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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454967/sarm1-deletion-restrains-nafld-induced-by-high-fat-diet-hfd-through-reducing-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-accumulation
#1
Zhen-Guo Pan, Xu-Sheng An
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein 1) is the recently identified TIR domain-containing cytosolic protein, which is involved in toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling transduction. In the present study, the role of SARM1 in high fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression was explored. We found that SARM1 was expressed highly in fatty liver. And SARM1-knockout (KO) reduced steatohepatitis and metabolic disorders induced by HFD. SARM1-deletion decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HFD-fed mice...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453495/comparison-of-concentrations-of-drugs-between-blood-samples-with-and-without-fluoride-additive-important-findings-for-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-amphetamine
#2
Christopher Wiedfeld, Julia Krueger, Gisela Skopp, Frank Musshoff
Fluoride is a common stabilizing agent in forensic toxicology to avoid the frequent problem of degradation of drugs in blood samples especially described for cocaine. In cases only samples with addition of fluoride are available, it is a crucial question if also concentrations of common drugs other than cocaine (amphetamines, opiates and cannabinoids) are affected by fluoride. So far, there are only rare literature data available on discrepant results especially for Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In this study, comparative analysis of positive tested paired routine plasma/serum samples (n = 375), collected at the same time point (one device with and one without fluoride), was carried out with special focus on cannabinoids...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#3
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441766/-identification-of-methamphetamine-abuse-and-selegiline-use%C3%AF-chiral-analysis-of-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-in-urine
#4
P Xiang, J Bu, Z Qiao, X Y Zhuo, H J Wu, M Shen
OBJECTIVES: To study the content variation of selegiline and its metabolites in urine, and based on actual cases, to explore the feasibility for the identification of methamphetamine abuse and selegiline use by chiral analysis. METHODS: The urine samples were tested by chiral separation and LC-MS/MS method using CHIROBIOTIC™ V2 chiral liquid chromatography column. The chiral analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine were performed on the urine samples from volunteers of selegiline use and drug addicts whom suspected taking selegiline...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#5
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439119/a-kinetic-account-for-amphetamine-induced-monoamine-release
#6
Peter S Hasenhuetl, Shreyas Bhat, Felix P Mayer, Harald H Sitte, Michael Freissmuth, Walter Sandtner
The plasmalemmal monoamine transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (SERT) are targets for amphetamines. In vivo, amphetamines elicit most, if not all, of their actions by triggering monoamine efflux. This is thought to be accomplished by an amphetamine-induced switch from the forward-transport to the substrate-exchange mode. The mechanism underlying this switch has remained elusive; available kinetic models posit that substrates and cosubstrate Na+ions bind either in a random or in a sequential order...
February 9, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436858/kaurene-as-the-major-constituent-of-the-essential-oils-of-the-narcotic-plant-khat-catha-edulis-forsk
#7
Morteza Gholami, Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a narcotic plant which contains significant amounts of amphetamines, like alkaloids. Herein, analysis of the essential oil composition showed that Khat has useful volatile chemicals in addition to its alkaloids. Results indicated that among 35 identified constituents including mono and sesquiterpenes, the diterpene kaurene, comprises the major part of the essential oil, around 50 percent of total. Kaurene is known as a potent biological agent for the treatment of cancer patients...
February 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432883/regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-ampa-glutamate-receptors-by-muscarinic-m4-receptors-in-the-striatum-in-vivo
#8
Li-Min Mao, Nan He, Dao-Zhong Jin, John Q Wang
The acetylcholine muscarinic 4 (M4) receptor is a principal muscarinic receptor subtype present in the striatum. Notably, Gαi/o-coupled M4 receptors and Gαs/Golf-coupled dopamine D1 receptors are coexpressed in striatonigral projection neurons and are thought to interact with each other to regulate neuronal excitability, although underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of M4 receptors in the regulation of phosphorylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the rat normal and dopamine-stimulated striatum in vivo...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429705/synthesis-of-novel-sonocatalyst-er3-yalo3-nb2o5-and-its-application-for-sonocatalytic-degradation-of-methamphetamine-hydrochloride
#9
Chunsheng Wei, Kuiyu Yi, Guangsheng Sun, Jun Wang
The composited sonocatalyst Er3+:YAlO3/Nb2O5 was prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and high temperature calcinations method. The microstructure of Er3+:YAlO3 was prepared via sol-gel method and Nb2O5 was prepared by hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The sonocatalytic decomposition activity of composite sonocatalyst Er3+:YAlO3/Nb2O5 was investigated by using ultrasound as sound source and methamphetamine hydrochloride as the target degradation product...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429522/neurochemical-characteristics-of-calbindin-like-immunoreactive-coeliac-cranial-mesenteric-ganglion-complex-ccmg-neurons-supplying-the-pre-pyloric-region-of-the-porcine-stomach
#10
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Marta Czajkowska, Bartosz Miciński, Jarosław Całka
The present study was designed to determine the distribution, morphology and co-localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) with other neuroactive substances in the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. In all animals, a median laparotomy was performed and the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fast Blue was injected into the wall of the stomach prepyloric area. On the 28th day, all animals were euthanized and the CCMG complexes were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence for CB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), galanin (GAL), somatostatin (SOM), leu 5-enkephalin (LENK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), Immunohistochemistry revealed that 8...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428641/interpreting-interaction-effects-in-estimates-of-the-risk-of-traffic-injury-associated-with-the-use-of-illicit-drugs
#11
Rune Elvik
Interactions characterise the relationship between use of amphetamines, cannabis and opiates as a driver and the risk of traffic injury associated with the use of these drugs. Inverse risk curves have been found for these drugs, meaning that the higher the proportion of drivers in normal traffic testing positive for the drugs, the lower is the increase in risk associated with them. The inverse risk curves can arise in many ways. The paper discusses ten different interpretations of the curves; seven of these are methodological and claim that the risk curves are statistical artefacts...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428394/the-pharmacology-of-amphetamine-and-methylphenidate-relevance-to-the-neurobiology-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-other-psychiatric-comorbidities
#12
REVIEW
Stephen V Faraone
Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. A systematic literature review of PubMed was conducted in April 2017, focusing on cellular- and brain system-level effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#13
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426122/analysis-of-stimulant-drugs-in-the-wastewater-of-five-nordic-capitals
#14
Arndís Sue Ching Löve, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Malcolm J Reid, Aino Kankaanpää, Teemu Gunnar, Maria Dam, Kristín Ólafsdóttir, Kevin V Thomas
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an efficient way to assess illicit drug use, complementing currently used methods retrieved from different data sources. The aim of this study is to compare stimulant drug use in five Nordic capital cities that include for the first time wastewater samples from Torshavn in the Faroe Islands. Currently there are no published reports that compare stimulant drug use in these Nordic capitals. All wastewater samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425773/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-cart-alleviates-mk-801-induced-schizophrenic-dementia-like-symptoms
#15
Chandrashekhar D Borkar, Ashish P Bharne, B Nagalakshmi, Amul J Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Exaggerated thoughts, diminished mood and impaired cognition are the hallmarks of the schizophrenia-like condition. These symptoms are attributed to the dysregulation of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the brain. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) modulates actions of dopamine as well as glutamate, we tested the role of this peptide in MK-801 induced schizophrenic dementia-like condition. MK-801 treated rats were allowed to interact with conspecific juvenile and tested for short-term (30-min) and long-term (24-hr) social memory acquisition and recall...
February 6, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424468/structure-determination-of-butylone-as-a-new-psychoactive-substance-using-chiroptical-and-vibrational-spectroscopies
#16
Dita Spálovská, František Králík, Michal Kohout, Bronislav Jurásek, Lucie Habartová, Martin Kuchař, Vladimír Setnička
Recently, there has been a worldwide substantial increase in the consumption of new psychoactive substances (NPS), compounds that mimic the structure of illicit drugs, such as amphetamines or ecstasy. The producers try to avoid the law by a slight modification of illicit structures, thereby developing dozens of temporarily legal NPS every year. The current trends in the detection and monitoring of such substances demand a fast and reliable analysis. Molecular spectroscopy represents a highly effective tool for the identification of NPS and chiroptical methods can provide further information on their 3D structure, which is the key for the determination of their biological activity...
February 9, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421753/occurrence-of-illicit-drugs-in-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-the-south-of-italy
#17
Alida Cosenza, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Donatella Piscionieri, Serena Fanara, Francesca Di Gaudio, Gaspare Viviani
In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG)...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421538/sleep-deprivation-precipitates-the-development-of-amphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-rats
#18
Laís F Berro, Sergio B Tufik, Roberto Frussa-Filho, Monica L Andersen, Sergio Tufik
Sleep deprivation (SD) and amphetamine use are commonly associated conditions. SD shares similar neurobiological effects with psychostimulants, playing an important role in drug addiction, especially through conditioning manipulations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SD on the development of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in a protocol with a reduced number of conditioning sessions. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to 4 conditioning sessions (2 sessions/day) in the CPP apparatus, half with saline (non-drug-paired compartment) and half with 2 mg/kg amphetamine (drug-paired compartment) after control (home-cage maintained) or SD (6 h gentle handling method) conditions...
February 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421244/involvement-of-no-nmda-r-pathway-in-the-behavioral-despair-induced-by-amphetamine-withdrawal
#19
Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Shayan Amiri, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Arsalan Hashemiaghdam, Kiana Ramezanzadeh, Maria Ghesmati, Khashayar Afshari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Abrupt discontinuation of chronic amphetamine consumption leads to withdrawal symptoms including depression, anhedonia, dysphoria, fatigue, and anxiety. These irritating symptoms may result in continuing to take the drug or can lead to suicidal behavior. Past studies have shown the involvement of various biologic systems in depression induced following amphetamine withdrawal (AW). However, there is no evidence about the relation between nitric oxide (NO) with NMDA receptors on depression following AW. In this study, we examined the involvement of the NO/NMDA pathways on depressive-like behaviors after 24 h withdrawal following 5 continuous days of amphetamine administration in male NMRI mice...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416839/lead-poisoning-in-opium-abuser-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia
Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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