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Transitional b cell infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#1
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798726/systems-biology-analysis-of-temporal-in-vivo-brucella-melitensis-and-bovine-transcriptomes-predicts-host-pathogen-protein-protein-interactions
#2
Carlos A Rossetti, Kenneth L Drake, Sara D Lawhon, Jairo S Nunes, Tamara Gull, Sangeeta Khare, Leslie G Adams
To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the "Two component system" providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#3
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
August 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764320/lipoteichoic-acid-isolated-from-staphylococcus-aureus-induces-both-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-wound-healing-in-hacat-cells
#4
Seongjae Kim, Hyeoung-Eun Kim, Boyeon Kang, Youn-Woo Lee, Hangeun Kim, Dae Kyun Chung
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is recognized by toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, expressed on certain mammalian cell surfaces, initiating signaling cascades that include nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). There are many structural and functional varieties of LTA, which vary according to the different species of gram-positive bacteria which produce them. In this study, we examined whether LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) affects the expression of junction proteins in keratinocytes...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755938/effects-of-photoperiod-modulation-and-melatonin-feeding-around-drying-off-on-bovine-mammary-gland-involution
#5
B Ponchon, P Lacasse, S Ollier, X Zhao
The risk for a dairy cow to acquire new intramammary infections is high during the transition from lactation to the dry period, because of udder engorgement and altered immune functions. Once the gland is fully involuted, it becomes much more resistant to intramammary infections. Therefore, strategies to depress milk yield before drying-off and accelerate the involution process after drying-off could be beneficial for udder health. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod manipulation and melatonin feeding from 14 d before to 14 d after drying-off on the speed of the involution process...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725056/serum-albumin-and-osmolality-inhibit-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum
#6
Hansol Im, Sangmo Son, Robert J Mitchell, Cheol-Min Ghim
We evaluated the bactericidal activity of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, strain HD100, within blood sera against bacterial strains commonly associated with bacteremic infections, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. Tests show that B. bacteriovorus HD100 is not susceptible to serum complement or its bactericidal activity. After a two hour exposure to human sera, the prey populations decreased 15- to 7,300-fold due to the serum complement activity while, in contrast, the B. bacteriovorus HD100 population showed a loss of only 33%...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695856/crystal-structure-of-yersinia-pestis-virulence-factor-yfea-reveals-two-polyspecific-metal-binding-sites
#7
Christopher D Radka, Lawrence J DeLucas, Landon S Wilson, Matthew B Lawrenz, Robert D Perry, Stephen G Aller
Gram-negative bacteria use siderophores, outer membrane receptors, inner membrane transporters and substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) to transport transition metals through the periplasm. The SBPs share a similar protein fold that has undergone significant structural evolution to communicate with a variety of differentially regulated transporters in the cell. In Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, YfeA (YPO2439, y1897), an SBP, is important for full virulence during mammalian infection. To better understand the role of YfeA in infection, crystal structures were determined under several environmental conditions with respect to transition-metal levels...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674069/cyclic-di-gmp-and-vpsr-induce-the-expression-of-type-ii-secretion-in-vibrio-cholerae
#8
Rudolph E Sloup, Ashley E Konal, Geoffrey B Severin, Michelle L Korir, Mira M Bagdasarian, Michael Bagdasarian, Christopher M Waters
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen which alternates between growth in environmental reservoirs and infection of human hosts causing severe diarrhea. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) mediates this transition by controlling a wide range of functions such as biofilms, virulence, and motility. Here we report that c-di-GMP induces expression of the extracellular protein secretion (eps) gene cluster, which encodes the Type II Secretion System (T2SS) in V. cholerae Analysis of the eps genes confirmed the presence of two promoters located upstream of epsC, the first gene in the operon, one of which is induced by c-di-GMP...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664988/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-tumor-initiating-cancer-stem-like-cells-activate-stromal-fibroblasts-in-xenograft-tumor-model
#9
Reina Sasaki, Pradip Devhare, Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often causes persistent infection, and is an increasingly important factor in the etiology of fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the mechanisms for the disease processes remain unclear. We have shown previously that HCV infection generates epithelial mesenchymal transition state (EMT) and tumor initiating cancer stem-like cells (TISCs) in human hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated whether HCV induced TISC when implanted into mice activate stromal fibroblasts...
June 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#10
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in macrophages...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582758/rheumatoid-arthritis-recent-advances-on-its-etiology-role-of-cytokines-and-pharmacotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Javaid Alam, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
An autoimmune disease is defined as a clinical syndrome resulted from an instigation of both T cell and B cell or individually, in the absence of any present infection or any sort of distinguishable cause. Clonal deletion of auto reactive cells remains the central canon of immunology for decades, keeping the role of T cell and B cell aside, which are actually the guards to recognize the entry of foreign body. According to NIH, 23.5 million Americans are all together affected by these diseases. They are rare, but with the exception of RA...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552321/vital-role-for-cyclophilin-b-cypb-in-asexual-development-dimorphic-transition-and-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana
#12
Zhen-Jian Chu, Huan-Huan Sun, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Cyclophilin B (CypB) was previously revealed as one of many putative secretory proteins in the transcriptome of Beauveria bassiana infection to a lepidopteran pest. Here we show a main localization of CypB in hyphal cell walls and septa and its essential role in the in vitro and in vivo asexual cycles of the fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of cypB reduced colony growth by 16-42% on two rich media and 30 scant media with different carbon or nitrogen sources. The deletion mutant suffered a delayed conidiation on a standard medium and a final 47% reduction in conidial yield, accompanied with drastic transcript depression of several key genes required for conidiation and conidial maturation...
August 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530155/an-oncolytic-adenovirus-encoding-decorin-and-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-colorectal-tumor-model-by-targeting-pro-tumorigenic-signals-and-via-immune-activation
#13
Zhao Liu, Yuefeng Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hao Wang, Weidong Xu, Hua Wang, Fengjun Xiao, Zhigang Bai, Hongwei Yao, Xuemei Ma, Lan Jin, Chutse Wu, Prem Seth, Zhongtao Zhang, Lisheng Wang
In advanced and metastatic stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), reduced sensitivity to conventional strategies is still a major obstacle to successful treatments. Decorin is an important regulator in the development and progression of various cancers. To examine if CRC patients have altered decorin levels, expression of decorin and its target genes, Met and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), were analyzed in their tumors. Compared to normal tissues, decorin expression was reduced in CRC patients' tumors, while there were increased Met and VEGFA levels...
August 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524628/myenteric-neuroprotective-role-of-aspirin-in-acute-and-chronic-experimental-infections-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#14
J Y Oda, M O Belém, T M Carlos, R Gouveia, B F C Luchetti, N M Moreira, C L Massocatto, S M Araújo, D M G Sant Ana, N C Buttow, P Pinge-Filho, E J A Araújo
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown that myenteric neuron cell death during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi mainly occurs in the esophagus and colon, resulting in megaesophagus and megacolon, respectively. Evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is involved in the T. cruzi invasion process. The use of low-dose aspirin (ASA), a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce infection with T. cruzi. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with low-dose ASA on myenteric colonic neurons during murine infection with T...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505405/structural-basis-for-xenosiderophore-utilization-by-the-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Nathaniel P Endicott, Eries Lee, Timothy A Wencewicz
Staphylococcus aureus produces a cocktail of metallophores (staphylopine, staphyloferrin A, and staphyloferrin B) to scavenge transition metals during infection of a host. In addition, S. aureus displays the extracellular surface lipoproteins FhuD1 and FhuD2 along with the ABC transporter complex FhuCBG to facilitate the use of hydroxamate xenosiderophores such as desferrioxamine B (DFOB) for iron acquisition. DFOB is used as a chelation therapy to treat human iron overload diseases and has been linked to an increased risk of S...
July 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492809/serum-microrna-30c-levels-are-correlated-with-disease-progression-in-xinjiang-uygur-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
J Zhang, J Ma, H Wang, L Guo, J Li
We aimed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) in the pathological development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The serum levels of miR-30c in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier Xinjiang Uygur patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive CHB were investigated. HepG2 cells were co-transfected with pHBV1.3 and miR-30c mimic or inhibitor or scramble RNA. The effects of miR-30c dysregulation on HBV replication and gene expression, cell proliferation and cell cycle were then investigated...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476157/microglia-amplify-inflammatory-activation-of-astrocytes-in-manganese-neurotoxicity
#17
Kelly S Kirkley, Katriana A Popichak, Maryam F Afzali, Marie E Legare, Ronald B Tjalkens
BACKGROUND: As the primary immune response cell in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the microenvironment and respond rapidly to stress, infection, and injury, making them important modulators of neuroinflammatory responses. In diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-induced dementia, activation of microglia precedes astrogliosis and overt neuronal loss. Although microgliosis is implicated in manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity, the role of microglia and glial crosstalk in Mn-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431528/diagnostic-performance-of-the-urinary-canine-calgranulins-in-dogs-with-lower-urinary-or-urogenital-tract-carcinoma
#18
Romy M Heilmann, Elizabeth A McNiel, Niels Grützner, David J Lanerie, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of TCC/PCA and improve patient survival would be useful. S100A8/A9 (calgranulin A/B or calprotectin) and S100A12 (calgranulin C) are expressed by cells of the innate immune system and are associated with several inflammatory disorders. S100A8/A9 is also expressed by epithelial cells after malignant transformation and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis...
April 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425914/epstein-barr-virus-ensures-b-cell-survival-by-uniquely-modulating-apoptosis-at-early-and-late-times-after-infection
#19
Alexander M Price, Joanne Dai, Quentin Bazot, Luv Patel, Pavel A Nikitin, Reza Djavadian, Peter S Winter, Cristina A Salinas, Ashley Perkins Barry, Kris C Wood, Eric C Johannsen, Anthony Letai, Martin J Allday, Micah A Luftig
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFκB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFκB early after infection...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420878/synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-silver-transition-metal-combinatorial-treatments
#20
Javier A Garza-Cervantes, Arturo Chávez-Reyes, Elena C Castillo, Gerardo García-Rivas, Oscar Antonio Ortega-Rivera, Eva Salinas, Margarita Ortiz-Martínez, Sara Leticia Gómez-Flores, Jorge A Peña-Martínez, Alan Pepi-Molina, Mario T Treviño-González, Xristo Zarate, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Carlos Enrique Escarcega-Gonzalez, J Rubén Morones-Ramírez
Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, development of novel antibiotics has become a critical issue. One promising approach is the use of transition metals, since they exhibit rapid and significant toxicity, at low concentrations, in prokaryotic cells. Nevertheless, one main drawback of transition metals is their toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that the barriers to use them as therapeutic agents could be mitigated by combining them with silver. We demonstrate that synergism of combinatorial treatments (Silver/transition metals, including Zn, Co, Cd, Ni, and Cu) increases up to 8-fold their antimicrobial effect, when compared to their individual effects, against E...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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