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Morphologic patterns

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053761/the-transcription-factor-prdm16-marks-a-single-retinal-ganglion-cell-subtype-in-the-mouse-retina
#1
Sergio Groman-Lupa, Joseph Adewumi, Ko Uoon Park, Joseph A Brzezinski Iv
Purpose: Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) can be categorized into roughly 30 distinct subtypes. How these subtypes develop is poorly understood, in part because few unique subtype markers have been characterized. We tested whether the Prdm16 transcription factor is expressed by RGCs as a class or within particular ganglion cell subtypes. Methods: Embryonic and mature retinal sections and flatmount preparations were examined by immunohistochemistry for Prdm16 and several other cell type-specific markers...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053749/phylogeography-and-genetic-effects-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-endemic-urophysa-ranunculaceae-in-yungui-plateau-and-adjacent-regions
#2
Deng-Feng Xie, Min-Jie Li, Jin-Bo Tan, Megan Price, Qun-Ying Xiao, Song-Dong Zhou, Yan Yu, Xing-Jin He
Urophysa is a Chinese endemic genus with only two species (U. rockii and U. henryi) distributed in Yungui Plateau (Guizhou Province) and adjacent regions (i.e., Provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Sichuan). The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and population differentiation within Urophysa and investigate the effect of the Yungui Plateau uplift and climate oscillations on evolution of Urophysa. In this study, micro-morphological characteristics, nine microsatellite loci (SSR), two nuclear loci (ITS and ETS) and two chloroplast fragments (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and assess genetic and phylogeographical structure of Urophysa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053547/primary-cutaneous-sarcomatoid-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-positive-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-with-linear-distributional-lesions
#3
Hao Chen, Jing-Shu Xiong, Nan Sheng, Wen-Kai Zong, Yi-Hua Wang, Min Li, Jian-Fang Sun
We report a case of cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) with linear distributional lesions and sarcomatoid histologic features. A sarcomatoid variant is the rarest morphological pattern of ALCL. Interestingly, the morphology of tumor cells in the present case transitioned from a sarcomatoid variant of ALCL at first diagnosis to a classic variant at relapse. The case is a diagnostic challenge considering both the clinical and histologic aspects. Awareness of the sarcomatoid variant of ALCL and its morphological changes can lead to a correct diagnosis...
November 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053435/temporal-occurrence-and-niche-preferences-of-phytophthora-species-causing-brown-rot-of-citrus-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#4
W Hao, Timothy D Miles, Frank N Martin, Greg Browne, Helga Forster, James E Adaskaveg
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate the risk of exporting a quarantine pathogen, the distribution and frequency of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of oranges in major growing areas of California was investigated. Symptomatic fruit were collected from navel (winter to late spring) and Valencia (late spring to summer) orange orchards from 2013 to 2015...
October 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052522/predictors-of-diffuse-alveolar-damage-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-retrospective-analysis-of-clinical-autopsies
#5
Arnaud W Thille, Oscar Peñuelas, José A Lorente, Pilar Fernández-Segoviano, José-Maria Rodriguez, José-Antonio Aramburu, Julian Panizo, Andres Esteban, Fernando Frutos-Vivar
BACKGROUND: Although diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is considered the typical histological pattern of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), only half of patients exhibit this morphological hallmark. Patients with DAD may have higher mortality than those without DAD. Therefore, we aimed to identify the factors associated with DAD in patients with ARDS. METHODS: We analyzed autopsy samples of 356 patients who had ARDS at the time of death. DAD was assessed by two pathologists, and ARDS criteria were evaluated by two intensivists...
October 20, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052321/coenzyme-q10-supplementation-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-bovine-oocytes-bos-taurus-helps-to-preserve-oocyte-integrity-after-vitrification
#6
M Ruiz-Conca, M Vendrell, M Sabés-Alsina, T Mogas, M Lopez-Bejar
Oocyte vitrification causes less cell stress than slow cooling, but cytoskeletal and spindle alterations may occur affecting the oocyte competence. In vitro maturation (IVM) supplementation with different antioxidant molecules has been performed to attenuate this harmful stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation has previously shown to have positive effects in bovine and mouse in vitro embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 during bovine oocyte IVM and vitrification...
October 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052214/quantitative-3d-analysis-of-nuclear-morphology-and-heterochromatin-organization-from-whole-mount-plant-tissue-using-nucleusj
#7
Sophie Desset, Axel Poulet, Christophe Tatout
Image analysis is a classical way to study nuclear organization. While nuclear organization used to be investigated by colorimetric or fluorescent labeling of DNA or specific nuclear compartments, new methods in microscopy imaging now enable qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatin pattern, and nuclear size and shape. Several procedures have been developed to prepare samples in order to collect 3D images for the analysis of spatial chromatin organization, but only few preserve the positional information of the cell within its tissue context...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052103/patterns-of-specificity-and-diversity-in-species-of-paraorygmatobothrium-ruhnke-1994-cestoda-phyllobothriidae-in-moreton-bay-queensland-australia-with-the-description-of-four-new-species
#8
Scott C Cutmore, Michael B Bennett, Terrence L Miller, Thomas H Cribb
A survey of tapeworms of galeomorph sharks from Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) identified a complex of species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 infecting 11 carcharhiniform and two orectolobiform species. Combined morphological and multi-locus molecular analyses (based on the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes) revealed the presence of 12 species of Paraorygmatobothrium; four species (Paraorygmatobothrium christopheri n. sp., P. harti n. sp., P. sinclairtaylori n...
October 19, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051851/biomimetically-engineered-demi-bacteria-potentiate-vaccination-against-cancer
#9
Dezhi Ni, Shuang Qing, Hui Ding, Hua Yue, Di Yu, Shuang Wang, Nana Luo, Zhiguo Su, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Failure in enhancing antigen immunogenicity has limited the development of cancer vaccine. Inspired by effective immune responses toward microorganisms, demi-bacteria (DB) from Bacillus are engineered as carriers for cancer vaccines. The explored hydrothermal treatment enables the Bacillus to preserve optimal pathogen morphology with intrinsic mannose receptor agonist. Meanwhile, the treated Bacillus can be further endowed with ideal hollow/porous structure for efficient accommodation of antigen and adjuvant, such as CpG...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051791/hyalinizing-trabecular-tumor-of-the-thyroid-gland-and-its-significant-diagnostic-issue
#10
Dustin J Jones, Christopher R Kieliszak, Sanjay S Patel, Christopher R Selinsky
BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular tumors (HTT) are rare follicular cell-derived tumors of the thyroid gland that are infrequently reported in otolaryngology literature. We present here an interesting case of HTT which provides the basis for review of this entity's clinical characteristics, criteria useful in making the diagnosis, and any currently available therapeutic modalities. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old Caucasian female underwent a CT scan of her chest and was incidentally found to have a nodule within the right thyroid lobe...
2017: Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051380/recent-natural-selection-causes-adaptive-evolution-of-an-avian-polygenic-trait
#11
Mirte Bosse, Lewis G Spurgin, Veronika N Laine, Ella F Cole, Josh A Firth, Phillip Gienapp, Andrew G Gosler, Keith McMahon, Jocelyn Poissant, Irene Verhagen, Martien A M Groenen, Kees van Oers, Ben C Sheldon, Marcel E Visser, Jon Slate
We used extensive data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major) in the United Kingdom and Netherlands to better understand how genetic signatures of selection translate into variation in fitness and phenotypes. We found that genomic regions under differential selection contained candidate genes for bill morphology and used genetic architecture analyses to confirm that these genes, especially the collagen gene COL4A5, explained variation in bill length. COL4A5 variation was associated with reproductive success, which, combined with spatiotemporal patterns of bill length, suggested ongoing selection for longer bills in the United Kingdom...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050596/morphological-structural-and-functional-properties-of-starch-granules-extracted-from-the-tubers-and-seeds-of-sphenostylis-stenocarpa
#12
Paul Malumba, Lynn Doran, Wilfried Zanmenou, Sylvanus Odjo, Joseph Katanga, Christophe Blecker, François Béra
Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Harms, is a legume widely recognized in Africa for its edible starchy tuber and seeds. In the present morphological, structural and functional properties of starch extracted from the tubers and seeds of a same accession of this plant were characterized and compared. With smaller and more angular granules, tuber starch displayed higher resistance toward amylolysis and gelatinization than seed starch. The amylolysis of seed starch resulted in fragmented granules with typical layered structures of growth rings...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049986/new-diagnostic-criteria-of-polycystic-ovarian-morphology-for-adolescents-impact-on-prevalence-and-hormonal-profile
#13
Paulina M Merino, Claudio Villarroel, Cristián Jesam, Patricia López, Ethel Codner
BACKGROUND: The ultrasonographic criteria used to identify polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) during adolescence have changed over time. Recently, a Worldwide Pediatric Consensus (PedC) defined PCOM using stricter criteria than the previous recommendations of the Rotterdam Consensus (RC) and Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Society (AES/PCOS) criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PCOM in healthy adolescents according to the 3 reported diagnostic criteria and compare the hormonal profile in females with and without PCOM based on the PedC criteria...
October 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049924/equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-endometrial-or-adipose-tissue-share-significant-biological-properties-but-have-distinctive-pattern-of-surface-markers-and-migration
#14
J Cabezas, D Rojas, F Navarrete, R Ortiz, G Rivera, F Saravia, L Rodriguez-Alvarez, F O Castro
Adult stromal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been postulated as responsible for cell renewal in highly and continuously regenerative tissues such as the endometrium. MSCs have been identified in the endometrium of many species including humans, rodents, pets and some farm animals, but not in horses. The objective of this work was to isolate such cells from the endometrium of mares and to compare their main biological attributes with horse adipose-derived MSCs. Here we successfully isolated and characterized endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) from mares...
October 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049301/plant-dna-barcodes-and-assessment-of-phylogenetic-community-structure-of-a-tropical-mixed-dipterocarp-forest-in-brunei-darussalam-borneo
#15
Jacqueline Heckenhauer, Kamariah Abu Salim, Mark W Chase, Kyle G Dexter, R Toby Pennington, Sylvester Tan, Maria Ellen Kaye, Rosabelle Samuel
DNA barcoding is a fast and reliable tool to assess and monitor biodiversity and, via community phylogenetics, to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes that may be responsible for the community structure of forests. In this study, DNA barcodes for the two widely used plastid coding regions rbcL and matK are used to contribute to identification of morphologically undetermined individuals, as well as to investigate phylogenetic structure of tree communities in 70 subplots (10 × 10m) of a 25-ha forest-dynamics plot in Brunei (Borneo, Southeast Asia)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047649/influence-of-periodic-texture-profile-and-parameters-for-enhanced-light-absorption-in-amorphous-silicon-ultra-thin-solar-cells
#16
Shereena Joseph, Joby Joseph
We have investigated the antireflection and light trapping properties of two-dimensional grating arrays in the hexagonal symmetry with various texture morphologies. Optical simulation based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis is carried out to understand the role of the structure profile for different periodicities and heights to achieve enhanced light trapping. The considered active medium of interest is 200-nm-thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Although the considered texture profiles possess an incremental change of refractive index from incident medium to active medium, a parabolic-shaped front side texture provides better antireflection effects owing to its high diffraction efficiencies in the higher-order modes as compared to other pattern morphologies...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047632/slip-free-processing-of-001-silicon-wafers-under-1064%C3%A2-%C3%A2-nm-laser-ablation
#17
Zhichao Jia, Zewen Li, Xueming Lv, Xiaowu Ni
Slip phenomenon on a (001) silicon surface under 1064 nm laser ablation was studied by experiments and simulations. The surface morphologies of the silicon wafers after laser irradiation were observed using an optical microscope. The slip patterns showed that slip that occurred before melting was responsible for a low-quality ablation surface. The slip damage was predicted by a three-dimensional finite element model based on heat transfer and thermoelasticity theory. The judging criterion of slip was explained in detail...
June 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046628/the-human-periallocortex-layer-pattern-in-presubiculum-parasubiculum-and-entorhinal-cortex-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Insausti, Mónica Muñoz-López, Ana M Insausti, Emilio Artacho-Pérula
The cortical mantle is not homogeneous, so that three types of cortex can be distinguished: allocortex, periallocortex and isocortex. The main distinction among those three types is based on morphological differences, in particular the number of layers, overall organization, appearance, etc., as well as its connectivity. Additionally, in the phylogenetic scale, this classification is conserved among different mammals. The most primitive and simple cortex is the allocortex, which is characterized by the presence of three layers, with one cellular main layer; it is continued by the periallocortex, which presents six layers, although with enough differences in the layer pattern to separate three different fields: presubiculum (PrS), parasubiculum (PaS), and entorhinal cortex (EC)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046573/sex-specific-evolution-during-the-diversification-of-live-bearing-fishes
#19
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046549/adult-frogs-and-tadpoles-have-different-macroevolutionary-patterns-across-the-australian-continent
#20
Emma Sherratt, Marta Vidal-García, Marion Anstis, J Scott Keogh
Developmental changes through an animal's life are generally understood to contribute to the resulting adult morphology. Possible exceptions are species with complex life cycles, where individuals pass through distinct ecological and morphological life stages during their ontogeny, ending with metamorphosis to the adult form. Antagonistic selection is expected to drive low genetic correlations between life stages, theoretically permitting stages to evolve independently. Here we describe, using Australian frog radiation, the evolutionary consequences on morphological evolution when life stages are under different selective pressures...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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