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Metaphysics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920716/self-ownership-relational-dignity-and-organ-sales
#1
David Hershenov
Material property has traditionally been conceived of as separable from its owner and thus alienable in an exchange. So it seems that you could sell your watch or even your kidney because it can be removed from your wrist or abdomen and transferred to another. However, if we are each identical to a living human animal, self-ownership is impossible for self-separation is impossible. We thus cannot sell our parts if we don't own the whole that they compose. It would be incoherent to own all of your body's parts but not the whole body; and it would be arbitrary to own some but not all of your removable parts...
June 19, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916931/surgically-relevant-patterns-in-triplane-fractures-a-mapping-study
#2
Matthew J Hadad, Brian T Sullivan, Paul D Sponseller
BACKGROUND: Triplane ankle fractures are complex transitional fractures that often necessitate surgical treatment. Axial fracture lines determine optimal screw trajectories for fixation. The purpose of our study was to identify fracture patterns in triplane fractures by illustrating fracture lines in the axial plane of the distal tibial metaphysis and epiphysis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of children presenting with ankle fractures at 1 center from January 2007 through June 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901242/how-to-make-a-particular-case-for-person-centred-patient-care-a-commentary-on-alexandra-parvan
#3
George Graham
In recent years, a person-centred approach to patient care in cases of mental illness has been promoted as an alternative to a disease orientated approach. Alexandra Parvan's contribution to the person-centred approach serves to motivate an exploration of the approach's most apt metaphysical assumptions. I argue that a metaphysical thesis or assumption about both persons and their uniqueness is an essential element of being person-centred. I apply the assumption to issues such as the disorder/disease distinction and to the continuity of mental health and illness...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892592/double-femoral-osteotomy-fixed-with-a-puddu-plate-and-a-retrograde-intramedullary-nail-to-treat-biapical-deformity-of-the-femur
#4
Patrícia Moreno Grangeiro, Márcia Uchoa de Rezende, Camilo Partezani Helito, Alessandro Monterroso Felix, Guilherme Pereira Ocampos, Roberto Guarniero
Biapical femoral deformities are challenging to treat. In order to correct concomitant metaphyseal and diaphyseal deformities of the femur, the authors propose a double femoral controlled osteotomy with combined internal fixation, consisting of a Puddu plate and an intramedullary nail. The method was described in two patients. Results were analyzed using a visual analog scale (VAS), the Lysholm score, and SF-36. No complications were found. Complete consolidation of the osteotomies and radiographic alignment correction were achieved...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891876/a-three-generation-family-with-metaphyseal-dysplasia-maxillary-hypoplasia-and-brachydactyly-mdmhb-due-to-intragenic-runx2-duplication
#5
Amina Al-Yassin, Alistair D Calder, Mike Harrison, Tracy Lester, Helen Lord, Michael Oldridge, Sophie Watkins, Richard Keen, Emma L Wakeling
Metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly (MDMHB) is an autosomal-dominant skeletal dysplasia characterised by metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, enlargement of the medial halves of the clavicles, maxillary hypoplasia, brachydactyly, dental anomalies and mild osteoporosis. To date, only one large French Canadian family and a Finnish woman have been reported with the condition. In both, intragenic duplication encompassing exons 3-5 of the RUNX2 gene was identified. We describe a new, three-generation family with clinical features of MDMHB and an intragenic tandem duplication of RUNX2 exons 3-6...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884795/further-expansion-of-the-mutational-spectrum-of-spondylo-meta-epiphyseal-dysplasia-with-abnormal-calcification
#6
Gizem Ürel-Demir, Pelin Ozlem Simsek-Kiper, Özlem Akgün-Doğan, Rahşan Göçmen, Zheng Wang, Naomichi Matsumoto, Noriko Miyake, Gülen Eda Utine, Gen Nishimura, Shiro Ikegawa, Koray Boduroglu
Spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the skeleton characterized by disproportionate short stature with narrow chest and dysmorphic facial features. The skeletal manifestations include platyspondyly, short flared ribs, short tubular bones with abnormal metaphyses and epiphyses, severe brachydactyly, and premature stippled calcifications in the cartilage. The abnormal calcifications are so distinctive as to point to the definitive diagnosis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883199/bone-bruise-patterns-in-skeletally-immature-patients-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-shock-absorbing-function-of-the-physis
#7
João V Novaretti, Jason J Shin, Marcio Albers, Monique C Chambers, Moises Cohen, Volker Musahl, Freddie H Fu
BACKGROUND: Bone bruises are frequently found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and have been related to the force associated with the trauma. Yet, little is known about the bone bruise distribution pattern of skeletally immature (SI) patients, as the presence of an open physis may play a role in energy dissipation given its unique structure. PURPOSE: To describe and compare the location and distribution of tibial and femoral bone bruises, observed on MRI, between 2 groups of ACL-injured knees: the first group with an open physis and the second with a closed physis...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881205/distal-tibial-metaphyseal-allograft-cone-for-proximal-tibial-bone-loss-in-revision-knee-arthroplasty-a-novel-technique
#8
Rajesh Malhotra, Vijay Kumar Jain, Deepak Gautam
Large bone defects in femur or tibia are common at the setting of revision knee arthroplasty. Filling up the defect remains a challenging problem to the orthopaedic surgeons. A variety of options are available to fill up these defects depending upon the type of defect. We report a case of large contained defect in proximal tibia managed with distal tibial metaphyseal allograft cone. We also discuss the operative details and the advantages of using the allograft.
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878978/intracapsular-cuneiform-osteotomy-compared-with-in-situ-pinning-for-the-management-of-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis
#9
Junting Zang, Katsufumi Uchiyama, Mitsutoshi Moriya, Zhengwei Li, Kensuke Fukushima, Takeaki Yamamoto, Jianguo Liu, Wei Feng, Naonobu Takahira, Masashi Takaso
Intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy was initially introduced to restore the morphology of the proximal femur after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, whether this procedure results in a higher risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) or lower incidence of cam deformity than in-situ pinning is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy and in-situ pinning to treat SCFE in children. Twenty-three children who suffered from SCFE underwent either intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy (eight patients, eight hips) or in-situ pinning (15 patients, 18 hips) between 2006 and 2014...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877765/from-believing-to-belief-a-general-theoretical-model
#10
Rüdiger J Seitz, Raymond F Paloutzian, Hans-Ferdinand Angel
Cognitive neuroscience research has begun to explore the mental processes underlying what a belief and what believing is. Recent evidence suggests that believing involves fundamental brain functions that result in meaningful probabilistic representations, called beliefs. When relatively stable, these beliefs allow for guidance of behavior in individuals and social groups. However, they are also fluid and can be modified by new relevant information, interpersonal contact, social pressure, and situational demands...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877725/ontological-addiction-theory-attachment-to-me-mine-and-i
#11
William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Sofiane Diouri, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Yasuhiro Kotera, Mark D Griffiths
Background Ontological addiction theory (OAT) is a novel metaphysical model of psychopathology and posits that human beings are prone to forming implausible beliefs concerning the way they think they exist, and that these beliefs can become addictive leading to functional impairments and mental illness. The theoretical underpinnings of OAT derive from the Buddhist philosophical perspective that all phenomena, including the self, do not manifest inherently or independently. Aims and methods This paper outlines the theoretical foundations of OAT along with indicative supportive empirical evidence from studies evaluating meditation awareness training as well as studies investigating non-attachment, emptiness, compassion, and loving-kindness...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861663/a-method-to-facilitate-improved-positioning-of-a-reverse-prosthesis-stem-during-arthroplasty-surgery-the-metaphyseal-centering-technique
#12
C Scott Humphrey, Jonathan T Bravman
Because humeral head offset values vary widely from patient to patient, the final position of the proximal portion of a stemmed humeral prosthesis will sometimes not align well with respect to the center of rotation of the humeral head. This is especially notable when a humeral component with limited modularity is used. To address this problem, a prosthesis-specific method is presented for orienting a reverse shoulder humeral component (AltiVate Reverse, DJO Surgical, Austin, TX). With the metaphyseal-centering technique, priority is given to the positioning of the shell portion of the prosthesis over that of the stemmed portion during bone preparation...
June 2018: Techniques in Shoulder & Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858837/shoulder-arthroplasty-using-mini-stem-humeral-components-and-a-lesser-tuberosity-osteotomy
#13
E M Guerrero, M P Morwood, R A Kankaria, P S Johnston, G E Garrigues
PURPOSE: To determine whether lesser tuberosity osteotomy (LTO) and mini-stem humeral components (MSHCs) can be safely and effectively used together in total and hemi-shoulder arthroplasty (TSA/HHA). METHODS: This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA/HHA utilizing combined LTO/MSHC with minimum 2-year follow-up. Six-week and final radiographs, range of motion, pain scores, and selected outcome measures were assessed. RESULTS: Seventy five shoulders with mean follow-up of 27...
June 1, 2018: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851089/effects-of-selective-breeding-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-on-femoral-nutrient-canal-size-and-abundance-in-house-mice
#14
Nicolas L Schwartz, Biren A Patel, Theodore Garland, Angela M Horner
Bone modeling and remodeling are aerobic processes that entail relatively high oxygen demands. Long bones receive oxygenated blood from nutrient arteries, epiphyseal-metaphyseal arteries, and periosteal arteries, with the nutrient artery supplying the bulk of total blood volume in mammals (~ 50-70%). Estimates of blood flow into these bones can be made from the dimensions of the nutrient canal, through which nutrient arteries pass. Unfortunately, measuring these canal dimensions non-invasively (i.e. without physical sectioning) is difficult, and thus researchers have relied on more readily visible skeletal proxies...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848366/effect-of-bisphosphonates-on-periprosthetic-bone-loss-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Mingmin Shi, Lei Chen, Haobo Wu, Yangxin Wang, Wei Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shigui Yan
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening and osteolysis are the most common indications after TKA for revision surgery. This meta-analysis which included high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to analyze the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on maintaining periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: PubMed, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, ISI Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were systematically searched, five RCTs were included and the total number of participants was 188...
May 30, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845317/metaphyseal-sleeves-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-revision-complications-clinical-and-radiological-results-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Andrea Zanirato, Luca Cavagnaro, Marco Basso, Stefano Divano, Lamberto Felli, Matteo Formica
INTRODUCTION: Total knee arthroplasty revision (TKAr) is increasing of relevance in orthopaedic surgeon daily practice and will become more and more relevant in the future. The aim of this study is to summarize indications, complications, clinical and radiological mid-term results of metaphyseal sleeves in management of bone defects in TKAr. METHODS: A systematic review of English literature was performed on Medline. Retrospective or prospective studies with 2 years of follow-up (FU) were included...
May 29, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809308/unity-of-consciousness
#17
REVIEW
Christopher S Hill
Although there is much talk in various literatures of streams of consciousness, and most of us have an intuitive understanding of such talk, we are far from having a full grasp of what it is that unifies streams of consciousness, binding together the individual experiences that serve as their constituents. In recent years, discussion of this topic has been principally concerned with synchronic unity of consciousness-the form of unity that is exhibited by momentary states of consciousness, or in other words, by time slices or temporal segments of streams...
May 29, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808374/ficus-deltoidea-prevented-bone-loss-in-preclinical-osteoporosis-osteoarthritis-model-by-suppressing-inflammation
#18
Nur Adeelah Che Ahmad Tantowi, Seng Fong Lau, Suhaila Mohamed
Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are debilitating musculoskeletal diseases of the elderly. Ficus deltoidea (FD) or mistletoe fig, a medicinal plant, was pre-clinically evaluated against OP- and OA-related bone alterations, in postmenopausal OA rat model. Thirty twelfth-week-old female rats were divided into groups (n = 6). Four groups were bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) and OA-induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joints. The Sham control and OVX-OA non-treated groups were given deionized water...
May 28, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806310/-research-progress-on-hyperextension-tibial-plateau-fractures
#19
REVIEW
Shimin Zhang, Sunjun Hu, Shouchao Du, Zhuo Ma
Objective: To summarize the progress in the treatment of hyperextension tibial plateau fractures. Methods: Related literature concerning hyperextension tibial plateau fractures was reviewed and analyzed in terms of injury mechanisms, clinical patterns, and treatment outcomes. Results: Hyperextension tibial plateau fractures is a specific type of hyperextension knee injuries, which is happened with the knee in over-extended position (<0°) and characterized by fracture and concomitant ligament injury...
April 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794404/mongolian-medicine-echinops-prevented-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-and-induced-er-akt-erk-pathway-in-bmscs
#20
Yan Liu, Xiongyao Wang, Hong Chang, Xiaoming Gao, Chongyang Dong, Zimu Li, Jingtao Hao, Jiuhe Wang, Qiaoling Fan
Hormone replacement medicine such as traditional Chinese medicine has proven to be effective in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis. Mongolian medicine echinops prevents osteoporosis, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism underlying echinops prevents and treats postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis model was established by ovariectomy in rats. Rats were treated to Echinops (16.26, 32.5, or 65 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 3 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was detected by micro-CT detection of left proximal medial metaphyseal tibia...
May 22, 2018: Bioscience Trends
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