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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241093/quantitative-analysis-of-drugs-in-hair-by-uhplc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#1
Robert Kronstrand, Malin Forsman, Markus Roman
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240240/ultrasound-triggered-effects-of-the-microbubbles-coupled-to-gdnf-and-nurr1-loaded-pegylated-liposomes-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Peijian Yue, Lin Gao, Xuejing Wang, Xuebing Ding, Junfang Teng
The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrasound-triggered effects of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) + nuclear receptor-related factor 1 (Nurr1)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposomes-coupled microbubbles (PLs-GDNF+Nurr1-MBs) on behavioral impairment and neuron loss in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The unloaded PEGylated liposomes-coupled microbubbles (PLs-MBs) were characterized for zeta potential, particle size, and concentration. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was used to establish the PD rat model...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238801/shedding-light-on-the-risks-of-methylphenidate-and-amphetamine-in-pregnancy
#3
William O Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238795/association-between-methylphenidate-and-amphetamine-use-in-pregnancy-and-risk-of-congenital-malformations-a-cohort-study-from-the-international-pregnancy-safety-study-consortium
#4
Krista F Huybrechts, Gabriella Bröms, Lotte Brix Christensen, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, Anders Engeland, Kari Furu, Mika Gissler, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Pär Karlsson, Øystein Karlstad, Helle Kieler, Anna-Maria Lahesmaa-Korpinen, Helen Mogun, Mette Nørgaard, Johan Reutfors, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Helga Zoega, Brian T Bateman
Importance: Given the rapidly increasing use of stimulant medications during pregnancy and among women of reproductive age who may become pregnant inadvertently, there is a need to better understand their safety. Objective: To examine the risk of congenital malformations associated with intrauterine exposure to stimulants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of the Medicaid-insured population in the United States nested in the 2000-2013 US Medicaid Analytic eXtract, with follow-up of safety signals detected in the Medicaid Analytic eXtract data using the Nordic Health registries (2003-2013) (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)...
December 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236922/effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-in-mice
#5
Ana P Herrmann, Roberta Andrejew, Radharani Benvenutti, Clarissa S Gama, Elaine Elisabetsky
OBJECTIVE: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial in psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit mesolimbic dopamine hyperfunction consequent to an endogenous sensitization process. This sensitization can be modeled in rodents by repeated exposure to psychostimulants, provoking an enduring amplified response at subsequent exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on amphetamine sensitization in mice. METHODS: D-amphetamine was administered to C57BL/6 mice three times a week for 3 weeks; the dose was increased weekly from 1 to 3 mg/kg...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230023/pharmacogenetics-predictors-of-methylphenidate-efficacy-in-childhood-adhd
#6
N M Myer, J R Boland, S V Faraone
Stimulant medication has long been effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is currently the first-line pharmacological treatment for children. Both methylphenidate and amphetamine modulate extracellular catecholamine levels through interaction with dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic system components; it is therefore likely that catecholaminergic molecular components influence the effects of ADHD treatment. Using meta-analysis, we sought to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy to further the clinical implementation of personalized medicine...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#7
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227839/medical-marijuana-laws-and-adolescent-use-of-marijuana-and-other-substances-alcohol-cigarettes-prescription-drugs-and-other-illicit-drugs
#8
Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie Wall, Tianshu Feng, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Historical shifts have taken place in the last twenty years in marijuana policy. The impact of medical marijuana laws (MML) on use of substances other than marijuana is not well understood. We examined the relationship between state MML and use of marijuana, cigarettes, illicit drugs, nonmedical use of prescription opioids, amphetamines, and tranquilizers, as well as binge drinking. METHODS: Pre-post MML difference-in-difference analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of adolescents in 48 contiguous U...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227519/pediatric-poisoning-by-ingestion-developmental-overview-and-synopsis-of-national-trends
#9
Vincent R Lee, Michael Connolly, Diane P Calello
The American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data Surveillance System provides real-time toxico-surveillance and epidemiologic trends, and pediatric ingestions comprise most of those reports. The sequences in social and physical developmental milestones from young childhood to adolescence reveal the vulnerability of these age groups to a wide variety of potential poisonous ingestions. Most pediatric ingestions are exploratory. Some common agents associated with pediatric fatalities include disc batteries, laundry detergent "pods," opioid analgesics, acetaminophen, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227236/use-of-marijuana-and-other-substances-among-pregnant-and-parenting-women-with-substance-use-disorders-changes-in-washington-state-after-marijuana-legalization
#10
Therese M Grant, J Christopher Graham, Beatriz H Carlini, Cara C Ernst, Natalie Novick Brown
OBJECTIVE: In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. METHOD: Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225566/cdk5-is-essential-for-amphetamine-to-increase-dendritic-spine-density-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#11
Soledad Ferreras, Guillermo Fernández, Víctor Danelon, María V Pisano, Luján Masseroni, Christopher A Chapleau, Favio A Krapacher, Estela C Mlewski, Daniel H Mascó, Carlos Arias, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, María G Paglini
Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant's effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224920/-cognitive-doping-in-students-a-chim-er-ical-way-to-get-full-head
#12
Louise Carton, Nicolas Cabé, Olivier Ménard, Sylvie Deheul, Anne-Sylvie Caous, David Devos, Olivier Cottencin, Régis Bordet
For students, the requirements for memorization, increased performance and peer competition may encourage cognitive doping behaviors. We aimed to describe recent practices and the benefit/risk ratio of such behavior to discuss the different issues. The prevalence of cognitive doping among students was 1.3% to 33% according to the studies, depending on the country concerned and the definition of cognitive doping used. The therapeutic classes most frequently cited as being diverted were psychostimulants and nootropics (methylphenidate, modafinil, piracetam), corticosteroids, sedative drugs and beta-blockers...
November 22, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222209/interhemispheric-subdural-and-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-in-a-patient-with-amphetamine-induced-vasculitis
#13
Eric Patrick Nagele, Anika Ross, Ryna Karina Then, Tapan Kavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#14
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#15
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215762/risk-of-amphetamine-use-disorder-and-mortality-among-incident-users-of-prescribed-stimulant-medications-in-the-veterans-administration
#16
Arthur N Westover, Paul A Nakonezny, Ethan A Halm, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonmedical use of prescribed stimulant medications is a growing concern. This study's aims were to ascertain the demographics of stimulant medication users compared with nonusers, examine temporal trends of stimulant medication use, and estimate risk factors for development of amphetamine use disorder (AUD) and mortality among new users of stimulant medications. DESIGN: Cox proportion hazards regression in a retrospective cohort adjusted by baseline covariates...
December 7, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215157/knockdown-of-the-transcript-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-brain-modulated-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#17
Ching-Han Yu, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Jeng-Rung Chen, Dong-Yih Kuo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amphetamine (AMPH) is a releaser of dopamine stored in synaptic terminals, which can suppress appetite by changing the expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) were involved in appetite control mediated by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), NPY and POMC in AMPH-treated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats were given AMPH for four days and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of pERK, pCREB, NPY and melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R) were examined and compared...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214532/qualitative-and-quantitative-temporal-analysis-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-in-australia-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#18
Richard Bade, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
The combination of qualitative and quantitative bimonthly analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is presented. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight instrument equipped with Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) was used to qualitatively screen 346 compounds in influent wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in South Australia over a 14-month period. A total of 100 compounds were confirmed and/or detected using this strategy, with 61 confirmed in all samples including antidepressants (amitriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin), antipsychotics (amisulpride, clozapine), illicit drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), and known drug adulterants (lidocaine and tetramisole)...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211967/efficacy-and-safety-of-amphetamine-extended-release-oral-suspension-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Ann C Childress, Sharon B Wigal, Matthew N Brams, John M Turnbow, Yulia Pincus, Heidi W Belden, Sally A Berry
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. METHODS: Boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled. During a 5-week, open-label, dose-optimization phase, patients began treatment with 2.5 or 5 mg/day of AMPH EROS; doses were titrated until an optimal dose (maximum 20 mg/day) was reached...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209802/-doping-for-the-brain
#20
REVIEW
Bernhard Iglseder
The enhancement of physical and cognitive abilities (i. e. concentration, vigilance, memory) has always been desirable for humans. The term pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of legal or nonprescription psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the intention of cognitive enhancement. To give the most prominent example, caffeine serves worldwide as a natural stimulant. Brain doping, however, specifies the use of illegal substances or prescription drugs beyond approval with the purpose of cognitive enhancement...
December 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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