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Transitional b cell infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755476/transitional-b-cells-and-tlr9-responses-are-defective-in-selective-iga-deficiency
#1
Andri L Lemarquis, Helga K Einarsdottir, Rakel N Kristjansdottir, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Bjorn R Ludviksson
Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency in the western world with affected individuals suffering from an increased burden of autoimmunity, atopic diseases and infections. It has been shown that IgAD B cells can be induced with germinal center mimicking reactions to produce IgA. However, IgA is the most prevalent antibody in mucosal sites, where antigen-independent responses are important. Much interest has recently focused on the role of TLR9 in both naïve and mature B cell differentiation into IgA secreting plasma cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753758/lncrna-n335586-mir-924-ckmt1a-axis-contributes-to-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Hongxia Fan, Ping Lv, Ting Mu, Xiaopei Zhao, Yankun Liu, Yujie Feng, Jing Lv, Min Liu, Hua Tang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for HCC. Emerging evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in HCC development, but its contribution to HBV-related HCC remains largely unclear. Differentially expressed lncRNAs in HBV-related HCC tissues were identified by deep sequencing in our previous study. The function of lncRNA n335586, one of most up-regulated lncRNAs in HBV-related HCC, was characterized in the present study...
May 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748343/physical-activity-among-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hanoi-and-nam-dinh-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Anh Kim Dang, Long Hoang Nguyen, Anh Quynh Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Tung Thanh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has facilitated the transition of HIV infection into a chronic disease, where adherence to medications is required along with keeping a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, an increase in physical activity has been recommended for patients with HIV in order to maintain their health status. This study looked to determine the physical activity level and its associated factors among patients with HIV receiving ART treatment. SETTINGS: Eight outpatient clinic sites across different levels of the health systems in both rural and urban settings in Hanoi and Nam Dinh, Vietnam...
May 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745668/temperature-induced-self-assembly-of-the-group-b-streptococcus-gbs-fusion-antigen-gbs-nn
#4
Fabrice Rose, Silke Roovers, Mathias Fanø, Stine Harloff-Helleberg, Jacob Judas Kain Kirkensgaard, Kim Hejnaes, Per Fischer, Camilla Foged
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious bacterial neonatal infections worldwide, which provides an unmet medical need for a globally effective vaccine. The recombinant GBS fusion antigen GBS-NN contains the N-terminal regions of the GBS Rib and Alpha C proteins. It shows promising immunogenicity eliciting protective immunity in mice and encouraging results in early human clinical trials. Understanding the physical stability of GBS-NN containing conformational B-cell epitopes is crucial to ensure optimal vaccine stability, efficacy and safety...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739685/b-cell-subsets-imbalance-and-reduced-expression-of-cd40-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-patients
#5
C T M Pereira, D C Bichuetti-Silva, N V F da Mota, R Salomão, M K C Brunialti, B T Costa-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a well-known primary immunodeficiency with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and variable abnormalities in both the humoral and cellular immune system. Dysfunctions in immunoglobulin production, reduced number of B cells, and B-cell receptor excision circles copies have been reported. We aimed to understand the immunological mechanisms involving the humoral compartment in AT patients by analysing peripheral blood B cells subsets, B-T lymphocyte cooperation through the expression of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L), and cytokines involved in class-switch recombination production...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728828/assemblages-a-and-b-of-giardia-duodenalis-reduce-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-small-intestine-in-mice
#6
Mariana Felgueira Pavanelli, Cristiane Maria Colli, Renata Coltro Bezagio, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
Infection of Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human parasitic disease worldwide. This infection may be related to important changes in the enteric nervous system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, the intestinal muscle layer, and gastrointestinal transit in mice infected with assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were infected with assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis for 15 days. Gastrointestinal transit time was evaluated before euthanasia...
May 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718996/transcriptional-repression-by-apiap2-factors-is-central-to-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#7
Joshua B Radke, Danielle Worth, David Hong, Sherri Huang, William J Sullivan, Emma H Wilson, Michael W White
Tachyzoite to bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma is marked by major changes in gene expression resulting in a parasite that expresses a new repertoire of surface antigens hidden inside a modified parasitophorous vacuole called the tissue cyst. The factors that control this important life cycle transition are not well understood. Here we describe an important transcriptional repressor mechanism controlling bradyzoite differentiation that operates in the tachyzoite stage. The ApiAP2 factor, AP2IV-4, is a nuclear factor dynamically expressed in late S phase through mitosis/cytokinesis of the tachyzoite cell cycle...
May 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709016/ebv-persistence-without-its-ebna3a-and-3c-oncogenes-in-vivo
#8
Anita Murer, Donal McHugh, Nicole Caduff, Jens Kalchschmidt, Mario Barros, Andrea Zbinden, Riccarda Capaul, Gerald Niedobitek, Martin Allday, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz
The oncogenic Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infects the majority of the human population and usually persists within its host for life without symptoms. The EBV oncoproteins nuclear antigen 3A (EBNA3A) and 3C (EBNA3C) are required for B cell transformation in vitro and are expressed in EBV associated immunoblastic lymphomas in vivo. In order to address the necessity of EBNA3A and EBNA3C for persistent EBV infection in vivo, we infected NOD-scid γcnull mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice) with recombinant EBV mutants devoid of EBNA3A or EBNA3C expression...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#9
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685976/hijacking-dna-methyltransferase-transition-state-analogues-to-produce-chemical-scaffolds-for-prmt-inhibitors
#10
Ludovic Halby, Nils Marechal, Dany Pechalrieu, Vincent Cura, Don-Marc Franchini, Céline Faux, Fréderic Alby, Nathalie Troffer-Charlier, Srikanth Kudithipudi, Albert Jeltsch, Wahiba Aouadi, Etienne Decroly, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Patrick Page, Clotilde Ferroud, Luc Bonnefond, Dominique Guianvarc'h, Jean Cavarelli, Paola B Arimondo
DNA, RNA and histone methylation is implicated in various human diseases such as cancer or viral infections, playing a major role in cell process regulation, especially in modulation of gene expression. Here we developed a convergent synthetic pathway starting from a protected bromomethylcytosine derivative to synthesize transition state analogues of the DNA methyltransferases. This approach led to seven 5-methylcytosine-adenosine compounds that were, surprisingly, inactive against hDNMT1, hDNMT3Acat, TRDMT1 and other RNA human and viral methyltransferases...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618088/cell-wall-synthesis-and-ribosome-maturation-are-co-regulated-by-an-rna-switch-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Stefan Schwenk, Alexandra Moores, Irene Nobeli, Timothy D McHugh, Kristine B Arnvig
The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on the ability to switch between active growth and non-replicating persistence, associated with latent TB infection. Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are essential for the transition between these states. Rpf expression is tightly regulated as these enzymes are able to degrade the cell wall, and hence potentially lethal to the bacterium itself. We have identified a regulatory element in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of rpfB. We demonstrate that this element is a transcriptionally regulated RNA switch/riboswitch candidate, which appears to be restricted to pathogenic mycobacteria, suggesting a role in virulence...
March 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598974/%C3%AE-lapachone-and-%C3%AE-nor-lapachone-modulate-candida-albicans-viability-and-virulence-factors
#12
D C Moraes, J A R Curvelo, C A Anjos, K C G Moura, M C F R Pinto, M B Portela, R M A Soares
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is the most important fungal pathogen that causes infections in humans, and the search for new therapeutic strategies for its treatment is essential. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of seven naphthoquinones (β-lapachone, β-nor-lapachone, bromide-β-lapachone, hydroxy-β-lapachone, α-lapachone, α-nor-lapachone and α-xyloidone) on the growth of a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans oral clinical isolate and the effects of these compounds on the viability of mammalian cells, on yeast's morphogenesis, biofilm formation and cell wall mannoproteins availability...
March 26, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593684/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-molecular-characteristics-and-epidemiology
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507085/myd88-signaling-in-t-cells-is-critical-for-effector-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-following-a-transitional-t-follicular-helper-cell-stage
#14
Rajakumar Mandraju, Aakanksha Jain, Yajing Gao, Zhiming Ouyang, Michael V Norgard, Chandrashekhar Pasare
Activation of CD4 T cells by dendritic cells leads to their differentiation into various effector lineages. The nature of the effector lineage is determined by the innate cues provided by dendritic cells to newly primed T cells. Although the cytokines necessary for several effector lineages have been identified, the innate cues that drive T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cell development remain unclear. Here we found that following priming, CD4 T cells undergoing clonal expansion acquire a transient Tfh-like phenotype before differentiating into other effector lineages...
May 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505809/age-associated-distribution-of-normal-b-cell-and-plasma-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood
#15
Elena Blanco, Martín Pérez-Andrés, Sonia Arriba-Méndez, Teresa Contreras-Sanfeliciano, Ignacio Criado, Ondrej Pelak, Ana Serra-Caetano, Alfonso Romero, Noemí Puig, Ana Remesal, Juan Torres Canizales, Eduardo López-Granados, Tomas Kalina, Ana E Sousa, Menno van Zelm, Mirjam van der Burg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao
BACKGROUND: Humoral immunocompetence develops stepwise throughout life and contributes to individual susceptibility to infection, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) isotype serum levels can partly explain such age-related differences, but their relationship with the IgH isotype distribution within memory B-cell (MBC) and plasma cell (PCs) compartments remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: We studied the age-related distribution of MBCs and PCs expressing different IgH isotypes in addition to the immature/transitional and naive B-cell compartments...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494848/bacterially-activated-b-cells-drive-t-cell-differentiation-towards-tr1-through-pd-1-pd-l1-expression
#16
Sawsan Sudqi Said, Guliz Tuba Barut, Nesteren Mansur, Asli Korkmaz, Ayca Sayi-Yazgan
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) play a crucial role in immunological tolerance primarily through the production of IL-10 in many diseases including autoimmune disorders, allergy, infectious diseases, and cancer. To date, various Breg subsets with overlapping phenotypes have been identified. However, the roles of Bregs in Helicobacter infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigate the phenotype and function of Helicobacter -stimulated B cells. Our results demonstrate that Helicobacter felis -stimulated IL-10- producing B cells (Hfstim - IL-10+ B) are composed of B10 and Transitional 2 Marginal Zone Precursor (T2-MZP) cells with expression of CD9, Tim-1, and programmed death 1 (PD-1)...
April 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475723/umbralisib-a-novel-pi3k%C3%AE-and-casein-kinase-1%C3%AE%C2%B5-inhibitor-in-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-and-lymphoma-an-open-label-phase-1-dose-escalation-first-in-human-study
#17
Howard A Burris, Ian W Flinn, Manish R Patel, Timothy S Fenske, Changchun Deng, Danielle M Brander, Martin Gutierrez, James H Essell, John G Kuhn, Hari P Miskin, Peter Sportelli, Michael S Weiss, Swaroop Vakkalanka, Michael R Savona, Owen A O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Umbralisib (TGR-1202) is a novel next-generation inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) isoform p110δ (PI3Kδ), which is structurally distinct from other PI3Kδ inhibitors and shows improved isoform selectivity. Umbralisib also uniquely inhibits casein kinase-1ε, a major regulator of protein translation. The aim of this first-in-human phase 1 study was to establish the safety and preliminary activity profile of umbralisib in patients with haematological malignancies...
April 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423939/human-mait-cells-show-metabolic-quiescence-with-rapid-glucose-dependent-upregulation-of-granzyme-b-upon-stimulation
#18
Madeleine E Zinser, Andrew J Highton, Ayako Kurioka, Barbara Kronsteiner, Joachim Hagel, Tianqi Leng, Emanuele Marchi, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Chris B Willberg, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a well-characterized innate-like T cell population abundant in the human liver, peripheral tissues and blood. MAIT cells serve in the first line of defense against infections, through engagement of their T cell receptor, which recognizes microbial metabolites presented on MR1, and through cytokine-mediated triggering. Typically, they show a quiescent memory phenotype but can undergo rapid upregulation of effector functions including cytolysis upon stimulation...
February 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397940/kshv-virf4-enhances-bcl6-transcription-via-downregulation-of-irf4-expression
#19
Hye Ryun Yu, Yeong Jun Kim, Hye-Ra Lee
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), strongly linked with latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), constitutively expresses cellular interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) while suppressing the expression of B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Recently, it was shown that IRF4, a key transcriptional repressor of BCL6, might be a pivotal regulator of KSHV for balancing between latency and its reactivation in PEL cells. However, the action of the BCL6-IRF4 transcription factor axis during KSHV's life cycle is not clear...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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