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Renal graft biopsy

Masayoshi Okumi, Yasuyuki Sato, Kohei Unagami, Toshihito Hirai, Hideki Ishida, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND: The reasons for improved outcomes associated with preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) are incompletely understood, and post-transplant complications have been scarcely investigated. METHODS: We evaluated the outcomes of PKT in both unmatched (n = 1060) and propensity score matched cohorts (n = 186) of adults who underwent living kidney transplant between 2000 and 2014. Outcomes were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), biopsy-proven rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), graft failure (non-censored for death), and malignancy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
A L F Gouvêa, R I J Cosendey, F R Carvalho, R B Varella, C F de Souza, P F Lopes, A A Silva, M C Rochael, H P de Moraes, J R Lugon, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Urine monitoring programs represent an important strategy for early diagnosis of reactivation of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients. This study analyzes a BKV urine screening model in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urinary screening for BKV reactivation was performed by urinary decoy cell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in samples from 32 consecutive kidney transplant patients, collected in a 6-month follow-up period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Ryo Ishida, Akira Shimizu, Takashi Kitani, Mayumi Nakata, Noriyoshi Ota, Hiroshi Kado, Yayoi Shiotsu, Mami Ishida, Keiichi Tamagaki
A 30-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) derived from her HLA-matched sister six years previously. She received preconditioning total body irradiation with renal shielding and was subsequently administered cyclosporin A (CyA) as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Four months after HSCT, asymptomatic proteinuria and glomerular hematuria developed during CyA tapering without obvious extrarenal involvements of GVHD, and persisted for six years...
2016: Internal Medicine
P García, M Huerfano, M Rodríguez, A Caicedo, F Berrío, C Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation is the best treatment for end stage renal disease. Acute graft rejection is one of the main complications and may influence graft survival. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and features of acute cellular rejection (ACR) episodes confirmed by biopsy. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 175 patients who underwent renal transplantation between 2004 and 2012 to determine the cumulative incidence of ACR confirmed by biopsy and to identify the associated risk factors using multivariate analysis...
2016: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Xiaoguang Xu, Haiyan Huang, Qiang Wang, Ming Cai, Yeyong Qian, Yong Han, Xinying Wang, Yu Gao, Ming Yuan, Liang Xu, Chen Yao, Li Xiao, Bingyi Shi
PURPOSE: IFN-γ is a protypical proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation and acute graft rejection. Accumulating evidence indicates that IFN-γ can exert previously unexpected immunoregulatory activities. However, little is known about the role of IFN-γ secreted by Th1-like regulatory T cells in human kidney transplantation. METHODS: To determine the function of IFN-γ in acute T cell-mediated renal allograft rejection (ACR), we examined serum cytokine expression profiles in ACR patients by human cytokine multiplex immunoassay and analyzed the cellular origins of IFN-γ in peripheral blood and renal allograft biopsies from ACR cases and controls by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
September 19, 2016: Immunobiology
Sourabh Chand, David Atkinson, Clare Collins, David Briggs, Simon Ball, Adnan Sharif, Kassiani Skordilis, Bindu Vydianath, Desley Neil, Richard Borrows
BACKGROUND: Causes of "true" late kidney allograft failure remain unclear as study selection bias and limited follow-up risk incomplete representation of the spectrum. METHODS: We evaluated all unselected graft failures from 2008-2014 (n = 171; 0-36 years post-transplantation) by contemporary classification of indication biopsies "proximate" to failure, DSA assessment, clinical and biochemical data. RESULTS: The spectrum of graft failure changed markedly depending on the timing of allograft failure...
2016: PloS One
Mittul Gulati, Suzanne L Palmer, Michael Y Im, Hossein Jadvar, Yasir A Qazi, Umer Fazli, Edward G Grant
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine a velocity threshold in the main renal vein (MRV) of renal transplants and evaluate the cause and clinical significance of elevated velocity. METHODS: Maximum MRV velocity from 331 consecutive renal transplant Doppler ultrasounds in 170 patients was recorded. A priori, twice the median MRV velocity was selected as the threshold for elevation. Ultrasounds were divided into "early" and "late" periods based on time after transplantation...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Vincent Vuiblet, Michael Fere, Ezechiel Bankole, Alain Wynckel, Cyril Gobinet, Philippe Birembaut, Olivier Piot, Philippe Rieu
In brain-dead donor resuscitation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) use has been associated with presence of osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplant recipients. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of HES in protocol renal graft biopsies at three months (M3) after transplantation is associated with renal graft quality. According to the HES administered to the donor during the procurement procedure, two groups of patients were defined according graft exposition to HES: HES group, (N = 20) and control group (N = 6)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlos Arias-Cabrales, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, María José Pérez-Sáez, Javier Gimeno, Ignacio Sánchez-Güerri, Sheila Bermejo, Adriana Sierra, Carla Burballa, Marisa Mir, Marta Crespo, Julio Pascual
INTRODUCTION: The impact of acute rejection in kidney graft survival is well known, but the prognosis of other diagnoses is uncertain. We evaluated the frequency and impact on graft survival of different diagnostic categories according to the Banff 2013 classification in a cohort of renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 495 renal biopsies by indication in 322 patients from 1990-2014. Two independent observers reviewed the histological reports, reclassifying according to the Banff 2013 classification...
August 29, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Tracey Jones-Hughes, Tristan Snowsill, Marcela Haasova, Helen Coelho, Louise Crathorne, Chris Cooper, Ruben Mujica-Mota, Jaime Peters, Jo Varley-Campbell, Nicola Huxley, Jason Moore, Matt Allwood, Jenny Lowe, Chris Hyde, Martin Hoyle, Mary Bond, Rob Anderson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring renal replacement therapy: kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (induction and maintenance therapy) to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES: To review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) and rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) (Thymoglobulin(®), Sanofi) as induction therapy, and immediate-release tacrolimus (TAC) (Adoport(®), Sandoz; Capexion(®), Mylan; Modigraf(®), Astellas Pharma; Perixis(®), Accord Healthcare; Prograf(®), Astellas Pharma; Tacni(®), Teva; Vivadex(®), Dexcel Pharma), prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf(®) Astellas Pharma), belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (Arzip(®), Zentiva; CellCept(®), Roche Products; Myfenax(®), Teva), mycophenolate sodium (MPS) (Myfortic(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd), sirolimus (SRL) (Rapamune(®), Pfizer) and everolimus (EVL) (Certican(®), Novartis) as maintenance therapy in adult renal transplantation...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Jenni Miettinen, Juuso Tainio, Timo Jahnukainen, Mikko Pakarinen, Jouni Lauronen, Hannu Jalanko
BACKGROUND: Anemia and low-grade inflammation are reported to be associated with impaired long-term graft outcome in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. In this study, hemoglobin (Hb) and inflammation marker levels were correlated with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 128 pediatric RTx recipients over a median follow-up period of 10 years. METHODS: Serum levels of erythropoietin (EPO), hepcidin-25, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and GFR was analyzed by (51)Cr-EDTA clearance...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Masaaki Yanishi, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Nguyen Thanh Huan, Yuya Koito, Hisanori Taniguchi, Kenji Yoshida, Takao Mishima, Motohiko Sugi, Hidefumi Kinoshita, Tadashi Matsuda
AIM: Optimizing nephron supply to recipient demand is a non-immunologic determinant of renal allograft outcome. Nephron reduction is usually caused by physical donor-recipient mismatch, but its pathologic relevance remains to be determined. METHODS: Thirty-one recipients of living donor renal transplants were divided into three subgroups: those who received transplants from the same gender (n = 6, Group 1) and those who underwent male-to-female (n = 8, Group 2) and female-to-male (n = 17, Group 3) transplants...
August 30, 2016: Nephrology
R I Lopez-Soler, J A Borgia, S Kanangat, C L Fhied, D J Conti, D Constantino, A Ata, R Chan, Z Wang
BACKGROUND: Anti-vimentin (a cytoskeletal protein) autoantibodies in renal transplant recipients have been correlated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA). In this study, we examine the association between pretransplantation anti-vimentin antibodies and the subsequent development of IFTA. METHODS: Sera obtained before renal transplantation from 97 transplant recipients were analyzed for the presence of anti-vimentin antibodies via Luminex assays to determine the concentration of anti-vimentin antibodies...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
G Ciancio, P Tryphonopoulos, J J Gaynor, G Guerra, J Sageshima, D Roth, L Chen, W Kupin, A Mattiazzi, L Tueros, S Flores, L Hanson, R H Powell, P Ruiz, R Vianna, G W Burke
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the combination of tacrolimus (TAC) and everolimus (EVL) could become a viable option for use as standard maintenance immunosuppression in non-highly sensitized kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized pilot trial comparing two maintenance immunosuppression regimens in non-highly sensitized, adult, primary kidney transplant recipients: (TAC/EVL, Group A) vs our standard maintenance regimen of TAC plus enteric-coated mycophenolate mofetil (TAC/EC-MPS, Group B)...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Saoussen M'dimegh, Asma Omezzine, Mériam Ben Hamida-Rebai, Cécile Aquaviva-Bourdain, Ibtihel M'barek, Wissal Sahtout, Dorsaf Zellama, Geneviéve Souche, Abdellatif Achour, Saoussen Abroug, Ali Bouslama
Primary hyperoxaluria is a genetic disorder in glyoxylate metabolism that leads to systemic overproduction of oxalate. Functional deficiency of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase in this disease leads to recurrent nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, systemic oxalosis, and kidney failure. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular etiology of kidney transplant loss in a young Tunisian individual. We present a young man with end-stage renal disease who received a kidney allograft and experienced early graft failure...
August 25, 2016: Transplant Immunology
Tristan Legris, Christophe Picard, Dilyana Todorova, Luc Lyonnet, Cathy Laporte, Chloé Dumoulin, Corinne Nicolino-Brunet, Laurent Daniel, Anderson Loundou, Sophie Morange, Stanislas Bataille, Henri Vacher-Coponat, Valérie Moal, Yvon Berland, Francoise Dignat-George, Stéphane Burtey, Pascale Paul
Although kidney transplantation remains the best treatment for end-stage renal failure, it is limited by chronic humoral aggression of the graft vasculature by donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). The complement-independent mechanisms that lead to the antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) of kidney allografts remain poorly understood. Increasing lines of evidence have revealed the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells as innate immune effectors of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), but few studies have investigated their alloreactive potential in the context of solid organ transplantation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Isabel Roberti, Shefali Vyas
IMN contribute to ESRD in 13% children with renal transplant (txp). Recurrent or de novo IMN can cause graft dysfunction and/or failure, but the details regarding incidence, therapy, and outcome remain poorly understood. Retrospective single-center study of all pediatric kidney txp was carried out since 1998. Clinical presentation, pathology, therapy, and graft outcomes of children with recurrent or de novo IMN were reviewed. IMN was the primary etiology of ESRD in 28 of the 149 txp recipients. Eleven children had biopsy-proven post-txp IMN-six were recurrent and five had de novo...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Marcela Haasova, Tristan Snowsill, Tracey Jones-Hughes, Louise Crathorne, Chris Cooper, Jo Varley-Campbell, Ruben Mujica-Mota, Helen Coelho, Nicola Huxley, Jenny Lowe, Jan Dudley, Stephen Marks, Chris Hyde, Mary Bond, Rob Anderson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease is a long-term irreversible decline in kidney function requiring kidney transplantation, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The preferred option is kidney transplantation followed by induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy to reduce the risk of kidney rejection and prolong graft survival. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and update the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of basiliximab (BAS) (Simulect,(®) Novartis Pharmaceuticals) and rabbit antihuman thymocyte immunoglobulin (Thymoglobuline,(®) Sanofi) as induction therapy and immediate-release tacrolimus [Adoport(®) (Sandoz); Capexion(®) (Mylan); Modigraf(®) (Astellas Pharma); Perixis(®) (Accord Healthcare); Prograf(®) (Astellas Pharma); Tacni(®) (Teva); Vivadex(®) (Dexcel Pharma)], prolonged-release tacrolimus (Advagraf,(®) Astellas Pharma); belatacept (BEL) (Nulojix,(®) Bristol-Myers Squibb), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) [Arzip(®) (Zentiva), CellCept(®) (Roche Products), Myfenax(®) (Teva), generic MMF is manufactured by Accord Healthcare, Actavis, Arrow Pharmaceuticals, Dr Reddy's Laboratories, Mylan, Sandoz and Wockhardt], mycophenolate sodium, sirolimus (Rapamune,(®) Pfizer) and everolimus (Certican,(®) Novartis Pharmaceuticals) as maintenance therapy in children and adolescents undergoing renal transplantation...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
C Wiebe, A J Gareau, D Pochinco, I W Gibson, J Ho, P E Birk, T Blydt-Hasen, M Karpinski, A Goldberg, L Storsley, D N Rush, P W Nickerson
De novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSAs) that develop after renal transplantation are independent predictors of allograft loss. However, it is unknown if dnDSA C1q status or titer at the time of first detection can independently predict allograft loss. In a consecutive cohort of 508 renal transplant recipients, 70 developed dnDSAs. Histologic and clinical outcomes were correlated with the C1q assay or dnDSA titer. C1q positivity correlated with dnDSA titer (p < 0.01) and mean fluorescence intensity (p < 0...
August 19, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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