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Morphologic patterns

Gregory W Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. METHODS: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Sarah Pragnère, Caroline Boulocher, Ophélie Pollet, Catherine Bosser, Aurélie Levillain, Magali Cruel, Thierry Hoc
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess mechanical properties along with microstructural modifications of the hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC) and cortical plate (Ct.Pt), in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. Medial femoral condyles of six healthy rabbits (control group) and of six ACLT rabbits 6 weeks after OA induction were explanted. The zone of interest (ZOI) for all experiments was defined as the weight bearing areas of the samples...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Pham Van Viet, Truong Tan Sang, Nguyen Ho Ngoc Bich, Cao Minh Thi
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by an improved green synthesis method via a photo-reduction process using low-power UV light in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as the surface stabilizer. The effective synthesis process was achieved by optimized synthesis parameters such as C2 H5 OH: H2 O ratio, AgNO3 : PVP ratio, pH value, and reducing time. The formation of Ag NPs was identified by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Cleyssian Dias, Keila de Araújo Lima, Juliana Araripe, Alexandre Aleixo, Marcelo Vallinoto, Iracilda Sampaio, Horacio Schneider, Péricles Sena do Rêgo
Lepidothrix is the most diverse genus of the family Pipridae, with eight recognized species. Although the genus' monophyly has been supported by both molecular and morphological characters, phylogenetic relationships and species limits within Lepidothrix remain uncertain. In the present study, we combined molecular sequences of mitochondrial (ND2 and COI) and nuclear (MYO, G3PDh and I5BF) markers in a multilocus analysis, to evaluate relationships and inter-specific limits among L. iris, L. nattereri, and L...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Margaret Siyawamwaya, Lisa C du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Pierre P P D Kondiah, Viness Pillay
PURPOSE: A 3D-Bioplotter® was employed to 3D print (3DP) a humic acid-polyquaternium 10 (HA-PQ10) controlled release fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet comprising of the anti-HIV-1 drugs, efavirenz (EFV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC). METHODS: Chemical interactions, surface morphology and mechanical strength of the FDC were ascertained. In vitro drug release studies were conducted in biorelevant media followed by in vivo study in the large white pigs, in comparison with a market formulation, Atripla® ...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Qiaoling Ma, Panthi Bimal, Li Mei, Simon Olliver, Mauro Farella, Huang Li
BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the morphology and symmetry of the temporomandibular joint in participants with normodivergent and hyperdivergent skeletal class I, II, and III patterns. METHODS: A total of 80 participants were divided into 4 groups on the basis of their sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns. Cone-beam computed tomographic images were used to evaluate the condyle-fossa relationship and the morphology and symmetry of the mandibular condyle. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were used to compare the mean values among the different groups...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Kalenia M Márquez-Flórez, James R Monaghan, Sandra J Shefelbine, Angélica Ramirez-Martínez, Diego A Garzón-Alvarado
Joints connect the skeletal components and enable movement. The appearance and development of articulations is due to different genetic, biochemical, and mechanical factors. In the embryonic stage, controlled biochemical processes are critical for organized growth. We developed a computational model, which predicts the appearance, location, and development of joints in the embryonic stage. Biochemical events are modeled with reaction diffusion equations with generic molecules representing molecules that 1) determine the site where the articulation will appear, 2) promote proliferation, and matrix synthesis, and 3) define articular cartilage...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hanyao Huang, Yeping Li, Xiangyou Luo, Xu Cheng, Bing Shi, Jingtao Li
The relapse of nasal deformity is a challenge for modern correction of cleft lip. A comprehensive understanding in the biomechanical perspective of both the formation and correction of the cleft lip nasal deformity would lead to improved stability of the corrective outcome. In this study, a finite element model of secondary cleft lip nasal deformity was constructed, on which two critical corrective maneuvers were mimicked in the form of force-loading. The intercrural suture was simulated by a force loaded at the intermediate crus of the alar cartilage directing anteriorly and medially, and the suture suspending the alar cartilage to the upper lateral cartilage was simulated by a force loaded at the lateral crus directing superiorly and medially...
2018: PloS One
Sarah Sheard, Joanna Moser, Charlie Sayer, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Anand Devaraj, Ioannis Vlahos
Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Alejandra Ortiz, Shara E Bailey, Gary T Schwartz, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Matthew M Skinner
The detailed anatomical features that characterize fossil hominin molars figure prominently in the reconstruction of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleobiology. Despite the prominence of molar form in human origins research, the underlying developmental mechanisms generating the diversity of tooth crown features remain poorly understood. A model of tooth morphogenesis-the patterning cascade model (PCM)-provides a developmental framework to explore how and why the varying molar morphologies arose throughout human evolution...
April 2018: Science Advances
Yiming He, Peter J Makovicky, Xing Xu, Hailu You
The dental morphology and tooth replacement pattern of Liaoceratops yanzigouensis, the earliest known neoceratopsian, are important for our understanding of the evolution of the ceratopsian dental system. Here we describe the dental morphology and tooth replacement of Liaoceratops yanzigouensis based on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scan data of three specimens including the holotype, the first study for basal ceratopsian. The three-dimensional reconstructions reveal some important new information, including: three teeth in the premaxilla in one side, two more teeth in the dentary than in the maxilla, incipiently developed mesial grooves on some crowns, two generations of replacement teeth within some tooth families; and most functional teeth were under heavy resorption by the replacement process, but still remained functional...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashok Mondal, Poulami Banerjee, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The stethoscope based auscultation technique is a primary diagnostic tool for chest sound analysis. However, the performance of this method is limited due to its dependency on physicians experience, knowledge and also clarity of the signal. To overcome this problem we need an automated computer-aided diagnostic system that will be competent in noisy environment. In this paper, a novel feature extraction technique is introduced for discriminating various pulmonary dysfunctions in an automated way based on pattern recognition algorithms...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Katarina M Jørgensen, Monica F Solberg, Francois Besnier, Anders Thorsen, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Øystein Skaala, Ketil Malde, Kevin A Glover
BACKGROUND: In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage)...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ecology
Robin Mills, Hanno Hildenbrandt, Graham K Taylor, Charlotte K Hemelrijk
The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is renowned for attacking its prey from high altitude in a fast controlled dive called a stoop. Many other raptors employ a similar mode of attack, but the functional benefits of stooping remain obscure. Here we investigate whether, when, and why stooping promotes catch success, using a three-dimensional, agent-based modeling approach to simulate attacks of falcons on aerial prey. We simulate avian flapping and gliding flight using an analytical quasi-steady model of the aerodynamic forces and moments, parametrized by empirical measurements of flight morphology...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Maria Angeles Ros Lasierra, Marc Fernández-Guerrero, Lucille Delisle, Nayuta Yakushiji-Kaminatsui, Fabrice Darbellay, Rocío Pérez-Gómez, Denis Duboule
The developing vertebrate limb has long proved as an excellent system for studying the mechanisms involved in pattern formation and morphogenesis and more recently in transcriptional regulation and morphological evolution. To elucidate the stage-specific expression profiles of the components of the developing limb, we have generated the temporal transcriptome of the limb progenitors and of the overlying ectoderm separately. Our study has uncovered a collinear activation of Hoxc genes in the limb ectoderm that we have validated by in situ hybridization...
April 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sarahaizad Mohd Salleh, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Ahmed Jalal Khan Chowdhury
The nesting of green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) was monitored from 1998 untill 2013 along the beaches of Pasir Panjang, Segari, Perak. The objective of the study is to assess the nesting status of green turtles in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia in terms of total nests, eggs, survival hatchings, and density of visitors. A total number of green turtle nests found for 16 years were 1,019 nests and varied from 10 to 220 nests per year. Meanwhile, the sum of eggs collected for 16 years were 107,820 eggs, and varied from 553 to 20,881 eggs per year...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Joni Ollonen, Filipe O Da Silva, Kristin Mahlow, Nicolas Di-Poï
The rise of the Evo-Devo field and the development of multidisciplinary research tools at various levels of biological organization have led to a growing interest in researching for new non-model organisms. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are particularly important for understanding fundamental questions about the evolution of vertebrates because of their high diversity and evolutionary innovations and adaptations that portrait a striking body plan change that reached its extreme in snakes. Yet, little is known about the intricate connection between phenotype and genotype in squamates, partly due to limited developmental knowledge and incomplete characterization of embryonic development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Irmeen Qamar, Suhailur Rehman, Ghazala Mehdi, Veena Maheshwari, Hena A Ansari, Sunanda Chauhan
Background: Cytologic examination of body fluids commonly involves the use of direct or sediment smears, cytocentrifuge preparations, membrane filter preparations, or cell block sections. Cytospin and cell block techniques are extremely useful in improving cell yield of thin serous effusions and urine samples, and ensure high diagnostic efficacy. Materials and Methods: We studied cytospin preparations and cell block sections prepared from 180 samples of body fluids and urine samples to compare the relative efficiency of cell retrieval, preservation of cell morphology, ease of application of special stains, and diagnostic efficacy...
April 2018: Journal of Cytology
H Wang, X Y Qin, Z Y Li, Z Z Zheng, T Y Fan
OBJECTIVE: To prepare and characterize citric acid (CA)-modified super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for magnetic targeting, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: CA-modified SPIONs (CA-SPIONs) were prepared by co-precipitation method and then the magnetic responsiveness, morphology, particle size, infrared feature, weight percentage of CA, magnetic property and X-ray diffraction pattern of CA-SPIONs were respectively characterized by magnet, transmission electron microscope, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Song Yi Baek, Ji Hyoun Kang, Seo Hee Jo, Ji Eun Jang, Seo Yeon Byeon, Ju-Hyoun Wang, Hwang-Goo Lee, Jun-Kil Choi, Hyuk Je Lee
BACKGROUND: Life history characteristics are considered important factors influencing the evolutionary processes of natural populations, including the patterns of population genetic structure of a species. The sister species Cottus hangiongensis and C. koreanus are small bottom-dwelling freshwater sculpin fishes from South Korea that display marked life history divergence but are morphologically nearly indistinguishable. Cottus hangiongensis evolved an 'amphidromous' life history with a post-hatching pelagic larval phase...
April 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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