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Transitional b cell infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431528/diagnostic-performance-of-the-urinary-canine-calgranulins-in-dogs-with-lower-urinary-or-urogenital-tract-carcinoma
#1
Romy M Heilmann, Elizabeth A McNiel, Niels Grützner, David J Lanerie, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of TCC/PCA and improve patient survival would be useful. S100A8/A9 (calgranulin A/B or calprotectin) and S100A12 (calgranulin C) are expressed by cells of the innate immune system and are associated with several inflammatory disorders. S100A8/A9 is also expressed by epithelial cells after malignant transformation and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis...
April 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425914/epstein-barr-virus-ensures-b-cell-survival-by-uniquely-modulating-apoptosis-at-early-and-late-times-after-infection
#2
Alexander M Price, Joanne Dai, Quentin Bazot, Luv Patel, Pavel A Nikitin, Reza Djavadian, Peter S Winter, Cristina A Salinas, Ashley Perkins Barry, Kris C Wood, Eric C Johannsen, Anthony Letai, Martin J Allday, Micah A Luftig
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFB early after infection...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420878/synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-silver-transition-metal-combinatorial-treatments
#3
Javier A Garza-Cervantes, Arturo Chávez-Reyes, Elena C Castillo, Gerardo García-Rivas, Oscar Antonio Ortega-Rivera, Eva Salinas, Margarita Ortiz-Martínez, Sara Leticia Gómez-Flores, Jorge A Peña-Martínez, Alan Pepi-Molina, Mario T Treviño-González, Xristo Zarate, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Carlos Enrique Escarcega-Gonzalez, J Rubén Morones-Ramírez
Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, development of novel antibiotics has become a critical issue. One promising approach is the use of transition metals, since they exhibit rapid and significant toxicity, at low concentrations, in prokaryotic cells. Nevertheless, one main drawback of transition metals is their toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that the barriers to use them as therapeutic agents could be mitigated by combining them with silver. We demonstrate that synergism of combinatorial treatments (Silver/transition metals, including Zn, Co, Cd, Ni, and Cu) increases up to 8-fold their antimicrobial effect, when compared to their individual effects, against E...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413603/hepatitis-b-virus-promotes-cancer-cell-migration-by-downregulating-mir-340-5p-expression-to-induce-stat3-overexpression
#4
Qiushuang Xiong, Shaoshuai Wu, Jingwen Wang, Xianhuang Zeng, Jianwen Chen, Mingcong Wei, Haotong Guan, Chengpeng Fan, Lang Chen, Deyin Guo, Guihong Sun
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of HCC. Previous studies have demonstrated that expression of the tumor inhibitor miR-340 is significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with normal liver tissues. However, the precise biological role of miR-340-5p in HBV-HCC and its molecular mechanism of action remain unknown. RESULTS: Expression of miR-340-5p was downregulated in HBV-associated HCC liver tissue and HBV-infected cells, facilitating migration of liver cancer cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401933/bcl-xl-mediates-ripk3-dependent-necrosis-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages
#5
X Zhao, N Khan, H Gan, F Tzelepis, T Nishimura, S-Y Park, M Divangahi, H G Remold
Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) triggers necrosis in host Mϕ, which is essential for successful pathogenesis in tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that necrosis of Mtb-infected Mϕ is dependent on the action of the cytosolic Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (RIPK3) and the mitochondrial Bcl-2 family member protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). RIPK3-deficient Mϕ are able to better control bacterial growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, cytosolic RIPK3 translocates to the mitochondria where it promotes necrosis and blocks caspase 8-activation and apoptosis via Bcl-xL...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348056/analysis-of-shigella-flexneri-resistance-biofilm-formation-and-transcriptional-profile-in-response-to-bile-salts
#6
Kourtney P Nickerson, Rachael B Chanin, Jeticia R Sistrunk, David A Rasko, Peter J Fink, Eileen M Barry, James P Nataro, Christina S Faherty
The Shigella species cause millions of cases of watery or bloody diarrhea each year, mostly in children in developing countries. While many aspects of Shigella colonic cell invasion are known, crucial gaps in knowledge remain regarding how the bacteria survive, transit, and regulate gene expression prior to infection. In this study, we define mechanisms of bile salts resistance and build on previous research highlighting induced virulence in S. flexneri strain 2457T following bile salts exposure. Typical growth patterns were observed within the physiological range of bile salts; however, growth was inhibited at higher concentrations...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344321/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-for-paramyxoviruses-is-modulated-by-biophysical-properties-of-fusion-inhibitory-peptides
#7
Cyrille Mathieu, Marcelo T Augusto, Stefan Niewiesk, Branka Horvat, Laura M Palermo, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Devra Huey, Miguel A R B Castanho, Matteo Porotto, Nuno C Santos, Anne Moscona
Human paramyxoviruses include global causes of lower respiratory disease like the parainfluenza viruses, as well as agents of lethal encephalitis like Nipah virus. Infection is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Paramyxovirus viral fusion proteins (F) insert into the target cell membrane, and form a transient intermediate that pulls the viral and cell membranes together as two heptad-repeat regions refold to form a six-helix bundle structure that can be specifically targeted by fusion-inhibitory peptides...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343069/linc00152-promotes-cancer-progression-in-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Xin Deng, Xiao Fang Zhao, Xing Qiu Liang, Ran Chen, Yi Feng Pan, Jian Liang
BACKGROUND: The X protein (HBx) plays as a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. The study aimed to figure out the role of Linc00152 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the association between the expression levels of Linc00152 and HBx. METHODS: QRT-PCR assays were applied to analyzed the expression levels of Linc00152 and HBx. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was performed to identify the association between LINC00152 and the over survival time (OS) in HCC patients...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331088/bst-2-expression-modulates-small-cd4-mimetic-sensitization-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-to-adcc
#9
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Nathalie Brassard, Halima Medjahed, Mathieu Coutu, Bruno Melillo, Frédéric Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Daniel E Kaufmann, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski, Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff, Katrina Gee, Stuart J Neil, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4-mimetics (CD4mc) which are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317026/toxoplasma-gondii-ap2ix-4-regulates-gene-expression-during-bradyzoite-development
#10
Sherri Huang, Michael J Holmes, Joshua B Radke, Dong-Pyo Hong, Ting-Kai Liu, Michael W White, William J Sullivan
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted bradyzoites, and yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations in gene expression are not well defined...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#11
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300209/localizer-subcellular-localization-prediction-of-both-plant-and-effector-proteins-in-the-plant-cell
#12
Jana Sperschneider, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Kathleen DeBoer, Benjamin Petre, Donald M Gardiner, Karam B Singh, Peter N Dodds, Jennifer M Taylor
Pathogens secrete effector proteins and many operate inside plant cells to enable infection. Some effectors have been found to enter subcellular compartments by mimicking host targeting sequences. Although many computational methods exist to predict plant protein subcellular localization, they perform poorly for effectors. We introduce LOCALIZER for predicting plant and effector protein localization to chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei. LOCALIZER shows greater prediction accuracy for chloroplast and mitochondrial targeting compared to other methods for 652 plant proteins...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299664/roles-of-runx-in-b-cell-immortalisation
#13
Michelle J West, Paul J Farrell
RUNX1 and RUNX3 are the main RUNX genes expressed in B lymphocytes. Both are expressed throughout B-cell development and play key roles at certain key developmental transitions. The tumour-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has potent B-cell transforming ability and manipulates RUNX3 and RUNX1 transcription through novel mechanisms to control B cell growth. In contrast to resting mature B cells where RUNX1 expression is high, in EBV-infected cells RUNX1 levels are low and RUNX3 levels are high. Downregulation of RUNX1 in these cells results from cross-regulation by RUNX3 and serves to relieve RUNX1-mediated growth repression...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264054/delineating-cd4-dependency-of-hiv-1-adaptation-to-infect-low-level-cd4-expressing-target-cells-widens-cellular-tropism-but-severely-impacts-on-envelope-functionality
#14
David Beauparlant, Peter Rusert, Carsten Magnus, Claus Kadelka, Jacqueline Weber, Therese Uhr, Osvaldo Zagordi, Corinna Oberle, Maria J Duenas-Decamp, Paul R Clapham, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard, Alexandra Trkola
A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222762/the-hippo-component-yap-localizes-in-the-nucleus-of-human-papilloma-virus-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Faisal Alzahrani, Leanne Clattenburg, Shanmugam Muruganandan, Martin Bullock, Kaitlyn MacIsaac, Michael Wigerius, Blair A Williams, M Elise R Graham, Matthew H Rigby, Jonathan R B Trites, S Mark Taylor, Christopher J Sinal, James P Fawcett, Robert D Hart
BACKGROUND: HPV infection causes cervical cancer, mediated in part by the degradation of Scribble via the HPV E6 oncoprotein. Recently, Scribble has been shown to be an important regulator of the Hippo signaling cascade. Deregulation of the Hippo pathway induces an abnormal cellular transformation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which promotes oncogenic progression. Given the recent rise in oropharyngeal HPV squamous cell carcinoma we sought to determine if Hippo signaling components are implicated in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149166/phenolic-composition-and-medicinal-usage-of-psidium-guajava-linn-antifungal-activity-or-inhibition-of-virulence
#16
Maria F B Morais-Braga, Joara N P Carneiro, Antonio J T Machado, Débora L Sales, Antonia T L Dos Santos, Aline A Boligon, Margareth L Athayde, Irwin R A Menezes, Djair S L Souza, José G M Costa, Henrique D M Coutinho
Psidium guajava is a Myrtaceae plant whose medicinal properties are recognized in several locations. The use of teas and tinctures prepared from their leaves has been used to combat infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida. In this study, aqueous extracts of leaves and hydroethanolic were tested to verify the antifungal potential and its chemical composition has been investigated. The microbiological assays were performed by broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and from these the minimum fungicidal concentration was performed (MFC) by subculturing on solid media...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109599/effect-of-intramammary-infusion-of-chitosan-hydrogels-at-drying-off-on-bovine-mammary-gland-involution
#17
S Lanctôt, P Fustier, A R Taherian, B Bisakowski, X Zhao, P Lacasse
The transition from lactation to the dry period in dairy cows is a period of high risk for acquiring new intramammary infections. This risk is reduced when the involution of the mammary gland is completed. Accordingly, approaches that speed up the involution process after drying-off could reduce the incidence of mastitis. The current study aimed to develop a biological response modifier that could be injected into cow teats to promote immune cell migration and speed up involution. Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, is able to trigger host innate immunity...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104464/genetic-defects-in-pi3k%C3%AE-affect-b-cell-differentiation-and-maturation-leading-to-hypogammaglobulineamia-and-recurrent-infections
#18
Marjolein Wentink, Virgil Dalm, Arjan C Lankester, Pauline A van Schouwenburg, Liesbeth Schölvinck, Tomas Kalina, Radana Zachova, Anna Sediva, Annechien Lambeck, Ingrid Pico-Knijnenburg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Malgorzata Pac, Ewa Bernatowska, Martin van Hagen, Gertjan Driessen, Mirjam van der Burg
BACKGROUND: Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1 cause activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS) by dysregulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. METHODS: We studied precursor and peripheral B-cell differentiation and apoptosis via flowcytometry. Furthermore, we performed AKT-phosphorylation assays and somatic hypermutations (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) analysis. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients of whom 3 had new mutations in PIK3CD or PIK3R1. Patients had low total B-cell numbers with increased frequencies of transitional B cells and plasmablasts, while the precursor B-cell compartment in bone marrow was relatively normal...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088184/anti-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-response-of-imiquimod-based-toll-like-receptor-7-ligand-in-hbv-positive-human-hepatocelluar-carcinoma-cell-line
#19
Dipanwita Das, Isha Sengupta, Neelakshi Sarkar, Ananya Pal, Debraj Saha, Manikankana Bandopadhyay, Chandrima Das, Jimmy Narayan, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Sekhar Chakrabarti, Runu Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity and various studies suggest that TLRs play a crucial role in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The present study aims in looking into the status of crucial host and viral gene expression on inciting TLR7. METHODS: The transcription of TLR7 pathway signaling molecules and HBV DNA viral load were quantified by Real Time-PCR after stimulation of TLR7 with its imiquimod based ligand, R837...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072956/-clinical-and-immunological-analysis-of-the-patient-with-autoimmunity-due-to-germline-stat3-gain-of-function-mutation
#20
Y Ding, Y Zhang, Y P Wang, H Y Zhao, X M Chen, X H Xue, X M Bai, Y F An, Z Y Zhang, X M Tang, X D Zhao
Objective: To investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features and gene mutation in a female patient who carried a germline gain-of-function mutation in STAT3. Method: A patient with lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia, visited the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in May 2016. The clinical and laboratory characteristics, results of immunophenotyping and exome sequencing were analyzed retrospectively and related literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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