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Transitional b cell infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259089/peptide-uptake-is-essential-for-borrelia-burgdorferi-viability-and-involves-structural-and-regulatory-complexity-of-its-oligopeptide-transporter
#1
Ashley M Groshong, Abhishek Dey, Irina Bezsonova, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf
Borrelia burgdorferi is an extreme amino acid (AA) auxotroph whose genome encodes few free AA transporters and an elaborate oligopeptide transport system (B. burgdorferi Opp [BbOpp]). BbOpp consists of five oligopeptide-binding proteins (OBPs), two heterodimeric permeases, and a heterodimeric nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of liganded BbOppA4 revealed that each OBP likely binds a distinct range of peptides. Transcriptional analyses demonstrated that the OBPs are differentially and independently regulated whereas the permeases and NBDs are constitutively expressed...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251627/pbx-transcription-factors-drive-pulmonary-vascular-adaptation-to-birth
#2
David J McCulley, Mark D Wienhold, Elizabeth A Hines, Timothy A Hacker, Allison Rogers, Ryan J Pewowaruk, Rediet Zewdu, Naomi C Chesler, Licia Selleri, Xin Sun
A critical event in the adaptation to extrauterine life is relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature at birth, allowing for a rapid increase in pulmonary blood flow that is essential for efficient gas exchange. Failure of this transition leads to pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major cause of newborn mortality associated with preterm birth, infection, hypoxia, and malformations including congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). While individual vasoconstrictor and dilator genes have been identified, the coordination of their expression is not well understood...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242186/biased-igh-vdj-gene-repertoire-and-clonal-expansions-in-b-cells-of-chronically-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals
#3
Felicia A Tucci, Simo Kitanovski, Patricia Johansson, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Alisan Kahraman, Jan Dürig, Daniel Hoffmann, Ralf Küppers
Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently develop mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), a monoclonal expansion of IgM+ autoreactive B cells, and also have an increased B cell lymphoma risk. Whether HCV infection also impacts the B cell compartment and the B cell receptor repertoire in patients not affected by MC or lymphomas is poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood B cells of 30 MC-negative HCV-infected patients and 15 healthy controls revealed that frequencies of class-switched memory B cells were increased in the patients, whereas frequencies of transitional and naive B cells were decreased...
December 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240831/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-virulent-and-non-virulent-trypanosoma-cruzi-underlines-the-role-of-surface-proteins-during-infection
#4
A Trey Belew, Caroline Junqueira, Gabriela F Rodrigues-Luiz, Bruna M Valente, Antonio Edson R Oliveira, Rafael B Polidoro, Luciana W Zuccherato, Daniella C Bartholomeu, Sergio Schenkman, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Barbara A Burleigh, Najib M El-Sayed, Santuza M R Teixeira
Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle involving several morphologically and biochemically distinct stages that establish intricate interactions with various insect and mammalian hosts. It has also a heterogeneous population structure comprising strains with distinct properties such as virulence, sensitivity to drugs, antigenic profile and tissue tropism. We present a comparative transcriptome analysis of two cloned T. cruzi strains that display contrasting virulence phenotypes in animal models of infection: CL Brener is a virulent clone and CL-14 is a clone that is neither infective nor pathogenic in in vivo models of infection...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218031/crispr-cas-systems-in-bacteroides-fragilis-an-important-pathobiont-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#5
Mehrdad Tajkarimi, Hannah M Wexler
Background: While CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in bacteria from a wide variety of ecological niches, there are no studies to describe CRISPR-Cas elements in Bacteroides species, the most prevalent anaerobic bacteria in the lower intestinal tract. Microbes of the genus Bacteroides make up ~25% of the total gut microbiome. Bacteroides fragilis comprises only 2% of the total Bacteroides in the gut, yet causes of >70% of Bacteroides infections. The factors causing it to transition from benign resident of the gut microbiome to virulent pathogen are not well understood, but a combination of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of virulence genes and differential transcription of endogenous genes are clearly involved...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194121/hiv-infected-cannabis-users-have-lower-circulating-cd16-monocytes-and-ip-10-levels-compared-to-non-using-hiv-patients
#6
Michael D Rizzo, Robert B Crawford, Joseph E Henriquez, Yasser Aldhamen, Peter Gulick, Andrea Amalfitano, Norbert E Kaminski
OBJECTIVE: Chronic immune activation and elevated numbers of circulating activated monocytes (CD16) are implicated in HIV-associated neuroinflammation. The objective was to compare the level of circulating CD16 monocytes and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) between HIV-infected cannabis users (HIV+MJ+) and non-cannabis users (HIV+MJ-), and determine whether in vitro Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a constituent of cannabis, affected CD16 expression as well as IP-10 production by monocytes...
November 30, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193612/a-direct-role-for-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-in-inducing-mitochondrial-membrane-permeabilization
#7
Hye-Ra Lee, Young Youn Cho, Gi Young Lee, Deok-Gyun You, Young Do Yoo, Yoon Jun Kim
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) acts as a multifunctional protein that regulates intracellular signaling pathways during HBV infection. It has mainly been studied in terms of its interaction with cellular proteins. Here, we show that HBx induces membrane permeabilization independently of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex. We generated mitochondrial outer membrane-mimic liposomes to observe the direct effects of HBx on membranes. We found that HBx induced membrane permeabilization, and the region comprising the transmembrane domain and the mitochondrial targeting sequence was sufficient for this process...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174817/-bladder-cancer-in-neurogenic-patients-a-retrospective-study-of-management-and-follow-up
#8
P Ali, C Lefevre, B Perrouin-Verbe, L Le Normand, J Rigaud, O Bouchot, A Levesque, M-A Perrouin-Verbe
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of bladder cancer (BC) in neurological patients seems to be similar to that of the general population. However, they are more aggressive with a higher rate of muscle-invasive forms and squamous cells carcinomas. The aim of the current study was to report etiologies, management and outcomes of BC in neurological population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Were enrolled all neurological patients with a BC diagnosed between 2004 and 2017. The following data were retrospectively reported: age, gender, duration of the disease, mode of discovery, histological type, treatment and outcomes...
November 22, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170366/initiation-of-hiv-neutralizing-b-cell-lineages-with-sequential-envelope-immunizations
#9
Wilton B Williams, Jinsong Zhang, Chuancang Jiang, Nathan I Nicely, Daniela Fera, Kan Luo, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, S Munir Alam, Thomas B Kepler, Akshaya Ramesh, Kevin Wiehe, James A Holland, Todd Bradley, Nathan Vandergrift, Kevin O Saunders, Robert Parks, Andrew Foulger, Shi-Mao Xia, Mattia Bonsignori, David C Montefiori, Mark Louder, Amanda Eaton, Sampa Santra, Richard Scearce, Laura Sutherland, Amanda Newman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Cindy Bowman, Howard Bomze, Feng Gao, Dawn J Marshall, John F Whitesides, Xiaoyan Nie, Garnett Kelsoe, Steven G Reed, Christopher B Fox, Kim Clary, Marguerite Koutsoukos, David Franco, John R Mascola, Stephen C Harrison, Barton F Haynes, Laurent Verkoczy
A strategy for HIV-1 vaccine development is to define envelope (Env) evolution of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in infection and to recreate those events by vaccination. Here, we report host tolerance mechanisms that limit the development of CD4-binding site (CD4bs), HCDR3-binder bnAbs via sequential HIV-1 Env vaccination. Vaccine-induced macaque CD4bs antibodies neutralize 7% of HIV-1 strains, recognize open Env trimers, and accumulate relatively modest somatic mutations. In naive CD4bs, unmutated common ancestor knock-in mice Env+B cell clones develop anergy and partial deletion at the transitional to mature B cell stage, but become Env- upon receptor editing...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151351/immucillins-in-infectious-diseases
#10
Gary B Evans, Peter C Tyler, Vern L Schramm
The Immucillins are chemically stable analogues that mimic the ribocation and leaving-group features of N-ribosyltransferase transition states. Infectious disease agents often rely on ribosyltransferase chemistry in pathways involving precursor synthesis for nucleic acids, salvage of nucleic acid precursors, or synthetic pathways with nucleoside intermediates. Here, we review three infectious agents and the use of the Immucillins to taget enzymes essential to the parasites. First, DADMe-Immucillin-G is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor that blocks purine salvage and shows clinical potential for treatment for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine for purine nucleotide synthesis...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051495/the-%C3%AE-20-%C3%AE-21-of-gp120-is-a-regulatory-switch-for-hiv-1-env-conformational-transitions
#11
Alon Herschhorn, Christopher Gu, Francesca Moraca, Xiaochu Ma, Mark Farrell, Amos B Smith, Marie Pancera, Peter D Kwong, Arne Schön, Ernesto Freire, Cameron Abrams, Scott C Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Joseph G Sodroski
The entry of HIV-1 into target cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env). Binding to the CD4 receptor triggers a cascade of conformational changes in distant domains that move Env from a functionally "closed" State 1 to more "open" conformations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric regulation of these transitions are still elusive. Here, we develop chemical probes that block CD4-induced conformational changes in Env and use them to identify a potential control switch for Env structural rearrangements...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045905/transcriptional-reprogramming-during-effector-to-memory-transition-renders-cd4-t-cells-permissive-for-latent-hiv-1-infection
#12
Liang Shan, Kai Deng, Hongbo Gao, Sifei Xing, Adam A Capoferri, Christine M Durand, S Alireza Rabi, Gregory M Laird, Michelle Kim, Nina N Hosmane, Hung-Chih Yang, Hao Zhang, Joseph B Margolick, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Ruian Ke, Richard A Flavell, Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4(+) T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029702/lysyl-trna-synthetase-krs-acts-a-virulence-factor-of-beauveria-bassiana-by-its-vital-role-in-conidial-germination-and-dimorphic-transition
#13
Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967173/daylight-length-dependent-translocation-of-vivid-photoreceptor-in-cells-and-its-essential-role-in-conidiation-and-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana
#14
Sen-Miao Tong, An-Xue Zhang, Chong-Tao Guo, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
The fungal insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana has the blue-light photoreceptor VIVID (VVD) but lacks a pigmentation pattern to trace its light responses. Here we show that the fungal vvd is transcriptionally expressed, and linked to other blue/red photoreceptor genes, in a daylight length-dependent manner. GFP-tagged VVD fusion protein was localized to periphery, cytoplasm and vacuoles of hyphal cells in light/dark (L:D) cycles of 24:0 and 16:8 and aggregated in cytoplasm with shortening daylight until transfer into nuclei in full darkness...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949280/childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-in-tropical-africa-then-and-now
#15
Wasiu A Olowu, Adebowale Ademola, Adebukola B Ajite, Yauba M Saad
This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0.35-1.34% of hospital admissions. Median age at onset of NS ranged between 4.0 and 12.0 years while the mean (SD) age range was 5.8 (3...
September 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927132/downregulation-of-esophageal-cancer-related-gene-4-promotes-proliferation-and-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Shujian Ge, Yali Xu, Hongliang Wang, Yaxin Sun, Xiangguo Tian, Zhixin Cao, Xiaoyan Lin, Jiawen Xu, Qiangxiu Wang
Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in cell apoptosis, migration, infection and inflammation responsiveness; however, its expression level and clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the present study, the authors aim to evaluate the clinical significance and potential role of ECRG4 in HCC. Level of ECRG4 protein expression in HCC and peripheral tissues was investigated in tissue specimens obtained from 56 consecutive HCC patients by immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921048/antibacterial-and-antitumor-activity-of-bogorol-b-jx-isolated-from-brevibacillus-laterosporus-jx-5
#17
Hongxia Jiang, Chao Ji, Junkang Sui, Rongbo Sa, Xiaohui Wang, Xunli Liu, Tai L Guo
Antimicrobial peptides are promising anti-infective agent candidates because they have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and bioactivity and are unlikely to elicit antibiotic resistance. The bogorols represent a new cationic antibiotic peptide and possess great therapeutic potential because of their bioactivity and precise mode of action. Here, we report that Bogorol B-JX (BBJX), a peptide previously isolated from Brevibacillus laterosporus JX-5 by us, has significant antibacterial and antitumor activities in vitro...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912017/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-increased-in-human-gastric-pre-neoplasia-promotes-inflammation-and-metaplasia-in-mice-and-is-associated-with-type-ii-hypersensitivity-autoimmunity
#18
Mohamad El-Zaatari, Adam J Bass, Reanne Bowlby, Min Zhang, Li-Jyun Syu, Yitian Yang, Helmut Grasberger, Andrew Shreiner, Bei Tan, Shrinivas Bishu, Wai K Leung, Andrea Todisco, Nobuhiko Kamada, Marilia Cascalho, Andrzej A Dlugosz, John Y Kao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation increases the risk of cancer by mechanisms that are not well understood. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a heme-binding enzyme that regulates the immune response via catabolization and regulation of tryptophan availability for immune cell uptake. IDO1 expression is increased during the transition from chronic inflammation to gastric metaplasia. We investigated whether IDO1 contributes to the inflammatory response that mediates loss of parietal cells leading to metaplasia...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861399/overexpression-of-adenylyl-cyclase-encoded-by-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2212-gene-confers-improved-fitness-accelerated-recovery-from-dormancy-and-enhanced-virulence-in-mice
#19
Margarita O Shleeva, Tatyana K Kondratieva, Galina R Demina, Elvira I Rubakova, Anna V Goncharenko, Alexander S Apt, Arseny S Kaprelyants
Earlier we demonstrated that the adenylyl cyclase (AC) encoded by the MSMEG_4279 gene plays a key role in the resuscitation and growth of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis and that overexpression of this gene leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration and prevents the transition of M. smegmatis from active growth to dormancy in an extended stationary phase accompanied by medium acidification. We surmised that the homologous Rv2212 gene of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), the main cAMP producer, plays similar physiological roles by supporting, under these conditions, the active state and reactivation of dormant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842185/early-diagnosis-of-pi3k%C3%AE-syndrome-in-a-2-years-old-girl-with-recurrent-otitis-and-enlarged-spleen
#20
F Saettini, M A Pelagatti, D Sala, D Moratto, S Giliani, R Badolato, A Biondi
Heterozygous gain of function mutations in the gene encoding p110δ subunit of PI3K have been recently associated with activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. Here we report a dominant gain of function PIK3CD mutation (E1021K) in a patient presenting with recurrent otitis media, massive splenomegaly, and persistent EBV-viraemia...
August 31, 2017: Immunology Letters
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