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Thiamine deficiency

Aymeric Goyer
Thiamin is essential for human health. While plants are the ultimate source of thiamin in most human diets, staple foods like white rice have low thiamin content. Therefore, populations whose diets are mainly based on low-thiamin staple crops suffer from thiamin deficiency. Biofortification of rice grain by engineering the thiamin biosynthesis pathway has recently been attempted, with up to 5-fold increase in thiamin content in unpolished seeds. However, polished seeds that retain only the starchy endosperm had similar thiamin content than that of non-engineered plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
B Jayaprakash, Karthik N Rao, Navin Patil, Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Mohit Maden, N R Rau
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), an acute neuropsychiatric condition, is caused by thiamine deficiency. Traditionally, it has been associated with patients with a background of alcoholism. However, in the past few decades, with increasing trends in the incidence of WE among patients without a history of alcohol consumption, a pressing need was felt to examine the existing guidelines for the management of WE and its sequelae. The need for a revision was felt as the guidelines for the management of WE were developed around the premise that this affliction is observed mainly among alcoholics...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Miwa Nagae, Martin Parniske, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Naoya Takeda
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential for living organisms. Unlike animals, plants can synthesize thiamine. In Lotus japonicus, expression of two thiamine biosynthesis genes, THI1 and THIC, was enhanced by inoculation with rhizobia, but not by inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. THIC or THI2 (THI1 paralog) was expressed in uninoculated leaves. THI2-knockdown plants and the transposon insertion mutant thiC had chlorotic leaves. This typical phenotype of thiamine deficiency was rescued by an exogenous supply of thiamine...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology
M D Freire-Aragón, E Fernández Delgado, J Carbajal-Guerrero, G Ribera-Rubiales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
Manaki Mimura, Rémi Zallot, Thomas Daniel Niehaus, Ghulam Hasnain, Satinder K Gidda, Thuy Nd Nguyen, Erin M Anderson, Robert T Mullen, Greg Brown, Alexander F Yakunin, Valerié de Crécy-Lagard, Jesse F Gregory, Donald R McCarty, Andrew D Hanson
To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels five-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING 2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein...
September 27, 2016: Plant Cell
Ahmet Yildirim, Jin Zhang, Sergio Manzetti, David van der Spoel
A number of cases around the world have been reported where animals were found dead or dying with symptoms resembling a thiamine (vitamin B) deficiency, and for some of these, a link to pollutants has been suggested. Here, we investigate whether biomolecules involved in thiamin binding and transport could be blocked by a range of different pollutants. We used in silico docking of five compound classes (25 compounds in total) to each of five targets (prion protein, ECF-type ABC transporter, thi-box riboswitch receptor, thiamin pyrophosphokinase, and YKoF protein) and subsequently performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the stability of the complexes...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Dexiang Liu, Zunji Ke, Jia Luo
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hiroyoshi Inaba, Takuya Kishimoto, Satoru Oishi, Kan Nagata, Shunsuke Hasegawa, Tamae Watanabe, Satoshi Kida
Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, David Macías, Konstantin L Levitsky, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, José López-Barneo
KEY POINTS: Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Nelia Steyn, Gabriel Eksteen, Marjanne Senekal
There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6-15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria...
2016: Nutrients
Phillip L Pearl
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing, and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Kyly C Whitfield, Crystal D Karakochuk, Hou Kroeun, Daniela Hampel, Ly Sokhoing, Benny B Chan, Mam Borath, Prak Sophonneary, Judy McLean, Aminuzzaman Talukder, Larry D Lynd, Eunice C Y Li-Chan, David D Kitts, Lindsay H Allen, Timothy J Green
Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. Objective: To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Lucía Hernández-Barrera, Nancy López-Olmedo, Armando García-Guerra, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ivonne Ramírez-Silva, Salvador Villalpando, Alicia Carriquiry, Juan A Rivera
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES)...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Heitor Pons Leite, Lúcio Flávio Peixoto de Lima
Despite the advances made in monitoring and treatment of sepsis and septic shock, many septic patients ultimately develop multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) and die, suggesting that other players are involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early in sepsis and has a central role in MODS development. MODS severity and recovery of mitochondrial function have been associated with survival. In recent clinical and experimental investigations, mitochondrion-target therapy for sepsis and septic shock has been suggested to reduce MODS severity and mortality...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Nnabuike Chibuoke Ngene, Jack Moodley
Women with persistent vomiting during pregnancy need early referral to appropriate health facilities. Delayed referral and inappropriate management may lead to metabolic encephalopathy from a variety of causes, including electrolyte derangements or thiamine deficiency (Wernicke's encephalopathy) (WE). We present a case of persistent vomiting in pregnancy in which there was delayed referral, inappropriate treatment and failure to associate neurological signs such as terminal neck stiffness with WE, resulting in poor fetomaternal outcomes...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Jan W Wijnia, Erik Oudman, Willem A van Gool, André I Wierdsma, Esmay L Bresser, Jan Bakker, Albert van de Wiel, Cornelis L Mulder
BACKGROUND: Wernicke encephalopathy can have different clinical outcomes. Although infections may precipitate the encephalopathy itself, it is unknown whether infections also modify the long-term outcome in patients developing Korsakoff syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether markers of infection, such as white blood cell (WBC) counts and absolute neutrophil counts in the Wernicke phase, are associated with cognitive outcomes in the end-stage Korsakoff syndrome...
June 18, 2016: Psychosomatics
Antonio Costantini, Tiziana Laureti, Maria Immacolata Pala, Marco Colangeli, Simona Cavalieri, Elisa Pozzi, Alfredo Brusco, Sandro Salvarani, Carlo Serrati, Roberto Fancellu
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a cofactor of fundamental enzymes of cell energetic metabolism; its deficiency causes disorders affecting both the peripheral and central nervous system. Previous studies reported low thiamine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and pyruvate dehydrogenase dysfunction in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with thiamine in FRDA, evaluating changes in neurological symptoms, echocardiographic parameters, and plasma FXN mRNA levels. Thirty-four consecutive FRDA patients have been continuously treated with intramuscular thiamine 100 mg twice a week and have been assessed with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) at baseline, after 1 month, and then every 3 months during treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
Wouter van Snippenburg, Mariet G J Reijnders, Jose G M Hofhuis, Rien de Vos, Stephan Kamphuis, Peter E Spronk
INTRODUCTION: Thiamine is an essential cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism, and deficiency can therefore cause various organ dysfunctions. Little is known about the prevalence and possible worsening of thiamine deficiency in critically ill patients. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of thiamine deficiency at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and hypothesized that intensive insulin therapy, aimed at regulating glucose levels, increases thiamine utilization and therefore might cause or worsen deficiency in patients with limited thiamine stores...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Hamid Moradi, Hamid M Said
Zhang et al. found that plasma concentrations of the thiamine antimetabolite oxythiamine are significantly increased in patients with end-stage renal disease. These investigators discuss the potential sources of oxythiamine and the consequences of its plasma elevation. This commentary addresses the significance of these findings and expands on the potential role of gut microbiome in the generation of this antithiamine metabolite.
August 2016: Kidney International
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