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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829631/in-vitro-evaluation-of-damage-by-heavy-metals-in-tight-and-gap-junctions-of-sertoli-cells
#1
Juan Ramos-Treviño, Susana Bassol-Mayagoitia, Pablo Ruiz-Flores, Perla Karina Espino-Silva, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Sheila Adela Villa-Cedillo, Martha P Nava-Hernández
The Sertoli cell plays a vital role during the spermatogenesis process and has been identified as one of the main targets of the toxic action of heavy metals on the seminiferous epithelium. In the present work, the effect of lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), and Cadmium (Cd) in primary cultures of Sertoli cells was analyzed by measuring the expression of the genes Cldn11, Ocln, and Gja1 that participate in the tight and gap junctions, which are responsible for maintaining the blood-testis barrier. Sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of Wistar rats...
August 22, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828252/beyond-the-carapace-skull-shape-variation-and-morphological-systematics-of-long-nosed-armadillos-genus-dasypus
#2
Lionel Hautier, Guillaume Billet, Benoit de Thoisy, Frédéric Delsuc
BACKGROUND: The systematics of long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) has been mainly based on a handful of external morphological characters and classical measurements. Here, we studied the pattern of morphological variation in the skull of long-nosed armadillos species, with a focus on the systematics of the widely distributed nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). METHODS: We present the first exhaustive 3D comparison of the skull morphology within the genus Dasypus, based on micro-computed tomography...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828240/the-hidden-anatomy-of-paranasal-sinuses-reveals-biogeographically-distinct-morphotypes-in-the-nine-banded-armadillo-dasypus-novemcinctus
#3
Guillaume Billet, Lionel Hautier, Benoit de Thoisy, Frédéric Delsuc
BACKGROUND: With their Pan-American distribution, long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) constitute an understudied model for Neotropical biogeography. This genus currently comprises seven recognized species, the nine-banded armadillo (D. novemcinctus) having the widest distribution ranging from Northern Argentina to the South-Eastern US. With their broad diversity of habitats, nine-banded armadillos provide a useful model to explore the effects of climatic and biogeographic events on morphological diversity at a continental scale...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827727/branching-morphology-determines-signal-propagation-dynamics-in-neurons
#4
Netanel Ofer, Orit Shefi, Gur Yaari
Computational modeling of signal propagation in neurons is critical to our understanding of basic principles underlying brain organization and activity. Exploring these models is used to address basic neuroscience questions as well as to gain insights for clinical applications. The seminal Hodgkin Huxley model is a common theoretical framework to study brain activity. It was mainly used to investigate the electrochemical and physical properties of neurons. The influence of neuronal structure on activity patterns was explored, however, the rich dynamics observed in neurons with different morphologies is not yet fully understood...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827667/lapsyn-controls-branch-extension-and-positioning-of-astrocyte-like-glia-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#5
Benjamin Richier, Cristina de Miguel Vijandi, Stefanie Mackensen, Iris Salecker
Astrocytes have diverse, remarkably complex shapes in different brain regions. Their branches closely associate with neurons. Despite the importance of this heterogeneous glial cell type for brain development and function, the molecular cues controlling astrocyte branch morphogenesis and positioning during neural circuit assembly remain largely unknown. We found that in the Drosophila visual system, astrocyte-like medulla neuropil glia (mng) variants acquire stereotypic morphologies with columnar and layered branching patterns in a stepwise fashion from mid-metamorphosis onwards...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827543/deep-time-perspective-on-turtle-neck-evolution-chasing-the-hox-code-by-vertebral-morphology
#6
Christine Böhmer, Ingmar Werneburg
The unparalleled ability of turtle neck retraction is possible in three different modes, which characterize stem turtles, living side-necked (Pleurodira), and hidden-necked (Cryptodira) turtles, respectively. Despite the conservatism in vertebral count among turtles, there is significant functional and morphological regionalization in the cervical vertebral column. Since Hox genes play a fundamental role in determining the differentiation in vertebra morphology and based on our reconstruction of evolutionary genetics in deep time, we hypothesize genetic differences among the turtle groups and between turtles and other land vertebrates...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827452/the-ontogenetic-bases-for-variation-in-ovary-position-in-melastomataceae
#7
João Paulo Basso-Alves, Renato Goldenberg, Simone Pádua Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although the ovary position is considered a stable character in angiosperms, Melastomataceae species have perigynous flowers in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior. Thus, we investigated the ontogenetic process involved in variation of the ovary position in Melastomataceae. We focused on histogenesis of the floral apex in search of developmental patterns for each type of ovary position. METHODS: Six species in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior were chosen: Henriettea saldanhae, Leandra melastomoides, Miconia dodecandra, Microlicia euphorbioides, Rhynchanthera grandiflora, and Tibouchina clinopodifolia...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826319/genetic-structure-of-first-nation-communities-in-the-pacific-northwest
#8
Cris E Hughes, Mary P Rogers, Amanda C Owings, Barbara Petzelt, Joycelynn Mitchell, Harold Harry, Theresa Williams, Dena Goldberg, Damian Labuda, David Glenn Smith, Jerome S Cybulski, Ripan S Malhi
This study presents genetic data for nine Native American populations from northern North America. Analyses of genetic variation focus on the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal, and autosomal DNA variants, we aimed to more closely address the relationships of geography and language with present genetic diversity among the regional PNW Native American populations. Patterns of genetic diversity exhibited by the three genetic systems were consistent with our hypotheses: genetic variation was more strongly explained by geographic proximity than by linguistic structure...
October 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823050/a-scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-early-development-in-vitro-of-contracaecum-multipapillatum-s-l-nematoda-anisakidae-from-a-brown-pelican-pelecanus-occidentalis-from-the-gulf-of-california-mexico
#9
Dolores Molina-Fernández, Isabel Valles-Vega, Sergio Hernández-Trujillo, Francisco Javier Adroher, Rocío Benítez
Eggs obtained from the uteri of female nematodes, genetically identified as Contracaecum multipapillatum s.l., found in a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, were used to study the early developmental stages of this anisakid by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Egg dimensions were approximately 54 × 45 μm measured by SEM. Observation of the eggs revealed an outer surface of fibrous appearance. The newly hatched larvae were ensheathed and highly motile...
August 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822998/spontaneous-shrinkage-of-solitary-osteochondromas
#10
Hisaki Aiba, Satoshi Yamada, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Takanobu Otsuka
OBJECTIVE: Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors, and thus far, their spontaneous shrinkage is considered a rare phenomenon. This study was designed to investigate the exact ratio of remission to progressive or stable cases and analyze the mechanism of tumor regression on the basis of existing theories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected images of solitary osteochondromas in patients from 1992 to 2013, excluding cases involving short-term follow-up periods and follow-up periods that ended before growth plate closure...
August 19, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821879/musashi-1-enhances-glioblastoma-cell-migration-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-through-translational-inhibition-of-tensin3
#11
Hsiao-Yun Chen, Liang-Ting Lin, Mong-Lien Wang, Benoit Laurent, Chih-Hung Hsu, Chih-Ming Pan, Wan-Ru Jiang, Pau-Yuan Chen, Hsin-I Ma, Yi-Wei Chen, Pin-I Huang, Arthur Chiou, Shih-Hwa Chiou
The RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 (MSI1) exerts essential roles in multiple cellular functions, such as maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells. MSI1 overexpression has been observed in several tumor tissues, including glioblastoma (GBM), and is considered as a well-established marker for tumor metastasis and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MSI1 regulates cell migration are still undetermined. Here we reported that MSI1 alters cell morphology, promotes cell migration, and increases viscoelasticity of GBM cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821133/single-helix-in-v-type-starch-carrier-determines-the-encapsulation-capacity-of-ethylene
#12
Linfan Shi, Xiong Fu, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
V-type starch carriers with different single helix contents were prepared using alcoholic-alkaline treatment followed by ethanol precipitation. Ethylene gas was entrapped into V-type starch carriers using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy. Aqueous ethanol treatment resulted in swelling and aggregation of starch granules, and B-type diffraction reflections were either reduced or completely lost with evolution of V-type pattern...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820842/-upper-extremity-innervation-patterns-and-clinical-implications-for-nerve-and-tendon-transfer
#13
Ellen Y Lee, Sandeep J Sebastin, Andre Cheah, V P Kumar, Aymeric Y T Lim
BACKGROUND: We previously studied the intramuscular innervation of 150 upper limb muscles and demonstrated that certain patterns of intramuscular innervation allowed muscles to be split into compartments with independent function. This study aims to determine the location, extra-muscular course, and number of motor nerve branches of upper limb peripheral nerves. We want to combine this information with our previous work to create a blueprint of upper limb neuromuscular anatomy that would be useful in reconstructive surgery...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820095/proposal-of-henriciella-barbarensis-sp-nov-and-henriciella-algicola-sp-nov-stalked-species-of-the-genus-and-emendation-of-the-genus-henriciella
#14
Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Maira Peres de Carvalho, Thais Souto Paula da Costa Neves, Marina Torquato Memoria, Iago Toledo Tartuci, Marc Vancanneyt, John Smit, Manfred Rohde
Two Gram-negative, heterotrophic, aerobic, prosthecated, marine bacteria, designated strains MCS23T and MCS27T, were isolated from seawater samples. NaCl was required for growth. The major polar lipid detected in strain MCS27T was phosphatidylglycerol, whereas those detected in MCS23T were phosphatidylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol and 1,2-diacyl-3-α-d-glucuronopyranosyl-sn-glycerol taurineamide. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7 and C16 : 0, hydroxyl-fatty acids were 3-OH C12 : 0 in both strains and 3-OH C11 : 0 in MCS23T...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819231/in-vitro-micropatterned-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-test-%C3%A2%C2%B5p-hpst-for-morphometric-based-teratogen-screening
#15
Jiangwa Xing, Yue Cao, Yang Yu, Huan Li, Ziwei Song, Hanry Yu
Exposure to teratogenic chemicals during pregnancy may cause severe birth defects. Due to high inter-species variation of drug responses as well as financial and ethical burdens, despite the widely use of in vivo animal tests, it's crucial to develop highly predictive human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based in vitro assays to identify potential teratogens. Previously we have shown that the morphological disruption of mesoendoderm patterns formed by geometrically-confined cell differentiation and migration using hPSCs could potentially serve as a sensitive morphological marker in teratogen detection...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817644/cheek-tooth-morphology-and-ancient-mitochondrial-dna-of-late-pleistocene-horses-from-the-western-interior-of-north-america-implications-for-the-taxonomy-of-north-american-late-pleistocene-equus
#16
Christina I Barrón-Ortiz, Antonia T Rodrigues, Jessica M Theodor, Brian P Kooyman, Dongya Y Yang, Camilla F Speller
Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817142/morphologic-patterns-of-the-atrophic-posterior-maxilla-and-clinical-implications-for-bone-regenerative-therapy
#17
Alberto Monje, Istvan A Urban, Richard J Miron, Jordi Caballe-Serrano, Daniel Buser, Hom-Lay Wang
Regenerative therapies are commonly needed prior to implant placement in the posterior maxilla following tooth extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical features of the atrophic posterior maxilla that might affect surgical approach selection and technique and risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Cone beam computed tomography files were screened to identify pristine atrophic maxillary ridges in need of bone augmentation (ridge height < 10 mm). Ridge height and width and lateral wall thickness (LWT) were measured at different levels, and palatonasal recess and lateral wall morphology were calculated...
September 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816871/aospine-classification-systems-subaxial-thoracolumbar
#18
Klaus J Schnake, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Cumhur Oner
Numerous classification systems for subaxial and thoracolumbar spine injuries were proposed in the past with the attempt to facilitate communication between physicians. The AO-Magerl, thoracolumbar system, and Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification systems are all well known, but did not achieve universal international adoption. A group of international experienced spine trauma surgeons were brought together by AOSpine with the goal to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system for spinal trauma...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#19
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815393/pattern-noise-pano-a-new-automated-functional-glaucoma-test
#20
Sylvain El-Khoury, Thomas Hannen, Diana Carmen Dragnea, Faustin Ngounou, Paul-Rolf Preußner
PURPOSE: To present a newly developed visual field device (pattern noise: PANO) designed to be sensitive to glaucoma defects, cost-effective, material-practical and easy to repair and therefore particularly suited for low-income countries, where glaucoma can be highly prevalent (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa). METHODS: This is primarily a descriptive paper, but it also includes a prospective matched case-control pilot study. Hardware, stimulus, target configuration, testing strategy and result sheet are described...
August 16, 2017: International Ophthalmology
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