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Transitional b cell infection

Anjuman Ara, Robin P Love, Tyson B Follack, Khawaja A Ahmed, Madison B Adolph, Linda Chelico
: The APOBEC3 (A3) enzymes, A3G and A3F, are coordinately expressed in CD4+ T cells and can become coencapsidated into HIV-1 virions, primarily in the absence of the viral infectivity factor (Vif). A3F and A3G are deoxycytidine deaminases that inhibit HIV-1 replication by inducing guanine to adenine hypermutation through deamination of cytosine to form uracil in (-)DNA. The effect of the simultaneous presence of both A3G and A3F on HIV-1 restriction ability is not clear. Here, we used a single cycle infectivity assay and biochemical analyses to determine if coencapsidated A3G and A3F differ in their restriction capacity than A3G or A3F alone...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
M Wang, J Sun, A Crosby, K Woodard, M L Hirsch, R J Samulski, C Li
Recent hemophilia B clinical trials using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery have demonstrated much lower coagulation factor IX (FIX) production in patients compared with the high levels observed in animal models and AAV capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response elicited at high doses of AAV vectors. These results emphasize the necessity to explore effective approaches for enhancement of AAV transduction. Initially, we found that incubation of all AAV vectors with human serum enhanced AAV transduction...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
Alon Herschhorn, Xiaochu Ma, Christopher Gu, John D Ventura, Luis Castillo-Menendez, Bruno Melillo, Daniel S Terry, Amos B Smith, Scott C Blanchard, James B Munro, Walther Mothes, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski
: Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers [(gp120/gp41)3] typically exist in a metastable closed conformation (state 1). Binding the CD4 receptor triggers Env to undergo extensive conformational changes to mediate virus entry. We identified specific gp120 residues that restrain Env in state 1. Alteration of these restraining residues destabilized state 1, allowing Env to populate a functional conformation (state 2) intermediate between state 1 and the full CD4-bound state (state 3)...
October 25, 2016: MBio
S L Rajasekhar Karna, Peter D'Arpa, Tsute Chen, Li-Wu Qian, Andrea B Fourcaudot, Kazuyoshi Yamane, Ping Chen, Johnathan J Abercrombie, Tao You, Kai P Leung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection...
2016: PloS One
T N Figueira, L M Palermo, A S Veiga, D Huey, C A Alabi, N C Santos, J C Welsch, C Mathieu, B Horvat, S Niewiesk, A Moscona, M A R B Castanho, M Porotto
: Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. MV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins; upon receptor engagement by H, the pre-fusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then re-folding into a post-fusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
R Yazdani, R Seify, M Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, H Abolhassani, N Eskandari, F Golsaz-Shirazi, B Ansaripour, E Salehi, G Azizi, N Rezaei, A Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease, characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia leading to recurrent infections and various complications. The aim of this study was to classify CVID patients based on four known classifications (Paris, Freiburg, EUROclass, and B-cell patterns) by measurement of B-cell subsets and to assess the relation of each classification with clinical manifestations. METHODS: We measured all B-cell subsets as both absolute count and percentage in 30 CVID patients and 30 healthy individuals using four-colour flow cytometry...
October 4, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Kathryn P Haley, Jennifer A Gaddy
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Fanny Pojero, Alessandra Casuccio, Caterina Giambanco, Matteo Bulati, Silvio Buffa, Francesco Di Bassiano, Francesco Gervasi, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna Romano
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by proliferation of clonal plasma cells (cPCs) in bone marrow (BM), associated with numerical and functional defects in immune subsets. An impairment of B cell compartment is involved in onset/progression of the disease. METHODS: By flow cytometry, we studied distribution of naïve/transitional (IgD(+)CD27(-)), memory unswitched (IgD(+)CD27(+)), memory switched (IgD(-)CD27(+)) and double negative (DN) (IgD(-)CD27(-)) B lymphocytes in BM of control subjects, and responding and relapsing patients...
October 2016: Leukemia Research
Hong Cui, Jing Chen, Quan Na
Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an important role in the chronic carrier state in China. In our studies, the response of trophoblast cell and choriocarcinoma cell to HBV infection regarding the expression of CD133-2 (AC141) was evaluated. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that a high level of CD133-2 protein and mRNA in HTR-8/SVneo cells, but a low level in JEG-3 cells. Lower proliferation and mobility, and higher apoptosis were observed in HTR-8/SVneo cells and JEG-3-CD133-2(+) cells after HBV infection than those in HTR-8-CD133-2(-) cells and JEG-3 cells...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Weimin Wu, Justin C Leavitt, Naiqian Cheng, Eddie B Gilcrease, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M Teschke, Sherwood R Casjens, Alasdair C Steven
UNLABELLED: The P22 capsid is a T=7 icosahedrally symmetric protein shell with a portal protein dodecamer at one 5-fold vertex. Extending outwards from that vertex is a short tail, and putatively extending inwards is a 15-nm-long α-helical barrel formed by the C-terminal domains of portal protein subunits. In addition to the densely packed genome, the capsid contains three "ejection proteins" (E-proteins [gp7, gp16, and gp20]) destined to exit from the tightly sealed capsid during the process of DNA delivery into target cells...
2016: MBio
Hem C Jha, Zhiguo Sun, Santosh K Upadhyay, Darine W El-Naccache, Rajnish K Singh, Sushil K Sahu, Erle S Robertson
Studies have suggested that Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
P A Romagnoli, H H Fu, Z Qiu, C Khairallah, Q M Pham, L Puddington, K M Khanna, L Lefrançois, B S Sheridan
Mucosal antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses to intestinal pathogens remain incompletely understood. Here we examined the CD4 T-cell response after oral infection with an internalin A 'murinized' Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Oral Lm infection induced a robust endogenous listeriolysin O (LLO)-specific CD4 T-cell response with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics in the intestine. Circulating LLO-specific CD4 T cells transiently expressed the 'gut-homing' integrin α4β7 and accumulated in the intestinal lamina propria and epithelium where they were maintained independent of interleukin (IL)-15...
July 27, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Marcia Woda, Heather Friberg, Jeffrey R Currier, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Louis R Macareo, Sharone Green, Richard G Jarman, Alan L Rothman, Anuja Mathew
BACKGROUND: The development of reagents to identify and characterize antigen-specific B cells has been challenging. METHODS: We recently developed Alexa Fluor-labeled dengue viruses (AF DENVs) to characterize antigen-specific B cells in the peripheral blood of DENV-immune individuals. RESULTS: In this study, we used AF DENV serotype 1 (AF DENV-1) together with AF DENV-2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children in Thailand with acute primary or secondary DENV-1 infections to analyze the phenotypes of antigen-specific B cells that reflected their exposure or clinical diagnosis...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yiwen Chen, Xueli Bai, Qi Zhang, Liang Wen, Wei Su, Qihan Fu, Xu Sun, Yu Lou, Jiaqi Yang, Jingying Zhang, Qi Chen, Jianxin Wang, Tingbo Liang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive and lethal cancer, with poor outcomes. Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be associated as a worse prognosis for PDAC patients; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are unclear. We evaluated whether HBV infection leads to PDAC with a more aggressive phenotype, and attempted to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Clinicopathological data and outcomes from 64 patients with PDAC were collected and compared between serum HBsAg+ and HBsAg- patients...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
K K Schultz, T B Bennett, K V Nordlund, D Döpfer, N B Cook
Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Mei Li, Liping Hu, Fengxin Zhu, Zhangmei Zhou, Jianwei Tian, Jun Ai
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulo-nephritis is the most common extra-hepatic disorder occurring with hepatitis B virus infection. In the present study, we hypothesized that HBV X protein (HBx) may play a critical role in renal interstitial fibrosis, as HBx has been shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal cells. For this purpose, we successfully transfected HBx plasmid into human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We found that transfection with HBx plasmid significantly downregulated E-cadherin expression and upregulated α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I and fibronectin expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (at the lower concentrations and earlier time points)...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Balaraj B Menon, Xiaohong Zhou, Sandra Spurr-Michaud, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh, Ilene K Gipson
Human adenoviruses (HAdV), species D in particular (HAdV-D), are frequently associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Although the infection originates at the ocular surface epithelium, the mechanisms by which HAdV-Ds bypass the membrane-associated mucin (MAM)-rich glycocalyx of the ocular surface epithelium to trigger infection and inflammation remain unknown. Here, we report that an EKC-causing adenovirus (HAdV-D37), but not a non-EKC-causing one (HAdV-D19p), induces ectodomain release of MUC16-a MAM with barrier functions at the ocular surface-from cultured human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells...
January 2016: MSphere
Sylvie Amu, Virginie Fievez, Silvia Nozza, Lucia Lopalco, Francesca Chiodi
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of immature transitional B cells is increased in blood of HIV-1-infected individuals. We investigated whether HIV-1 infection affects expression and function of chemokine receptors important for egress of immature transitional B cells from bone marrow and migration to lymphoid organs. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study analysing the migratory phenotype and function of immature transitional B cells in HIV-1-infected individuals, in relation to antiretroviral treatment and age...
September 10, 2016: AIDS
Caroline Aspord, Juliana Bruder Costa, Marie-Christine Jacob, Tania Dufeu-Duchesne, Inga Bertucci, Noelle Pouget, Ophelie Brevot-Lutton, Fabien Zoulim, Marc Bourliere, Joel Plumas, Vincent Leroy
The ultimate goal of pegylated interferon-alfa-2a (Peg-IFN-α) therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is HBsAg seroconversion. Even though B cells are major mediators of a positive clinical outcome, their modulation during Peg-IFN-α therapy has not yet been described. We investigated here the effects of Peg-IFN-α on eight circulating B-cell subsets thanks to an original multi-gating approach based on CD19, CD27, IgD, CD10, and CD38 markers in patients with CHB treated with nucleos(t)ide analog alone or in combination with Peg-IFN-α...
2016: PloS One
Francesca Calascibetta, Luca Micci, Diane Carnathan, Benton Lawson, Thomas H Vanderford, Steven E Bosinger, Kirk Easley, Ann Chahroudi, Joseph Mackel, Brandon F Keele, Samuel Long, Jeffrey Lifson, Mirko Paiardini, Guido Silvestri
UNLABELLED: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of viremia. Key factors involved in the benign course of SIV infection in SMs are the absence of chronic immune activation and low levels of infection of CD4(+) central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) T cells. To better understand the role of virus replication in determining the main features of SIV infection in SMs, we treated 12 SMs with a potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for 2 to 12 months...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
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