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Taraxacum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779189/environmental-factors-determining-the-accumulation-of-metals-cu-zn-mn-and-fe-in-tissues-of-taraxacum-sp-sect-taraxacum
#1
Elżbieta Królak, Jolanta Marciniuk, Katarzyna Popijantus, Paulina Wasilczuk, Zbigniew Kasprzykowski
The genus Taraxacum is used in the assessment of soil contamination with heavy metals. There are relatively few studies using sections or species representing this genus. The presented research was conducted in Poland on two habitats, varied in terms of nutrients and metals content. The content of selected metals in leaves and roots of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum was determined. It was found that in the conditions of increased content of metals in the soil, the analysed species representing sect. Taraxacum accumulate higher amounts of metals in their leaves and roots...
May 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670526/taraxasterol-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-in-bv2-microglia-cells-by-activating-lxr%C3%AE
#2
Bin Liu, Zhaoqi He, Jingjing Wang, Zhuoyuan Xin, Jiaxin Wang, Fan Li, Yunhe Fu
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale , has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of taraxasterol in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were treated with taraxasterol 12 h before LPS stimulation. The effects of taraxasterol on LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production were detected by ELISA...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642457/dandelion-root-extract-induces-intracellular-ca-2-increases-in-hek293-cells
#3
Andrea Gerbino, Daniela Russo, Matilde Colella, Giuseppe Procino, Maria Svelto, Luigi Milella, Monica Carmosino
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) has been used for centuries as an ethnomedical remedy. Nonetheless, the extensive use of different kinds of dandelion extracts and preparations is based on empirical findings. Some of the tissue-specific effects reported for diverse dandelion extracts may result from their action on intracellular signaling cascades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic dandelion root extract (DRE) on Ca2+ signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619876/inhibitory-effects-of-taraxasterol-and-aqueous-extract-of-taraxacum-officinale-on-calcium-oxalate-crystallization-in-vitro-study
#4
Mahboubeh Yousefi Ghale-Salimi, Maryam Eidi, Nasser Ghaemi, Ramezan Ali Khavari-Nejad
OBJECTIVE: We investigated and compared the effects of taraxasterol, aqueous extract of T. officinale (AET) aerial part, and potassium citrate (PC) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CaOx crystallization was induced by adding sodium oxalate to synthetic urine. Taraxasterol (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 12.5 μg/mL), extract (1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/mL), and PC (100, 150, 200 and 350 mg/mL) were subjected to anti-crystallization activities...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580525/assessment-of-effects-of-phenolic-fractions-from-leaves-and-petals-of-dandelion-in-selected-components-of-hemostasis
#5
Bernadetta Lis, Dariusz Jędrejek, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Aerial parts and roots of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) have been found to be rich sources of polyphenols, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and triterpenoids, which exert different biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial. Additionally, the whole plant is recognized as safe and well tolerated by humans, with no reported adverse effects. Nowadays, dandelion is a commonly available dietary supplement and a component of pharmaceutical preparations used for the treatment of bladder, liver, and spleen...
May 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574282/the-anti-inflammatory-nhe-06-restores-antitumor-immunity-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-6-stat3-signaling-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Xian Lu, Guanqun Wo, Binghua Li, Chun Xu, Junhua Wu, Chunping Jiang, Jiwu Wei
The NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 inflammatory axis is highly activated in a variety of inflammation-related cancers and contributes to suppression of antitumor immunity. In this study, we generated a novel herbal formula NHE-06, a water-decocting extract from six natural herbals, Ficus carica, Taraxacum mongolicum, Angelica sinensis, Lonicera japonica, Pseudo-ginseng and Folium ginkgo. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of NHE-06 and its antitumor efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma, a typical inflammation-related cancer...
March 22, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548293/taraxacum-officinale-and-urtica-dioica-extracts-inhibit-dengue-virus-serotype-2-replication-in-vitro
#7
María R Flores-Ocelotl, Nora H Rosas-Murrieta, Diego A Moreno, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Fabiola Domínguez, Gerardo Santos-López
BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). METHODS: Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn...
March 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535741/is-the-success-of-plant-invasions-the-result-of-rapid-adaptive-evolution-in-seed-traits-evidence-from-a-latitudinal-rainfall-gradient
#8
Marco A Molina-Montenegro, Ian S Acuña-Rodríguez, Tomás S M Flores, Rasme Hereme, Alejandra Lafon, Cristian Atala, Cristian Torres-Díaz
It has been widely suggested that invasion success along broad environmental gradients may be partially due to phenotypic plasticity, but rapid evolution could also be a relevant factor for invasions. Seed and fruit traits can be relevant for plant invasiveness since they are related to dispersal, germination, and fitness. Some seed traits vary along environmental gradients and can be heritable, with the potential to evolve by means of natural selection. Utilizing cross-latitude and reciprocal-transplant experiments, we evaluated the adaptive value of seed thickness as assessed by survival and biomass accumulation in Taraxacum officinale plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531716/increased-transgenerational-epigenetic-variation-but-not-predictable-epigenetic-variants-after-environmental-exposure-in-two-apomictic-dandelion-lineages
#9
Veronica Preite, Carla Oplaat, Arjen Biere, Jan Kirschner, Wim H van der Putten, Koen J F Verhoeven
DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic modifications. DNA methylations can be environmentally induced and such induced modifications can at times be transmitted to successive generations. However, it remains speculative how common such environmentally induced transgenerational DNA methylation changes are and if they persist for more than one offspring generation. We exposed multiple accessions of two different apomictic dandelion lineages of the Taraxacum officinale group ( Taraxacum alatum and T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516423/radionuclide-uptake-and-dose-assessment-of-14-herbaceous-species-from-the-east-ural-radioactive-trace-area-using-the-erica-tool
#10
Elina M Karimullina, Lyudmila N Mikhailovskaya, Elena V Antonova, Vera N Pozolotina
The evaluation of radiation exposure in 14 species of herbaceous plants from the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) zone was performed, using the ERICA Tool, v. 1.2. Recent (up to 2015) levels of radionuclide activity concentration were measured in soil and vegetative plant mass. 239,240 Pu content was used for the first time to estimate external dose rates for herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. In addition, a new approach to assessing the geometry of objects was adopted, including not only aboveground but also underground plant organs...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507587/isolation-and-identification-of-compounds-from-bioactive-extracts-of-taraxacum-officinale-weber-ex-f-h-wigg-dandelion-as-a-potential-source-of-antibacterial-agents
#11
Katy Díaz, Luis Espinoza, Alejandro Madrid, Leonardo Pizarro, Rolando Chamy
Currently, the most effective treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections in women is antibiotics. However, the limitation for this treatment is the duration and dosage of antibiotics and the resistance that bacteria develop after a long period of administration. With the aim of identifying mainly novel natural agents with antibacterial activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological and phytochemical properties of extracts from the leaves Taraxacum officinale. The structural identification of compounds present in hexane (Hex) and ethyl acetate (AcOEt) extracts was performed by mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectroscopic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with the major compounds corresponding to different sesquiterpene lactones ( α -santonin, glabellin, arborescin, and estafiatin), monoterpene (9,10-dimethyltricycle [4...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460055/an-assessment-of-the-risk-of-element-contamination-of-urban-and-industrial-areas-using-taraxacum-sect-ruderalia-as-a-bioindicator
#12
Alena Fröhlichová, Jiřina Száková, Jana Najmanová, Pavel Tlustoš
Central Bohemia (Czech Republic) has highly developed industry and a dense rail network. Here, we aimed to determine the content of risk elements in dandelion plants (Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia) growing near train stations, industrial enterprises, and in the city parks of 16 cities in the Central Bohemian region. The highest element contents in the soils were found in industrial areas affected by the historical mining and smelting activities; contemporary industry showed no substantial effect on the soil element contents...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459875/decrease-in-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-temperate-grassland-species-does-not-lead-to-a-decline-in-the-gross-primary-production-of-the-ecosystem
#13
Anthony Digrado, Louis G de la Motte, Aurélie Bachy, Ahsan Mozaffar, Niels Schoon, Filippo Bussotti, Crist Amelynck, Anne-Catherine Dalcq, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Marc Aubinet, Bernard Heinesch, Patrick du Jardin, Pierre Delaplace
Plants, under stressful conditions, can proceed to photosynthetic adjustments in order to acclimatize and alleviate the detrimental impacts on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, it is currently unclear how adjustment of photosynthetic processes under environmental constraints by plants influences CO2 gas exchange at the ecosystem-scale. Over a 2-year period, photosynthetic performance of a temperate grassland ecosystem was characterized by conducting frequent chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements on three primary grassland species ( Lolium perenne L...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455469/insect-herbivory-and-plant-adaptation-in-an-early-successional-community
#14
Anurag A Agrawal, Amy P Hastings, Daniel M Fines, Steve Bogdanowicz, Meret Huber
To address the role of insect herbivores in adaptation of plant populations and the persistence of selection through succession, we manipulated herbivory in a long-term field experiment. We suppressed insects in half of 16 plots over nine years and examined the genotypic structure and chemical defense of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), a naturally colonizing perennial apomictic plant. Insect suppression doubled dandelion abundance in the first few years, but had negligible effects thereafter. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we genotyped >2500 plants and demonstrate that insect suppression altered the genotypic composition of plots in both sampling years...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446732/biomedical-potentialities-of-taraxacum-officinale-based-nanoparticles-biosynthesized-using-methanolic-leaf-extract
#15
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Chuanlong Li, Hafiz M N Iqbal
BACKGROUND: In the present study, the potential of methanolic leaf extract of Taraxacum officinale plant as a function of bio-inspired green synthesis for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored. METHODS: The bio-reduction of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution was confirmed by visually detecting the color change from pale yellow to blackish-brown. Maximum absorbance was observed at 420 nm due to the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance of nano silver by UV-visible spectroscopy...
February 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377321/small-rubber-particle-proteins-from-taraxacum-brevicorniculatum-promote-stress-tolerance-and-influence-the-size-and-distribution-of-lipid-droplets-and-artificial-poly-cis-1-4-isoprene-bodies
#16
Natalie Laibach, Sina Schmidl, Boje Müller, Maike Bergmann, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs on rubber particles, i.e. organelles resembling small lipid droplets localized in the laticifers of latex-containing plant species, such as Hevea brasiliensis and Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. The latter expresses five small rubber particle protein (SRPP) isoforms named TbSRPP1-5, the most abundant proteins in rubber particles. These proteins maintain particle stability and are therefore necessary for rubber biosynthesis. TbSRPP1-5 were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and the proteins were found to be localized on lipid droplets and in the endoplasmic reticulum, with TbSRPP1 and TbSRPP3 also present in the cytosol...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218491/a-specific-amino-acid-residue-in-the-catalytic-site-of-dandelion-polyphenol-oxidases-acts-as-selector-for-substrate-specificity
#17
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
January 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207134/novel-herbal-medicine-la16001-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-anorexia
#18
Sang-Mi Woo, Kang Min Lee, Gyu Ri Lee, Ji Youn Park, Hee Jae Lee, Hyo-Jung Bahn, Hyun Seok Yoon, Jem Yung Kim, Young Cheol Shin, Sung-Gook Cho, Seong-Gyu Ko
Chemotherapy frequently causes anorexia in cancer patients, which has been associated with poor disease prognosis. Several therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chemotherapy‑induced anorexia are available; however, their adverse effects limit their clinical use. Herbal medicines have a long history of use for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, and recent research has demonstrated their safety and efficacy. In the present study, combinations of herbal medicines were designed based on traditional Korean medicine, and their effects were investigated on chemotherapy‑induced anorexia...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205317/fitness-consequences-of-occasional-outcrossing-in-a-functionally-asexual-plant-oenothera-biennis
#19
John L Maron, Marc T J Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Anurag A Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self fertilizes, which, due to its genetic system (permanent translocation heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but without recombination or increased heterozygosity)...
February 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197063/indicators-of-environmental-contamination-by-heavy-metals-in-leaves-of-taraxacum-officinale-in-two-zones-of-the-metropolitan-area-of-mexico-city
#20
Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Arisbel Barba-García, Francisco Arenas-Huertero, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Rocío García-Martínez
The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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