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Thiamine deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143209/the-medial-vestibular-nuclei-a-vulnerable-target-in-thiamine-deficiency
#1
Jorge C Kattah, Cindy Guede, Bahareh Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Bilateral medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) is a common target in thiamine depletion and results in acute vestibular failure. Involvement of the MVN was present in 27 out of 38 brainstem sections reported in the largest thiamine deficiency autopsy cohort with Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHOD: Serial clinical, imaging and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measured with the video head impulse (vHIT) in one patient with acute thiamine deficiency. RESULTS: Low horizontal VOR gain correlated with an abnormal manual head impulse and with MRI evidence of MVN in an alcohol-dependent patient with low thiamine levels...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142756/usefulness-of-central-venous-saturation-as-a-predictor-of-thiamine-deficiency-in-critically-ill-patients-a-case-report
#2
Genri Numata, Satoshi Kodera, Hiroyuki Kiriyama, Atsuko Nakayama, Eisuke Amiya, Arihiro Kiyosue, Masaru Hatano, Eiki Takimoto, Masafumi Watanabe, Issei Komuro
Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) reflects the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Low ScvO2 indicates the presence of inadequate oxygen delivery, while high ScvO2 indicates reduced oxygen consumption and is sometimes associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients from dysoxia. Thiamine is an essential cofactor in cellular aerobic metabolism. Thiamine deficiency is more prevalent than was previously thought, and underlies severe conditions in critically ill patients...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#3
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128903/impairment-of-thiamine-transport-at-the-gut-bbb-axis-contributes-to-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#4
P M Abdul-Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Heather Schuetz, Adam M Szlachetka, Xiaotang Ma, James Haorah
Wernicke's encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. To uncover the unknown mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in alcohol abuse, we used chronic alcohol consumption or thiamine deficiency diet ingestion in animal models. Observations from animal models were validated in primary human neuronal culture for neurodegenerative process...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128624/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-complicated-by-subacute-beriberi-neuropathy-in-an-alcoholic-patient
#5
Salvatore Di Marco, Laura Pilati, Filippo Brighina, Brigida Fierro, Giuseppe Cosentino
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a common condition in alcohol abusers, which can lead to damage of both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Here we describe the case of an alcoholic patient who presented with acute onset of ataxia, severe weakness of the four limbs, and hypoesthesia and dysesthesia of the distal portion of the upper and lower extremities. The clinical picture also included mental confusion and amnesia. A diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was made based on clinical symptoms and brain RMI findings...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119026/thiamine-deficiency-leading-to-refractory-lactic-acidosis-in-a-pediatric-patient
#6
Alicia M Teagarden, Brian D Leland, Courtney M Rowan, Riad Lutfi
Thiamine plays a critical role in energy metabolism. Critically ill children and adults may develop thiamine deficiency with ultimately increased mortality due to potentially irreversible consequences of severe type B lactic acidosis. We report a case of an unvaccinated term neonate with malignant pertussis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy, who developed profound lactic acidosis of unknown etiology. After countless evaluations for likely causes, the patient was ultimately determined to have thiamine deficiency and her acidosis resolved rapidly with vitamin supplementation...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094796/severely-inadequate-micronutrient-intake-among-children-9-24%C3%A2-months-in-nepal-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#7
Marianne S Morseth, Liv Elin Torheim, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Binob Shrestha, Are Hugo Pripp, Sigrun Henjum
Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is high among infants and children in low- and middle income countries, but knowledge about nutrient adequacy across the complementary feeding period is limited. We investigated probability of adequacy (PA) of breast milk and complementary food combined and nutrient density adequacy (NDA) of complementary food and tracking of NDA over time among 229 children from 9-24 months of age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Monthly, 24 h dietary recalls (16 in total) were performed and subgrouped into four 4-month time periods...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089512/thiamine-deficiency-impairs-common-eider-somateria-mollissima-reproduction-in-the-field
#8
Torsten Mörner, Tomas Hansson, Le Carlsson, Anna-Lena Berg, Yolanda Ruiz Muñoz, Hanna Gustavsson, Roland Mattsson, Lennart Balk
The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064578/a-diagnosis-and-treatment-gap-for-thiamine-deficiency-disorders-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
REVIEW
Bola Adamolekun, Laurent Hiffler
Staple diets that are deficient in thiamine can result in low body thiamine levels, which may be subclinical or may manifest as a thiamine-deficiency syndrome. In many communities in the developing countries of Africa, the staple diets of polished rice or processed cassava are deficient in thiamine, and thus the communities are at high risk for marginal or frank thiamine deficiency unless their diets are supplemented by other sources of thiamine, such as protein meals and vegetables. African communities with large numbers of individuals in low socioeconomic strata are more likely to subsist on a monotonous diet of rice or cassava with minimal or no protein supplementation and are therefore particularly at risk of thiamine-deficiency disorders...
October 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045486/thiamine-deficiency-activates-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-to-facilitate-pro-apoptotic-responses-in-mouse-primary-astrocytes
#10
Kristy Zera, Jason Zastre
Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD) is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026451/genomic-insights-into-the-thiamin-metabolism-of-paenibacillus-thiaminolyticus-nrrl-b-4156-and-p-apiarius-nrrl-b-23460
#11
David Sannino, Esther R Angert
Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is the model organism for studying thiaminase I, an enigmatic extracellular enzyme. Originally isolated from the feces of clinical patients suffering from thiamin deficiency, P. thiaminolyticus has been implicated in thiamin deficiencies in humans and other animals due to its ability to produce this thiamin-degrading enzyme. Its close relative, P. apiarius, also produces thiaminase I and was originally isolated from dead honeybee larvae, though it has not been reported to be a honeybee pathogen...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980193/expression-of-thiaminase-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-is-lethal-and-has-implications-for-use-as-a-biocontainment-strategy-in-aquaculture-and-invasive-species
#12
Sandra Noble, Vishal Saxena, Marc Ekker, Robert Devlin
As the world increasingly relies on aquaculture operations to meet rising seafood demands, reliable biocontainment measures for farmed fish stocks are desired to minimize ecological impacts arising from interactions of cultured fish with wild populations. One possible biocontainment strategy is to induce a dietary dependence on a vitamin, such as thiamine (vitamin B1), required for survival. Fish expressing thiaminase (an enzyme that degrades thiamine) within a confined aquaculture facility could receive supplemental thiamine to allow survival and normal growth, whereas escapees lacking this dietary rescue would die from thiamine deficiency...
October 5, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979254/illumina-sequencing-approach-to-characterize-thiamine-metabolism-related-bacteria-and-the-impacts-of-thiamine-supplementation-on-ruminal-microbiota-in-dairy-cows-fed-high-grain-diets
#13
Xiaohua Pan, Fuguang Xue, Xuemei Nan, Zhiwen Tang, Kun Wang, Yves Beckers, Linshu Jiang, Benhai Xiong
The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951891/thiamine-acquisition-strategies-impact-metabolism-and-competition-in-the-gut-microbe-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#14
Zachary A Costliow, Patrick H Degnan
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential cofactor for all organisms. Humans primarily acquire thiamine through their diet, and thiamine deficiencies have adverse neurological effects. However, the role gut microbes play in modulating thiamine availability is poorly understood, and little is known about how thiamine impacts the stability of microbial gut communities. To investigate thiamine's role in the gut, we utilized the model gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed a global downregulation of thiamine and amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine metabolism when thiamine was present...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927723/antimutagenic-activity-of-vitamin-b1-against-damages-induced-by-chemical-and-physical-mutagens-in-salmonella-typhimurium-and-escherichia-coli
#15
Jaime Sánchez-Navarrete, Myriam Arriaga-Alba, Nancy Jannet Ruiz-Pérez, Julia Dolores Toscano-Garibay
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient acting mainly as an enzymatic cofactor on diverse cell processes. It has been reported that vitamin B1 has a significant role in the signaling pathways related to the response to adverse environmental conditions (chemical and physical). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimutagenic potential of vitamin B1 in front of DNA-alkylating agents in the presence/absence of ogt and ada repairing genes in Salmonella typhimurium strains and against damage induced by ultraviolet light type C in Escherichia coli strains mutated at the uvrABC system and recBCD enzymes...
December 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924437/fundus-findings-in-wernicke-encephalopathy
#16
Tal Serlin, Elad Moisseiev
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, classically characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, confusion, and ataxia. While commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, WE may also occur in the setting of poor nutrition or absorption. We present a 37-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and presented with visual disturbance with bilateral horizontal nystagmus, confusion, and postural imbalance. Fundus examination revealed bilateral optic disc edema with a retinal hemorrhage in the left eye...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#17
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875427/epileptic-seizures-in-nonalcoholic-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Wenjin Shang, Xiuhui Chen, Xunhua Li, Hongbing Chen, Shujin Tang, Hua Hong
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is characterized by eye signs, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Epileptic seizures are rare in nonalcoholic WE. We reviewed the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and prognostic characteristics of nonalcoholic WE accompanied by epileptic seizures. We reported 1 case and searched similar cases using PubMed, WoK, Ovid, and Embase. WE was diagnosed according to dietary deficiencies, clinical symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 27 years; 5 men) with clear histories of thiamine deficiency and symptoms of typical WE...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873391/high-prevalence-of-thiamine-vitamin-b1-deficiency-in-early-childhood-among-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-cambodian-women-of-childbearing-age-and-their-children
#19
Kyly C Whitfield, Geoffry Smith, Chhoun Chamnan, Crystal D Karakochuk, Prak Sophonneary, Khov Kuong, Marjoleine Amma Dijkhuizen, Rathavuth Hong, Jacques Berger, Tim J Green, Frank Tammo Wieringa
BACKGROUND: Thiamine deficiency is thought to be an issue in Cambodia and throughout Southeast Asia due to frequent clinical reports of infantile beriberi. However the extent of this public health issue is currently unknown due to a lack of population-representative data. Therefore we assessed the thiamine status (measured as erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations; eThDP) among a representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age (15-49 y) and their young children (6-69 mo)...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856750/thiamine-deficiency-in-childhood-with-attention-to-genetic-causes-survival-and-outcome-predictors
#20
Juan Darío Ortigoza-Escobar, Majid Alfadhel, Marta Molero-Luis, Niklas Darin, Ronen Spiegel, Irenaeus F de Coo, Mike Gerards, Robert W Taylor, Rafael Artuch, Marwan Nashabat, Pilar Rodríguez-Pombo, Brahim Tabarki, Belén Pérez-Dueñas
Primary and secondary conditions leading to thiamine deficiency have overlapping features in children, presenting with acute episodes of encephalopathy, bilateral symmetric brain lesions, and high excretion of organic acids that are specific of thiamine-dependent mitochondrial enzymes, mainly lactate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and branched chain keto-acids. Undiagnosed and untreated thiamine deficiencies are often fatal or lead to severe sequelae. Herein, we describe the clinical and genetic characterization of 79 patients with inherited thiamine defects causing encephalopathy in childhood, identifying outcome predictors in patients with pathogenic SLC19A3 variants, the most common genetic etiology...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
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