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Taraxacum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578091/in%C3%A2-vitro-assessment-of-argemone-mexicana-taraxacum-officinale-ruta-chalepensis-and-tagetes-filifolia-against-haemonchus-contortus-nematode-eggs-and-infective-l3-larvae
#1
Gabriela Jasso Díaz, Glafiro Torres Hernández, Alejandro Zamilpa, Carlos Miguel Becerril Pérez, J Efrén Ramírez Bribiesca, Omar Hernández Mendo, Hussein Sánchez Arroyo, Manasés González Cortazar, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
Argemone mexicana, Taraxacum officinale, Ruta chalepensis and Tagetes filifolia are plants with deworming potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methanolic extracts of aerial parts of these plants against Haemonchus contortus eggs and infective larvae (L3) and identify compounds responsible for the anthelmintic activity. In vitro probes were performed to identify the anthelmintic activity of plant extracts: egg hatching inhibition (EHI) and larvae mortality. Open column Chromatography was used to bio-guided fractionation of the extract, which shows the best anthelmintic effect...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573965/characterization-of-croatian-rape-brassica-sp-honey-by-pollen-spectrum-physicochemical-characteristics-and-multielement-analysis-by-icp-oes
#2
Blanka Bilić Rajs, Ivana Flanjak, Jelena Mutić, Vesna Vukojević, Slađana Đurđić, Ljiljana Primorac
Rape (Brassica sp.) unifloral honey from Croatia was characterized by certain physicochemical parameters, micro- and macroelement content, and pollen spectrum, as determined in 21 honey samples. The Brassica sp. pollen type was predominant in the analyzed samples and ranged between 60 and 98%, with Trifolium spp., Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosaceae, Helianthus annuus, Salix spp., and Taraxacum officinale as the main accompanying pollen types. The electrical conductivity mean value was 0.22 ± 0.05 mS/cm and the glucose/fructose ratio mean value was 1...
June 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570890/air-pollution-tolerance-index-and-heavy-metal-bioaccumulation-in-selected-plant-species-from-urban-biotopes
#3
Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Marta Kandziora-Ciupa, Michał Trzęsicki, Gabriela Barczyk
This research was carried out on plants Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Betula pendula and Robinia pseudoacacia growing in urban biotopes with different levels of heavy metal contamination in the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza (southern Poland). Based on the pollution index, the highest heavy metal contamination was determined in the site 4 (connected with industry emitters) and 6 (high traffic). The metal accumulation index (MAI) values ranged within the biotopes in Dąbrowa Górnicza between 7.3 and 20...
May 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532507/isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-dandelion-latex-is-enhanced-by-the-overexpression-of-three-key-enzymes-involved-in-the-mevalonate-pathway
#4
Katharina M Pütter, Nicole van Deenen, Kristina Unland, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
BACKGROUND: Latex from the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum contains many high-value isoprenoid end products, e.g. triterpenes and polyisoprenes such as natural rubber. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate units required as precursors for these isoprenoids are provided by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The key enzyme in this pathway is 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and its activity has been thoroughly characterized in many plant species including dandelion. However, two enzymes acting upstream of HMGR have not been characterized in dandelion latex: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which provides the acetyl-CoA utilized in the MVA pathway, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), which catalyzes the first step in the pathway to produce acetoacetyl-CoA...
May 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523073/improved-axenic-hydroponic-whole-plant-propagation-for-rapid-production-of-roots-as-transformation-target-tissue
#5
Kyle Benzle, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are used as an efficient target tissue for plant transformation assays. In root propagable species transformed roots are able to regenerate into whole plants without the addition of exogenous hormones, thus avoiding somaclonal variation associated with many plant transformation protocols. Plants grown in soil or soilless solid medium have roots that tend to be extremely delicate and are difficult to sterilize in advance of plant transformation experiments. Axenic tissue culture plants grown on semi-solid media are slow to produce large amounts of biomass compared to plants grown in solution-based media...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482898/ethnopharmacological-survey-of-medicinal-plants-practiced-by-traditional-healers-and-herbalists-for-treatment-of-some-urological-diseases-in-the-west-bank-palestine
#6
Nidal Amin Jaradat, Abdel Naser Zaid, Rowa Al-Ramahi, Malik A Alqub, Fatima Hussein, Zakaria Hamdan, Mahmoud Mustafa, Mohammad Qneibi, Iyad Ali
BACKGROUND: Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants...
May 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480383/in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-taraxasterol-against-animal-models
#7
Ying Wang, Guan-Hao Li, Xin-Yu Liu, Lu Xu, Sha-Sha Wang, Xue-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine Taraxacum officinale has been widely used to treat various inflammatory diseases. Taraxasterol is one of the main active components isolated from Taraxacum officinale. Recently, we have demonstrated that taraxasterol has the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol against animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in four animal models by using dimethylbenzene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma tests...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461119/taraxacum-mongolicum-extract-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-associated-apoptosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Xiao-Hong Li, Xi-Ran He, Yan-Yan Zhou, Hai-Yu Zhao, Wen-Xian Zheng, Shan-Tong Jiang, Qun Zhou, Ping-Ping Li, Shu-Yan Han
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options. It is necessary to seek complementary strategies for TNBC management. Taraxacum mongolicum, commonly named as dandelion, is a herb medicine with anti-cancer activity and has been utilized to treat mammary abscess, hyperplasia of mammary glands from ancient time in China, but the scientific evidence and action mechanisms still need to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was intended to investigate the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanisms of dandelion extract in TNBC cell line...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432976/cuticular-wax-coverage-and-composition-differ-among-organs-of-taraxacum-officinale
#9
Yanjun Guo, Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
Primary plant surfaces are coated with hydrophobic cuticular waxes to minimize non-stomatal water loss. Wax compositions differ greatly between plant species and, in the few species studied systematically so far, also between organs, tissues, and developmental stages. However, the wax mixtures of more species in diverse plant families must be investigated to assess overall wax variability, and ultimately to correlate organ-specific composition with local water barrier properties. Here, we present comprehensive analyses of the waxes covering five organs of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), to help close a gap in our understanding of wax chemistry in the Asteraceae family...
June 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411316/phytoextraction-of-rare-earth-elements-in-herbaceous-plant-species-growing-close-to-roads
#10
Patrycja Mikołajczak, Klaudia Borowiak, Przemysław Niedzielski
The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378154/plant-derived-phosphocholine-facilitates-cellular-uptake-of-anti-pulmonary-fibrotic-hjt-srna-m7
#11
Jianchao Du, Zhu Liang, Jiantao Xu, Yan Zhao, Xiaoyun Li, Yanli Zhang, Dandan Zhao, Ruxuan Chen, Yang Liu, Trupti Joshi, Jiahui Chang, Zhiqing Wang, Yanxu Zhang, Jindong Zhu, Qiang Liu, Dong Xu, Chengyu Jiang
Pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive chronic disease with a high mortality rate, has limited treatment options. Currently, lung transplantation remains the only effective treatment. Here we report that a small RNA, HJT-sRNA-m7, from a Chinese herbal medicine Hong Jing Tian (HJT, Rhodiola crenulata can effectively reduce the expressions of fibrotic hallmark genes and proteins both in alveolar in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. We also discovered over one hundred oil-soluble chemicals from HJT decoctions, most of which are found in lipid extracts from other Chinese herbals decoctions, including Pu Gong Ying (PGY, Taraxacum mongolicum), Chuan Xin Lian (CXL, Andrographis paniculata), and Jin Yin Hua (JYH, lonicera japonica or Honeysuckle)...
March 31, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364786/dandelion-enriched-diet-of-mothers-alleviates-lead-induced-damages-in-liver-of-newborn-rats
#12
M Gargouri, C Magné, I Ben Amara, H Ben Saad, A El Feki
Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated)...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#13
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278637/chemical-constituents-of-the-aerial-part-of-taraxacum-mongolicum-and-their-chemotaxonomic-significance
#14
Wei Li, Changyeol Lee, Young Ho Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Sang Hee Shim
A phytochemical investigation of Taraxacum mongolicum led to the isolation of 24 compounds, including six flavonoids (1-6), four sesquiterpenes (7-10), two sphingolipids (11 and 12), six glycerols (13-18) and six triterpenoids and sterols (19-24). The structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods, and their data compared with those reported in the literature. This is the first report of compounds 11-19 from T. mongolicum and the genus Taraxacum, and compounds 11, 12, 15, 16, 18 and 19 from the Asteraceae family...
February 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273864/screening-of-peruvian-medicinal-plants-for-tyrosinase-inhibitory-properties-identification-of-tyrosinase-inhibitors-in-hypericum-laricifolium-juss
#15
Yanymee Nimesia Guillen Quispe, Seung Hwan Hwang, Zhiqiang Wang, Soon Sung Lim
Tyrosinase inhibitors are of far-ranging importance in cosmetics, medicinal products, and food industries. Peru is a diverse country with a wide variety of plants that may contain excellent anti-tyrosinase inhibitors. In the present study, the tyrosinase inhibitory properties of 50 medicinal plant extracts from Peru were investigated using tyrosinase assay. Among plant extracts, those that showed an inhibition rate >50% were Hypericum laricifolium Juss., Taraxacum officinaleF.H.Wigg., and Muehlenbeckia vulcanicaMeisn...
March 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260050/taraxacum%C3%A2-coreanum-protects-against-glutamate-induced-neurotoxicity-through-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-mouse-hippocampal-ht22-cells
#16
Chi-Su Yoon, Wonmin Ko, Dong-Sung Lee, Dong-Cheol Kim, Jongsu Kim, Moonbum Choi, Jin Seon Beom, Ren-Bo An, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Taraxacum coreanum Nakai is a dandelion that is native to Korea, and is widely used as an edible and medicinal herb. The present study revealed the neuroprotective effect of this plant against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells. Ethanolic extracts from the aerial (TCAE) and the root parts (TCRE) of T. coreanum were prepared. Both extracts were demonstrated, by high performance liquid chromatography, to contain caffeic acid and ferulic acid as representative constituents...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182646/complete-chloroplast-genomes-from-apomictic-taraxacum-asteraceae-identity-and-variation-between-three-microspecies
#17
Rubar Hussein M Salih, Ľuboš Majeský, Trude Schwarzacher, Richard Gornall, Pat Heslop-Harrison
Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158284/impacts-of-fire-on-non-native-plant-recruitment-in-black-spruce-forests-of-interior-alaska
#18
Xanthe J Walker, Matthew D Frey, Alexandra J Conway, Mélanie Jean, Jill F Johnstone
Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157176/the-essential-oil-of-monarda-didyma-l-lamiaceae-exerts-phytotoxic-activity-in-vitro-against-various-weed-seed
#19
Donata Ricci, Francesco Epifano, Daniele Fraternale
The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L...
February 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152978/chloroplast-genome-resources-and-molecular-markers-differentiate-rubber-dandelion-species-from-weedy-relatives
#20
Yingxiao Zhang, Brian J Iaffaldano, Xiaofeng Zhuang, John Cardina, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, TK) is being developed as a domestic source of natural rubber to meet increasing global demand. However, the domestication of TK is complicated by its colocation with two weedy dandelion species, Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TB) and the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO). TB is often present as a seed contaminant within TK accessions, while TO is a pandemic weed, which may have the potential to hybridize with TK. To discriminate these species at the molecular level, and facilitate gene flow studies between the potential rubber crop, TK, and its weedy relatives, we generated genomic and marker resources for these three dandelion species...
February 2, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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