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Morphologic patterns

Jane L Younger, Lynika Strozier, J Dylan Maddox, Árpád S Nyári, Matthew T Bonfitto, Marie J Raherilalao, Steven M Goodman, Sushma Reddy
Madagascar is renowned as a global biodiversity hotspot with high levels of microendemism. However, there are few molecular phylogenetic studies of Malagasy birds, particularly for forest-dwelling species, signifying a substantial gap in current measures of species diversity in the absence of genetic data. We evaluated species limits and explored patterns of diversification within the genus Newtonia (Family Vangidae), a group of forest-dwelling songbirds endemic to Madagascar. Our modern systematics approach combined genomic, morphometric, and ecological niche data to analyze the evolutionary history of the group...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
Valentina Sangiorgio, Vanna Zanagnolo, Giovanni Aletti, Luca Bocciolone, Simone Bruni, Fabio Landoni, Nicoletta Colombo, Angelo Maggioni, Enzo Ricciardi
Cervical sarcomas are rare neoplasms, accounting for <1% of all cervical malignancies and characterized by an aggressive course despite radical excision. We report the clinical and microscopic features of a spindle cell sarcoma arising as a polypoid endocervical mass in a 45-yr-old woman. The neoplasm was characterized by a monotonous, mildly atypical proliferation of spindle cells, displaying a fibrosarcoma-like parallel pattern of highly dense fascicles, growing under the cervical epithelium. Mitotic activity was conspicuous, with up to 40 mitoses per 10 HPF...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
H Zha, A Jeffs, Y Dong, G Lewis
Tail fan necrosis (TFN) is a common condition found in commercially exploited spiny lobsters that greatly diminishes their commercial value. Bacteria possessing proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic capabilities were associated with TFN in spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. In this study, 69 bacterial isolates exhibiting all the three enzymatic capabilities from the haemolymph and tail fans of J. edwardsii with and without TFN were further characterized and compared, including morphology, biofilm formation, antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial resistance, and production of siderophores, melanin and ammonia...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Mounika Gosika, Prabal K Maiti
The adsorption of PAMAM dendrimers at solid/water interfaces has been extensively studied, and is mainly driven by electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between the substrate and the dendrimers. However, the pH dependence of the adsorption driven predominantly by the van der Waals interactions is poorly explored, although it is crucial for investigating the potentiality of these dendrimers in supercapacitors and surface patterning. Motivated by this aspect, we have studied the adsorption behavior of PAMAM dendrimers of generations 2 (G2) to 5 (G5) with pH and salt concentration variation, on a charge neutral graphene substrate, using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations...
February 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Abdullah R Doaigey, Mohamed El-Zaidy, Ahmad Alfarhan, Abd El-Salam Milagy, Thomas Jacob
The intention of the present wok is to provide an account on the pollen morphological features of Lamiaceae in Saudi Arabia as a basis for future studies of Lamiaceae pollens in the region. Pollen morphology of 20 species belong to 16 genera of the Lamiaceae has been investigated using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The study revealed that the pollen grains were characterized by 3-zonocolpate or 6-zonocolpate. Size of the pollen is variable between the genera but not among the species of the same genus...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Asma A Al-Huqail, Maysa M Hatata, Arwa A Al-Huqail, Mohamed M Ibrahim
The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Brooks Walsh
The precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) leads V1 and V2 are often misplaced. Such misplacement usually involves placing these leads too high on the chest. The resulting ECG may generate erroneous ECG patterns: e.g. incomplete right bundle branch block, anterior T wave inversion, septal Q waves, ST-segment elevation. These features may falsely suggest acute or old cardiac ischemia, pulmonary embolism, or a type-2 Brugada pattern. On rare occasion, conversely, high placement of V1 and V2 may reveal a true type-1 Brugada pattern...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Izabela Potocka, Joanna Szymanowska-Pulka
Background: Roots are continuously exposed to mechanical pressure and this often results in their morphological modification. Most obvious are changes in the overall form of the root system as well as in the shapes of particular roots. These changes are often accompanied by modifications of the cell pattern and cell morphology. Scope: This review focuses on the morphological responses of roots to mechanical stress. Results of early and recent experiments in which roots have been exposed to mechanical pressure are assembled, analysed and discussed...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
E L Westerman, R Letchinger, A Tenger-Trolander, D Massardo, D Palmer, M R Kronforst
Female-limited polymorphism occurs in multiple butterfly species with Batesian mimicry. While frequency-dependent selection is often argued as the driving force behind polymorphism in Batesian mimicry systems, male preference and alternative female mating strategies may also influence the maintenance of multiple female forms. Through a series of behavioural assays with the female-limited Batesian mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes, we show that males prefer stationary mimetic females over stationary non-mimetic females, but weigh female activity levels more heavily than female wing pattern when choosing between active mimetic and active non-mimetic females...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Lalit Bansal, Apratim Sanyal, Prasenjit Kabi, Binita Pathak, Saptarshi Basu
Evaporating sessile functional droplets act as the fundamental building block that control the cumulative outcome of many industrial and biological applications such as surface patterning, 3D printing, photonic crystals, DNA sequencing, to name a few. Additionally, a drying single sessile droplet forms a high throughput processing technique using low material volume which is especially suitable for medical diagnosis. Sessile droplet also provides an elementary platform to study and analyze fundamental interfacial processes at various lengthscale ranging from macroscopically observable wetting and evaporation to microfluidic transport to interparticle forces operating at a nanometric lengthscale...
February 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhang Juan-Sheng, Zhang Di-Qiang, Wang Wei, Wei Xiao-Guang, Wang Zeng-Guo
This paper reviews the computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria in microscope images of thin blood film smears. On the basis of introducing the background and significance of automatic detection technology, the existing detection technologies are summarized and divided into several steps, including image acquisition, pre-processing, morphological analysis, segmentation, count, and pattern classification components. Then, the principles and implementation methods of each step are given in detail...
May 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
J J Dong, S Klumpp
Proliferation of individual cells is one of the hallmarks of living systems, and collectively the cells within a colony or tissue form highly structured patterns, influencing the properties at the population level. We investigate the joint effect of proliferation in the form of cell division and cell sorting due to differential adhesion using a cellular automaton model. Through simulations and theoretical analysis akin to interface growth, we show that this model gives rise to slower than exponential growth in the case of a single cell type as well as novel colony patterns in the case of two cell types...
February 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Peter Morse, Shannon R Kjeldsen, Mark G Meekan, Mark I Mccormick, Julian K Finn, Christine L Huffard, Kyall R Zenger
The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Hoyle, 1883) lacks a planktonic dispersal phase, yet ranges across Australia's southern coastline. This species' brief and holobenthic life history suggests gene flow might be limited, leaving distant populations prone to strong genetic divergence. This study used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of H. maculosa among eight sampling sites along its reported range. Within sites, interrelatedness was very high, consistent with the limited dispersal of this taxon...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Amy J E Healey, Niall J McKeown, Amy L Taylor, Jim Provan, Warwick Sauer, Gavin Gouws, Paul W Shaw
Analysis of genetic variation can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary diversification which, for commercially harvested species, can also be relevant to the implementation of spatial management strategies and sustainability. In comparison with other marine biodiversity hot spots, there has been less genetic research on the fauna of the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). This is epitomized by the lack of information for lethrinid fish, which support socioeconomically important fisheries in the region...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hyeryung Yoon, Jungil Yang, Wanqi Liang, Dabing Zhang, Gynheung An
Flower organ patterning is accomplished by spatial and temporal functioning of various regulatory genes. We previously reported that Oryza sativa VIN3-LIKE 2 ( OsVIL2 ) induces flowering by mediating the trimethylation of Histone H3 on LFL1 chromatin. In this study, we report that OsVIL2 also plays crucial roles during spikelet development. Two independent lines of T-DNA insertional mutants in the gene displayed altered organ numbers and abnormal morphology in all spikelet organs. Scanning electron microscopy showed that osvil2 affected organ primordia formation during early spikelet development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Claus Lang, Lucinda S Smith, Sharon R Long
The formation of nitrogen fixing root nodules by Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti requires communication between both organisms and coordinated differentiation of plant and bacterial cells. After an initial signal exchange, the bacteria invade the tissue of the growing nodule via plant-derived tubular structures, called infection threads. The bacteria are released from the infection threads into invasion-competent plant cells, where they differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Both organisms undergo dramatic transcriptional, metabolic and morphological changes during nodule development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Taeko Kimura, Govinda Sharma, Koichi Ishiguro, Shin-Ichi Hisanaga
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein which regulates the assembly and stability of microtubules in the axons of neurons. Tau is also a major component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), a pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A characteristic of AD tau is hyperphosphorylation with more than 40 phosphorylation sites. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau are also found in other neurodegenerative diseases which are collectively called tauopathies. Although a large number of studies have been performed on the phosphorylation of AD tau, it is not known if there is disease-specific phosphorylation among tauopathies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Simon Andreasen, Qihua Tan, Tina Klitmøller Agander, Petr Steiner, Kristine Bjørndal, Estrid Høgdall, Stine Rosenkilde Larsen, Daiva Erentaite, Caroline Holkmann Olsen, Benedicte Parm Ulhøi, Sarah Linéa von Holstein, Irene Wessel, Steffen Heegaard, Preben Homøe
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason for the different clinical outcomes is unknown...
February 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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