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Taraxacum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432976/cuticular-wax-coverage-and-composition-differ-among-organs-of-taraxacum-officinale
#1
Yanjun Guo, Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
Primary plant surfaces are coated with hydrophobic cuticular waxes to minimize non-stomatal water loss. Wax compositions differ greatly between plant species and, in the few species studied systematically so far, also between organs, tissues, and developmental stages. However, the wax mixtures of more species in diverse plant families must be investigated to assess overall wax variability, and ultimately to correlate organ-specific composition with local water barrier properties. Here, we present comprehensive analyses of the waxes covering five organs of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), to help close a gap in our understanding of wax chemistry in the Asteraceae family...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411316/phytoextraction-of-rare-earth-elements-in-herbaceous-plant-species-growing-close-to-roads
#2
Patrycja Mikołajczak, Klaudia Borowiak, Przemysław Niedzielski
The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378154/plant-derived-phosphocholine-facilitates-cellular-uptake-of-anti-pulmonary-fibrotic-hjt-srna-m7
#3
Jianchao Du, Zhu Liang, Jiantao Xu, Yan Zhao, Xiaoyun Li, Yanli Zhang, Dandan Zhao, Ruxuan Chen, Yang Liu, Trupti Joshi, Jiahui Chang, Zhiqing Wang, Yanxu Zhang, Jindong Zhu, Qiang Liu, Dong Xu, Chengyu Jiang
Pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive chronic disease with a high mortality rate, has limited treatment options. Currently, lung transplantation remains the only effective treatment. Here we report that a small RNA, HJT-sRNA-m7, from a Chinese herbal medicine Hong Jing Tian (HJT, Rhodiola crenulata can effectively reduce the expressions of fibrotic hallmark genes and proteins both in alveolar in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. We also discovered over one hundred oil-soluble chemicals from HJT decoctions, most of which are found in lipid extracts from other Chinese herbals decoctions, including Pu Gong Ying (PGY, Taraxacum mongolicum), Chuan Xin Lian (CXL, Andrographis paniculata), and Jin Yin Hua (JYH, lonicera japonica or Honeysuckle)...
March 31, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364786/dandelion-enriched-diet-of-mothers-alleviates-lead-induced-damages-in-liver-of-newborn-rats
#4
M Gargouri, C Magné, I Ben Amara, H Ben Saad, A El Feki
Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated)...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#5
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278637/chemical-constituents-of-the-aerial-part-of-taraxacum-mongolicum-and-their-chemotaxonomic-significance
#6
Wei Li, Changyeol Lee, Young Ho Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Sang Hee Shim
A phytochemical investigation of Taraxacum mongolicum led to the isolation of 24 compounds, including six flavonoids (1-6), four sesquiterpenes (7-10), two sphingolipids (11 and 12), six glycerols (13-18) and six triterpenoids and sterols (19-24). The structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods, and their data compared with those reported in the literature. This is the first report of compounds 11-19 from T. mongolicum and the genus Taraxacum, and compounds 11, 12, 15, 16, 18 and 19 from the Asteraceae family...
February 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273864/screening-of-peruvian-medicinal-plants-for-tyrosinase-inhibitory-properties-identification-of-tyrosinase-inhibitors-in-hypericum-laricifolium-juss
#7
Yanymee Nimesia Guillen Quispe, Seung Hwan Hwang, Zhiqiang Wang, Soon Sung Lim
Tyrosinase inhibitors are of far-ranging importance in cosmetics, medicinal products, and food industries. Peru is a diverse country with a wide variety of plants that may contain excellent anti-tyrosinase inhibitors. In the present study, the tyrosinase inhibitory properties of 50 medicinal plant extracts from Peru were investigated using tyrosinase assay. Among plant extracts, those that showed an inhibition rate >50% were Hypericum laricifolium Juss., Taraxacum officinaleF.H.Wigg., and Muehlenbeckia vulcanicaMeisn...
March 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260050/taraxacum%C3%A2-coreanum-protects-against-glutamate-induced-neurotoxicity-through-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-mouse-hippocampal-ht22-cells
#8
Chi-Su Yoon, Wonmin Ko, Dong-Sung Lee, Dong-Cheol Kim, Jongsu Kim, Moonbum Choi, Jin Seon Beom, Ren-Bo An, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Taraxacum coreanum Nakai is a dandelion that is native to Korea, and is widely used as an edible and medicinal herb. The present study revealed the neuroprotective effect of this plant against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells. Ethanolic extracts from the aerial (TCAE) and the root parts (TCRE) of T. coreanum were prepared. Both extracts were demonstrated, by high performance liquid chromatography, to contain caffeic acid and ferulic acid as representative constituents...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182646/complete-chloroplast-genomes-from-apomictic-taraxacum-asteraceae-identity-and-variation-between-three-microspecies
#9
Rubar Hussein M Salih, Ľuboš Majeský, Trude Schwarzacher, Richard Gornall, Pat Heslop-Harrison
Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158284/impacts-of-fire-on-non-native-plant-recruitment-in-black-spruce-forests-of-interior-alaska
#10
Xanthe J Walker, Matthew D Frey, Alexandra J Conway, Mélanie Jean, Jill F Johnstone
Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157176/the-essential-oil-of-monarda-didyma-l-lamiaceae-exerts-phytotoxic-activity-in-vitro-against-various-weed-seed
#11
Donata Ricci, Francesco Epifano, Daniele Fraternale
The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L...
February 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152978/chloroplast-genome-resources-and-molecular-markers-differentiate-rubber-dandelion-species-from-weedy-relatives
#12
Yingxiao Zhang, Brian J Iaffaldano, Xiaofeng Zhuang, John Cardina, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, TK) is being developed as a domestic source of natural rubber to meet increasing global demand. However, the domestication of TK is complicated by its colocation with two weedy dandelion species, Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TB) and the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO). TB is often present as a seed contaminant within TK accessions, while TO is a pandemic weed, which may have the potential to hybridize with TK. To discriminate these species at the molecular level, and facilitate gene flow studies between the potential rubber crop, TK, and its weedy relatives, we generated genomic and marker resources for these three dandelion species...
February 2, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077102/effects-of-aqueous-extracts-of-taraxacum-officinale-on-expression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-in-lps-stimulated-rmmvecs
#13
Ge Hu, Junjie Wang, Dong Hong, Tao Zhang, Huiqin Duan, Xiang Mu, Zuojun Yang
BACKGROUND: Mastitis gives rise to big financial burden to farm industry (mainly dairy production) and public health. Its incidence is currently high and therefore, highly effective treatments for therapy, especially with natural products are required. Taraxacum officinale has been reported to use for anti-inflammation. However, its effect on endothelium during mastitis has not been reported. METHODS: We firstly established inflammation experimental model of rat mammary microvascular endothelial cells (RMMVECs)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#14
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
May 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026992/sesquiterpene-lactone-composition-and-cellular-nrf2-induction-of-taraxacum-officinale-leaves-and-roots-and-taraxinic-acid-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-ester
#15
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Betina Obermair, Tabea Dorn, Karsten Siems, Gerald Rimbach, Marc Birringer
Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, is a plant of the Asteraceae family, which is used as a food and medical herb. Various secondary plant metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, and steroids have been described to be present in T. officinale. Dandelion may exhibit various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. We analyzed the leaves and roots of the common dandelion (T. officinale) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine its sesquiterpene lactone composition...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012278/the-physiological-effects-of-dandelion-taraxacum-officinale-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
Fonyuy E Wirngo, Max N Lambert, Per B Jeppesen
The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treatment of T2D. The anti-diabetic properties of dandelion are attributed to bioactive chemical components; these include chicoric acid, taraxasterol (TS), chlorogenic acid, and sesquiterpene lactones...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011434/facile-and-green-synthesis-of-phytochemicals-capped-platinum-nanoparticles-and-in-vitro-their-superior-antibacterial-activity
#17
Kamran Tahir, Sadia Nazir, Aftab Ahmad, Baoshan Li, Arif Ullah Khan, Zia Ul Haq Khan, Faheem Ullah Khan, Qudrat Ullah Khan, Abrar Khan, Aziz Ur Rahman
The increase in the severe infectious diseases and resistance of the majority of the bacterial pathogens to the available drug is a serious problem now a day. In order to overcome this problem it is necessary to develop new therapeutic agents which are non-toxic and more effective to inhibit these microbial pathogens. For this purpose the plant extract of highly active medicinal plant, Taraxacum laevigatum was used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to enhance its bio-activities. The surface plasmon resonance peak appeared at 283nm clearly represent the formation of PtNPs...
January 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939548/using-plant-wax-markers-to-estimate-the-diet-composition-of-grazing-holstein-dairy-cows
#18
C Heublein, K-H Südekum, F L Gill, F Dohme-Meier, F Schori
The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923645/evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity-of-phenolic-fractions-from-the-leaves%C3%A2-and-petals-of-dandelion-in-human-plasma-treated-with-h2o2-and-h2o2-fe
#19
Dariusz Jędrejek, Bogdan Kontek, Bernadetta Lis, Anna Stochmal, Beata Olas
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) is a widespread perennial of the Asteraceae family. Dandelion is a rich source of different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamin and minerals. However, the content of phenolics in tested extracts by various authors was not always well described. Dandelion is also a commonly available food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. In this study, we focused on four different phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion, which might be of great interest...
January 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922131/different-responses-of-alpine-plants-to-nitrogen-addition-effects-on-plant-plant-interactions
#20
Jun Wang, Peng Luo, Hao Yang, Chengxiang Mou, Li Mo
The different responses of plant species to resource stress are keys to understand the dynamics of plant community in a changing environment. To test the hypothesis that nitrogen (N) increase would benefit N competitive species, rather than N stress-tolerant species, to compete with neighbours, we conducted an experiment with neighbour removal, N addition and soil moisture as treatments in an alpine grassland on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Both growths and competitive-response abilities (CRA, the ability to tolerate the inhibitory effects of neighbors) of Kobresia macrantha, Polygonum viviparum and Potentilla anserine in wet site were facilitated by N addition, conversely, both growths and CRA of Taraxacum mongolicum and Ligularia virgaurea were suppressed by N addition, indicating that the responses of CRA of target species under N addition were consistent with the N utilization strategies of them...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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