10 to 52 months until June 2016...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Maas, Moritz Losacker, Cornelius Hess
Methamphetamine can be synthesized either enantiopure or in its racemic form. We separated (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine by a fast LC-MS/MS-method using a Lux® 3μm AMP 150×3.0mm analytical column after simple protein precipitation with methanol. Sufficient resolution could be achieved. Method validation for qualitative detection showed limits of quantification <5ng/mL while only little (maximum 14.5%) ion suppression could be shown. Stability in the processed sample could be achieved using isotopically labelled internal standards...
August 20, 2018: Forensic Science International
Susan Schenk, Quenten Highgate
Most studies on discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have been conducted using a relatively low dose (1.5 mg/kg), and those studies have invariably implicated serotonergic mechanisms. In contrast, dopaminergic mechanisms mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Some studies have suggested that the discriminative stimulus effects of a higher (3.0 mg/kg) dose of MDMA might rely on both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. This study aimed to determine effects of selective dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) antagonists on the discriminative stimulus properties of AMPH (0...
September 7, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Michael Evans-Brown, Roumen Sedefov
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations international drug control conventions of 1961 and 1971 but that may pose similar threats to public health. Many of them are traded as "legal" replacements to controlled drugs such as cannabis, heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine, amphetamines, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Driven by globalization, there has been a large increase in the availability and, subsequently, harms caused by these substances over the last decade in Europe...
September 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Shigeru Watanabe
Social modification of drug reward in general and amphetamine reward in particular is reviewed here. The simplest explanation for the social facilitation of drug reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm is the summation of drug and social reinforcing effects. However, experimental reports have shown that sharing a common pharmacological experience, simultaneously or successively, plays a crucial role in the social facilitation of methamphetamine reward. Therefore, social facilitation cannot be the simple summation of drug and social reinforcing effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Martin Roche, Tsun Yee Law, Nipun Sodhi, Samuel Rosas, Jennifer Kurowicki, Shanell Disla, Kevin Wang, Michael A Mont
Substance abuse can have strong negative impacts on surgical outcomes. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of drug abuse in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. Specifically, we identified revision TKA (RTKA): (1) incidence, (2) causes, (3) time to revision, and (4) patient demographics in patients with a history of drug abuse. The Medicare database within the PearlDiver Supercomputer (Warsaw, IN) was queried to identify 2,159,221 TKAs performed between 2005 and 2012. Drug abuse was subdivided into cocaine, cannabis, opioids, sedatives/hypnotics/anxiolytics (SHA), amphetamines, and alcohol abusers...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Sandra Giovanoli, Thomas M Werge, Preben B Mortensen, Michael Didriksen, Urs Meyer
15q13.3 microdeletion is one of several gene copy number variants (CNVs) conferring increased risk of psychiatric and neurological disorders. This microdeletion gives rise to a variable spectrum of pathological phenotypes, ranging from asymptomatic to severe clinical outcomes. The reasons for these varying phenotypic outcomes remain unknown. Using a mouse model of hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region of 15q13.3, the present study examined whether exposure to stressful life events might interact with hemizygous 15q13...
August 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dong Zhu, Guobin Dai, Ding Xu, Xin Xu, Jingjing Geng, Weimo Zhu, Xi Jiang, Marc Theeboom
Previous studies provide evidence that Tai Chi (TC) can reduce the symptoms of sleep problems and be of benefit for the rehabilitation of substance abusers. In this study, we investigated if TC practice can improve sleep quality and mood of females who are dependent on amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS). Eighty subjects were randomly assigned to TC intervention and standard care (SC) for 6 months. We applied analysis of variance on repeated-measure with the year of drug dependence as the covariate to test the changes of the self-rated Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), as well as fitness after 3 and 6 months...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David M Bortz, Anthony A Grace
The medial septum (MS) differentially impacts midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron activity via the ventral hippocampus, a region implicated in DA-related disorders. However, whether MS regulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is disrupted in a developmental disruption model of schizophrenia is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at gestational day 17 to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or saline. As adults, NMDA (0.75 µg/0.2 µL) was infused into the MS, and either DA neuron activity in the VTA and SNc (7-9 anesthetized rats per group) or amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AIH, 11-13 rats per group) was measured...
September 3, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Ruixiang Wang, Kathryn A Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Paul Vezina, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to multiple cognitive and behavioral deficits including increased drug addiction risk. Previous studies have shown that rearing environment plays a significant role in impacting addiction risk. In the present study, we investigated if environmental enrichment during development could be effective in lowering the PE-induced increase in addiction risk. To simulate heavy drinking during pregnancy in humans, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received ethanol (6 g/kg/day) or vehicle through intragastric gavage on gestation days 8-20...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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