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Håvard Furuhaugen, Ragnhild E G Jamt, Galina Nilsson, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: To study the use of alcohol and drugs among the general driving population in the south-eastern part of Norway and to compare the findings with the results from a similar roadside survey in 2008-9. METHODS: A roadside survey of drivers of cars, vans, motorcycles and mopeds was performed from April 2016 to April 2017 in collaboration with the Mobile Police Service. Oral fluid was collected using the Quantisal device and analysed for alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Michael J Wilson, Jasmin Vassileva
This study explored how different forms of reward-based decision-making are associated with pathological gambling (PG) among abstinent individuals with prior dependence on different classes of drugs. Participants had lifetime histories of either "pure" heroin dependence ( n = 64), "pure" amphetamine dependence ( n = 51), or polysubstance dependence ( n = 89), or had no history of substance dependence ( n = 133). Decision-making was assessed via two neurocognitive tasks: (1) the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a measure of decision-making under ambiguity (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Manuela Alcañiz, Montserrat Guillen, Miguel Santolino
BACKGROUND: In the context of road safety, this study aims to examine the prevalence of drug use in a random sample of drivers. METHODS: A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating on non-urban roads. Random drug tests were performed during autumn 2014 on 521 drivers in Catalonia (Spain). Participation was mandatory. The prevalence of drug driving for cannabis, methamphetamines, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines was assessed...
2018: PloS One
David J Wagner, Laura M Shireman, Sojung Ahn, Danny D Shen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs. While human intoxication and multiple tissue toxicities frequently occur in abusers, little is known about the distribution of methamphetamine or its primary metabolites, amphetamine and para -hydroxymethamphetamine ( p -OHMA), to their sites of toxicity. This study determined the pharmacokinetics, tissue exposure, and partition ratios of methamphetamine and major metabolites in various mouse tissues and investigated the impact of organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) following intravenous injection of methamphetamine to male Oct3 +/+ and Oct3 -/- mice...
June 18, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
Luca Gabrielli, Daniele Rosa-Gastaldo, Marie-Virginie Salvia, Sara Springhetti, Federico Rastrelli, Fabrizio Mancin
Properly designed monolayer-protected nanoparticles (2 nm core diameter) can be used as nanoreceptors for selective detection and identification of phenethylamine derivatives (designer drugs) in water. The molecular recognition mechanism is driven by the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions within the coating monolayer. Each nanoparticle can bind up to 30-40 analyte molecules. The affinity constants range from 105 to 106 M-1 and are modulated by the hydrophobicity of the aromatic moiety in the substrate...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Maria Willadsen, Laura M Best, Markus Wöhr, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE: Adult rat 22-kHz vocalizations are often associated with alarm or distress, whereas a subset of 50-kHz calls is preferentially emitted in response to amphetamine and other rewarding stimuli. Whether any 50-kHz calls reflect anxiety is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of anxiogenic drugs on 50-kHz call rate and call subtype profile, in comparison with D-amphetamine. METHODS: Adult male rats received systemic amphetamine (1 mg/kg) three times several days before testing...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Cameron W Morris, Darryl S Watkins, Asma B Salek, Michael C Edler, Anthony J Baucum
Spinophilin is the most abundant protein phosphatase 1 targeting protein in the postsynaptic density of dendritic spines. Spinophilin associates with myriad synaptic proteins to regulate normal synaptic communication; however, the full complement of spinophilin interacting proteins and mechanisms regulating spinophilin interactions are unclear. Here we validate an association between spinophilin and the scaffolding protein, disks large-associated protein 3 (SAP90/PSD-95 associated protein 3; SAPAP3). Loss of SAPAP3 leads to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behaviors due to alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Maria Neumann, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Eva Hoch
BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use (PSU) is common among patients with cannabis use (CU) and is related to more severe CU problems. However, it is unclear how PSU predicts CU treatment outcomes beyond CU patterns. We examined the frequency, amount, and class of additionally used substances as predictors for primary and secondary outcomes. METHODS: We conducted crude and adjusted regression analyses for PSU variables as predictors of remission, abstinence, -reduction, and secondary outcomes in 166 help-seeking -patients from a randomized clinical trial of CANDIS, a -cognitive behavioral treatment program...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
Christoph Ort, Lubertus Bijlsma, Sara Castiglioni, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Malcolm Reid, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Kevin V Thomas, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) complements existing epidemiology-based estimation techniques and provides objective, evidence-based estimates of illicit drug use. After consumption, biomarkers - drugs and their metabolites - excreted to toilets and flushed into urban sewer networks can be measured in raw wastewater samples. The quantified loads can serve as an estimate for the collective consumption of all people contributing to the wastewater sample. This transdisciplinary approach, further explained in this chapter, has developed, matured and is now established for monitoring substances such as cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants...
June 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Bethania Mongi-Bragato, María P Avalos, Andrea S Guzmán, Flavia A Bollati, Liliana M Cancela
Enkephalin expression is high in mesocorticolimbic areas associated with psychostimulant-induced behavioral and neurobiological effects, and may also modulate local neurotransmission in this circuit network. Psychostimulant drugs, like amphetamine and cocaine, significantly increase the content of enkephalin in these brain structures, but we do not yet understand the specific significance of this drug-induced adaptation. In this review, we summarize the neurochemical and molecular mechanism of psychostimulant-induced enkephalin activation in mesocorticolimbic brain areas, and the contribution of this opioid peptide in the pivotal neuroadaptations and long-term behavioral changes underlying psychostimulant addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Michelle G Baladi, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch, Richard B Mailman, Danielle L Hyman, Lawrence P Carter, Aaron J Janowsky
Excessive sleepiness (ES) is associated with several sleep disorders, including narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A role for monoaminergic systems in treating these conditions is highlighted by the clinical use of United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that act on these systems, such as dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and armodafinil. Solriamfetol (JZP-110) is a wake-promoting agent that is currently being evaluated to treat ES in patients with narcolepsy or OSA...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Michael Thoene, Janusz Godlewski, Liliana Rytel, Ewa Dzika, Ewa Bejer-Oleńska, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the chemical industry for manufacturing plastics which are used as food packaging. Data indicate that BPA is released from such products and is widely present in the environment and the human body. So far, the EFSA and the US FDA have determined "safe" BPA oral exposure levels, and a large amount of data indicates that BPA is harmful even at low-doses. Our previously performed analyses concerning BPA exposure demonstrated the impact of this substance on parasympathetic and peptidergic nerve fibers present within the liver...
June 11, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Amanda B Bruening, Marisol Perez, Tara K Ohrt
OBJECTIVE: Research has highlighted a growing trend among young, adult women to initiate drug use for weight loss. With known suppressive effects on appetite, illicit stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy) may be particularly attractive to college women, who are at elevated risk for increased body dissatisfaction and experimenting with extreme weight loss techniques. The current study examines the association between risk factors and symptomatology of eating disorders and illicit stimulant use (ISU)...
June 5, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Michael Scherer, Eduardo Romano, Robert Voas, Eileen Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Polydrug users have been shown to be at higher risk for alcohol consumption and crash involvement. However, research has shown that polydrug groups differ in some important ways. It is currently unknown how polydrug-using groups differ in terms of crash involvement and alcohol consumption. METHOD: The current study used latent class analysis to examine subgroups of polydrug users (n = 384) among a sample of drivers in Virginia Beach, Virginia (N = 10,512)...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Marco Pozzi, Carla Carnovale, Gabriëlla G A M Peeters, Marta Gentili, Stefania Antoniazzi, Sonia Radice, Emilio Clementi, Maria Nobile
BACKGROUND: ADHD is frequently comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders, which may increase the severity of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms. Emotional symptoms (anxiety, irritability, mood lability) also affect patients without comorbidity or emerge as adverse drug events. The influence of ADHD drugs on emotional symptoms demands investigation to improve therapies. METHODS: Systematic review of trials reporting adverse events in patients pharmacologically treated for ADHD...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emmanuel A Oga, Katrina Mark, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger
Objectives Substance use during pregnancy is a significant public health issue. Prenatal substance use increased in the past decade while prenatal cigarette smoking has remained stable. Co-use of tobacco and other drugs is a concern because of potential additive risks. This study aims to describe the prevalence rates of substance use among pregnant women and examine the association between smoking status (nonsmoker, recent quitter and current smoker) and other drug use. Methods In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women (n = 500) were recruited from two obstetric practices to complete three substance use screeners and have their urine tested for 12 different drug classes, including cannabis, opioids and cocaine...
June 7, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Amy C Turner, Igor Kraev, Michael G Stewart, Agata Stramek, Paul G Overton, Eleanor J Dommett
Heightened distractibility is a core symptom of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Effective treatment is normally with chronic orally administered psychostimulants including amphetamine. Treatment prevents worsening of symptoms but the site of therapeutic processes, and their nature, is unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that the superior colliculus (SC) is a key substrate in distractibility and a therapeutic target, so we assessed whether therapeutically-relevant changes are induced in this structure by chronic oral amphetamine...
June 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
T Plecko, K Berbalk, E Wieland, M Shipkova
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is increasingly used as an alternative sample matrix in drug of abuse (DOA) screening. Screening is commonly performed by immunoassays and results confirmed using laborious GC-MS based methods. Therefore, an easy to operate ion trap mass spectrometric (IT-MS) commercial screening method (Toxtyper, Bruker Daltronik, Bremen, Germany) combined with a laboratory-developed sample preparation procedure have been evaluated for their application to OF. METHODS: Oral fluid samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by HybridSPE-phospholipid extraction...
June 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Maryed Rojas-Leguizamón, José L Baroja, Federico Sanabria, Vladimir Orduña
Reduced response-inhibition capacity is a defining feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The fixed minimum interval (FMI) schedule has been systematically validated to assess such capacity in rats. On each FMI trial, the first lever press initiates an inter-response time (IRT); a potentially consummatory response terminates the IRT; only IRTs longer than a target interval result in access to food. Despite task validity, steady-state FMI performance in the most common animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is similar to normotensive control performance, even though SHR performs at lower levels, especially during acquisition, in similar response-withholding tasks...
June 5, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
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