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Transitional b cell infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051495/the-%C3%AE-20-%C3%AE-21-of-gp120-is-a-regulatory-switch-for-hiv-1-env-conformational-transitions
#1
Alon Herschhorn, Christopher Gu, Francesca Moraca, Xiaochu Ma, Mark Farrell, Amos B Smith, Marie Pancera, Peter D Kwong, Arne Schön, Ernesto Freire, Cameron Abrams, Scott C Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Joseph G Sodroski
The entry of HIV-1 into target cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env). Binding to the CD4 receptor triggers a cascade of conformational changes in distant domains that move Env from a functionally "closed" State 1 to more "open" conformations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric regulation of these transitions are still elusive. Here, we develop chemical probes that block CD4-induced conformational changes in Env and use them to identify a potential control switch for Env structural rearrangements...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045905/transcriptional-reprogramming-during-effector-to-memory-transition-renders-cd4-t-cells-permissive-for-latent-hiv-1-infection
#2
Liang Shan, Kai Deng, Hongbo Gao, Sifei Xing, Adam A Capoferri, Christine M Durand, S Alireza Rabi, Gregory M Laird, Michelle Kim, Nina N Hosmane, Hung-Chih Yang, Hao Zhang, Joseph B Margolick, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Ruian Ke, Richard A Flavell, Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4(+) T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029702/lysyl-trna-synthetase-krs-acts-a-virulence-factor-of-beauveria-bassiana-by-its-vital-role-in-conidial-germination-and-dimorphic-transition
#3
Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967173/daylight-length-dependent-translocation-of-vivid-photoreceptor-in-cells-and-its-essential-role-in-conidiation-and-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana
#4
Sen-Miao Tong, An-Xue Zhang, Chong-Tao Guo, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
The fungal insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana has the blue-light photoreceptor VIVID (VVD) but lacks a pigmentation pattern to trace its light responses. Here we show that the fungal vvd is transcriptionally expressed, and linked to other blue/red photoreceptor genes, in a daylight length-dependent manner. GFP-tagged VVD fusion protein was localized to periphery, cytoplasm and vacuoles of hyphal cells in light/dark (L:D) cycles of 24:0 and 16:8 and aggregated in cytoplasm with shortening daylight until transfer into nuclei in full darkness...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949280/childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-in-tropical-africa-then-and-now
#5
Wasiu A Olowu, Adebowale Ademola, Adebukola B Ajite, Yauba M Saad
This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0.35-1.34% of hospital admissions. Median age at onset of NS ranged between 4.0 and 12.0 years while the mean (SD) age range was 5.8 (3...
September 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927132/downregulation-of-esophageal-cancer-related-gene-4-promotes-proliferation-and-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Shujian Ge, Yali Xu, Hongliang Wang, Yaxin Sun, Xiangguo Tian, Zhixin Cao, Xiaoyan Lin, Jiawen Xu, Qiangxiu Wang
Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in cell apoptosis, migration, infection and inflammation responsiveness; however, its expression level and clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, the authors aim to evaluate the clinical significance and potential role of ECRG4 in HCC. Level of ECRG4 protein expression in HCC and peripheral tissues was investigated in tissue specimens obtained from 56 consecutive HCC patients by immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921048/antibacterial-and-antitumor-activity-of-bogorol-b-jx-isolated-from-brevibacillus-laterosporus-jx-5
#7
Hongxia Jiang, Chao Ji, Junkang Sui, Rongbo Sa, Xiaohui Wang, Xunli Liu, Tai L Guo
Antimicrobial peptides are promising anti-infective agent candidates because they have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and bioactivity and are unlikely to elicit antibiotic resistance. The bogorols represent a new cationic antibiotic peptide and possess great therapeutic potential because of their bioactivity and precise mode of action. Here, we report that Bogorol B-JX (BBJX), a peptide previously isolated from Brevibacillus laterosporus JX-5 by us, has significant antibacterial and antitumor activities in vitro...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912017/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-increased-in-human-gastric-pre-neoplasia-promotes-inflammation-and-metaplasia-in-mice-and-is-associated-with-type-ii-hypersensitivity-autoimmunity
#8
Mohamad El-Zaatari, Adam J Bass, Reanne Bowlby, Min Zhang, Li-Jyun Syu, Yitian Yang, Helmut Grasberger, Andrew Shreiner, Bei Tan, Shrinivas Bishu, Wai K Leung, Andrea Todisco, Nobuhiko Kamada, Marilia Cascalho, Andrzej A Dlugosz, John Y Kao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation increases the risk of cancer by mechanisms that are not well understood. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a heme-binding enzyme that regulates the immune response via catabolization and regulation of tryptophan availability for immune cell uptake. IDO1 expression is increased during the transition from chronic inflammation to gastric metaplasia. We investigated whether IDO1 contributes to the inflammatory response that mediates loss of parietal cells leading to metaplasia...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861399/overexpression-of-adenylyl-cyclase-encoded-by-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2212-gene-confers-improved-fitness-accelerated-recovery-from-dormancy-and-enhanced-virulence-in-mice
#9
Margarita O Shleeva, Tatyana K Kondratieva, Galina R Demina, Elvira I Rubakova, Anna V Goncharenko, Alexander S Apt, Arseny S Kaprelyants
Earlier we demonstrated that the adenylyl cyclase (AC) encoded by the MSMEG_4279 gene plays a key role in the resuscitation and growth of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis and that overexpression of this gene leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration and prevents the transition of M. smegmatis from active growth to dormancy in an extended stationary phase accompanied by medium acidification. We surmised that the homologous Rv2212 gene of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), the main cAMP producer, plays similar physiological roles by supporting, under these conditions, the active state and reactivation of dormant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842185/early-diagnosis-of-pi3k%C3%AE-syndrome-in-a-2-years-old-girl-with-recurrent-otitis-and-enlarged-spleen
#10
F Saettini, M A Pelagatti, D Sala, D Moratto, S Giliani, R Badolato, A Biondi
Heterozygous gain of function mutations in the gene encoding p110δ subunit of PI3K have been recently associated with activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. Here we report a dominant gain of function PIK3CD mutation (E1021K) in a patient presenting with recurrent otitis media, massive splenomegaly, and persistent EBV-viraemia...
August 31, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#11
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798726/systems-biology-analysis-of-temporal-in-vivo-brucella-melitensis-and-bovine-transcriptomes-predicts-host-pathogen-protein-protein-interactions
#12
Carlos A Rossetti, Kenneth L Drake, Sara D Lawhon, Jairo S Nunes, Tamara Gull, Sangeeta Khare, Leslie G Adams
To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the "Two component system" providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#13
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764320/lipoteichoic-acid-isolated-from-staphylococcus-aureus-induces-both-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-wound-healing-in-hacat-cells
#14
Seongjae Kim, Hyeoung-Eun Kim, Boyeon Kang, Youn-Woo Lee, Hangeun Kim, Dae Kyun Chung
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2, expressed on certain mammalian cell surfaces, initiating signaling cascades that include nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. There are many structural and functional varieties of LTA, which vary according to the different species of gram-positive bacteria that produce them. In this study, we examined whether LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) affects the expression of junction proteins in keratinocytes...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755938/effects-of-photoperiod-modulation-and-melatonin-feeding-around-drying-off-on-bovine-mammary-gland-involution
#15
B Ponchon, P Lacasse, S Ollier, X Zhao
The risk for a dairy cow to acquire new intramammary infections is high during the transition from lactation to the dry period, because of udder engorgement and altered immune functions. Once the gland is fully involuted, it becomes much more resistant to intramammary infections. Therefore, strategies to depress milk yield before drying-off and accelerate the involution process after drying-off could be beneficial for udder health. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod manipulation and melatonin feeding from 14 d before to 14 d after drying-off on the speed of the involution process...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725056/serum-albumin-and-osmolality-inhibit-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum
#16
Hansol Im, Sangmo Son, Robert J Mitchell, Cheol-Min Ghim
We evaluated the bactericidal activity of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, strain HD100, within blood sera against bacterial strains commonly associated with bacteremic infections, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. Tests show that B. bacteriovorus HD100 is not susceptible to serum complement or its bactericidal activity. After a two hour exposure to human sera, the prey populations decreased 15- to 7,300-fold due to the serum complement activity while, in contrast, the B. bacteriovorus HD100 population showed a loss of only 33%...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695856/crystal-structure-of-yersinia-pestis-virulence-factor-yfea-reveals-two-polyspecific-metal-binding-sites
#17
Christopher D Radka, Lawrence J DeLucas, Landon S Wilson, Matthew B Lawrenz, Robert D Perry, Stephen G Aller
Gram-negative bacteria use siderophores, outer membrane receptors, inner membrane transporters and substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) to transport transition metals through the periplasm. The SBPs share a similar protein fold that has undergone significant structural evolution to communicate with a variety of differentially regulated transporters in the cell. In Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, YfeA (YPO2439, y1897), an SBP, is important for full virulence during mammalian infection. To better understand the role of YfeA in infection, crystal structures were determined under several environmental conditions with respect to transition-metal levels...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674069/cyclic-di-gmp-and-vpsr-induce-the-expression-of-type-ii-secretion-in-vibrio-cholerae
#18
Rudolph E Sloup, Ashley E Konal, Geoffrey B Severin, Michelle L Korir, Mira M Bagdasarian, Michael Bagdasarian, Christopher M Waters
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen that alternates between growth in environmental reservoirs and infection of human hosts, causing severe diarrhea. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) mediates this transition by controlling a wide range of functions, such as biofilms, virulence, and motility. Here, we report that c-di-GMP induces expression of the extracellular protein secretion (eps) gene cluster, which encodes the type II secretion system (T2SS) in V. cholerae Analysis of the eps genes confirmed the presence of two promoters located upstream of epsC, the first gene in the operon, one of which is induced by c-di-GMP...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664988/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-tumor-initiating-cancer-stem-like-cells-activate-stromal-fibroblasts-in-xenograft-tumor-model
#19
Reina Sasaki, Pradip Devhare, Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) often causes persistent infection, and is an increasingly important factor in the etiology of fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the mechanisms for the disease processes remain unclear. We have shown previously that HCV infection generates epithelial mesenchymal transition state (EMT) and tumor initiating cancer stem-like cells (TISCs) in human hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated whether HCV induced TISC when implanted into mice activate stromal fibroblasts...
June 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#20
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in macrophages...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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