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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218491/a-specific-amino-acid-residue-in-the-catalytic-site-of-dandelion-polyphenol-oxidases-acts-as-selector-for-substrate-specificity
#1
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
December 7, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207134/novel-herbal-medicine-la16001-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-anorexia
#2
Sang-Mi Woo, Kang Min Lee, Gyu Ri Lee, Ji Youn Park, Hee Jae Lee, Hyo-Jung Bahn, Hyun Seok Yoon, Jem Yung Kim, Young Cheol Shin, Sung-Gook Cho, Seong-Gyu Ko
Chemotherapy frequently causes anorexia in cancer patients, which has been associated with poor disease prognosis. Several therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chemotherapy‑induced anorexia are available; however, their adverse effects limit their clinical use. Herbal medicines have a long history of use for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, and recent research has demonstrated their safety and efficacy. In the present study, combinations of herbal medicines were designed based on traditional Korean medicine, and their effects were investigated on chemotherapy‑induced anorexia...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205317/fitness-consequences-of-occasional-outcrossing-in-a-functionally-asexual-plant-oenothera-biennis
#3
John L Maron, Marc T J Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Anurag A Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self-fertilizes, which due to its genetic system (Permanent Translocation Heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but without recombination or increased heterozygosity)...
December 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197063/indicators-of-environmental-contamination-by-heavy-metals-in-leaves-of-taraxacum-officinale-in-two-zones-of-the-metropolitan-area-of-mexico-city
#4
Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Arisbel Barba-García, Francisco Arenas-Huertero, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Rocío García-Martínez
The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189886/antiurolithiatic-effect-of-the-taraxasterol-on-ethylene-glycol-induced-kidney-calculi-in-male-rats
#5
Mahboubeh Yousefi Ghale-Salimi, Maryam Eidi, Nasser Ghaemi, Ramezan Ali Khavari-Nejad
Taraxasterol is one of the important constituents of Taraxacum officinale L. (Compositae) with antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the antiurolithiatic effects of taraxasterol and potassium citrate in the ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rat. Urolithiasis was induced by ammonium chloride and ethylene glycol in adult male rats. Taraxasterol (2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) and potassium citrate (2.5 g/kg) were treated for 33 days by gavage. Then, the animals were anesthetized and weighted and blood, urine, liver and kidney sampling were done...
November 30, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187173/anti-inflammatory-evaluation-of-the-methanolic-extract-of-taraxacum-officinale-in-lps-stimulated-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#6
Daun Jeon, Seok Joong Kim, Hong Seok Kim
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Since even low-level endotoxemia constitutes a powerful and independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to find therapies directed against the vascular effects of endotoxin to prevent atherosclerosis. Taraxacum officinale (TO) is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties, but its anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells has not been established...
November 29, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146946/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-meja-induced-taraxacum-koksaghyz-rodin-to-identify-genes-related-to-rubber-formation
#7
XinWen Cao, Jie Yan, JiLiang Lei, Jin Li, JianBo Zhu, HuiYan Zhang
Increase in the consumption of natural rubber (NR) has necessitated the identification of alternative sources of NR. The quality of NR produced by Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) is comparable to that from Hevea brasiliensis (H.brasiliensis), and therefore, TKS is being considered as an alternative source of NR. Here, we sequenced the TKS root transcriptome after wild TKS seedlings were treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 0, 6, and 24 h. The clean reads generated for each experimental line were assembled into 127,833 unigenes...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034954/intergenerational-environmental-effects-functional-signals-in-offspring-transcriptomes-and-metabolomes-after-parental-jasmonic-acid-treatment-in-apomictic-dandelion
#8
Koen J F Verhoeven, Eline H Verbon, Thomas P van Gurp, Carla Oplaat, Julie Ferreira de Carvalho, Alison M Morse, Mark Stahl, Mirka Macel, Lauren M McIntyre
Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory-induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and control treatments, we performed leaf RNA-seq gene expression analysis, LC-MS metabolomics and total phenolics assays in offspring plants...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032464/nutritional-composition-of-honey-bee-food-stores-vary-with-floral-composition
#9
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
December 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917974/cross-cultural-analysis-of-medicinal-plants-commonly-used-in-ethnoveterinary-practices-at-south-waziristan-agency-and-bajaur-agency-federally-administrated-tribal-areas-fata-pakistan
#10
Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Adnan, Amir Hasan Khan, Muhammad Sufyan, Shahid Niaz Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902635/gc-ms-characterization-of-n-hexane-soluble-fraction-from-dandelion-taraxacum-officinale-weber-ex-f-h-wigg-aerial-parts-and-its-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties
#11
Ivan Ivanov, Nadezhda Petkova, Julian Tumbarski, Ivayla Dincheva, Ilian Badjakov, Panteley Denev, Atanas Pavlov
A comparative investigation of n-hexane soluble compounds from aerial parts of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) collected during different vegetative stages was carried out. The GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane (unpolar) fraction showed the presence of 30 biologically active compounds. Phytol [14.7% of total ion current (TIC)], lupeol (14.5% of TIC), taraxasteryl acetate (11.4% of TIC), β-sitosterol (10.3% of TIC), α-amyrin (9.0% of TIC), β-amyrin (8.3% of TIC), and cycloartenol acetate (5...
September 13, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855528/analysis-of-the-first-taraxacum-kok-saghyz-transcriptome-reveals-potential-rubber-yield-related-snps
#12
Zinan Luo, Brian J Iaffaldano, Xiaofeng Zhuang, Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Katrina Cornish
Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TK) is a potential alternative crop for natural rubber (NR) production, due to its high molecular weight rubber, short breeding cycle, and diverse environmental adaptation. However, improvements in rubber yield and agronomically relevant traits are still required before it can become a commercially-viable crop. An RNA-Seq based transcriptome was developed from a pool of roots from genotypes with high and low rubber yield. A total of 55,532 transcripts with lengths over 200 bp were de novo assembled...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805750/inositol-derivatives-and-phenolic-compounds-from-the-roots-of-taraxacum-coreanum
#13
Eun Jin Mo, Jong Hoon Ahn, Yang Hee Jo, Seon Beom Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
In this study, the characterization of chemical constituents and biological activity of the roots of Taraxacum coreanum (Asteraceae) was attempted. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of T. coreanum led to the isolation of two new inositol derivatives, taraxinositols A (1) and B (2), and a new phenolic compound, taraxinol (16), together with twenty known compounds including four inositol derivatives, neo-inositol-1,4-bis (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (3), chiro-inositol-1,5-bis(4- hydroxybenzeneacetate) (4), chiro-inositol-2,3-bis (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (5) and chiro-inositol- 1,2,3-tris (4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) (6), nine phenolic compounds: p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7), vanillin (8), syringaldehyde (9), vanillic acid (10), 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (11), 4-hydroxy- phenylacetic acid methyl ester (12), optivanin (13), isoferulic acid (14) and dihydroconiferyl alcohol (15), four coumarins: nodakenetin (17), decursinol (18), prangol (19) and isobyakangelicin (20), and three lignans: syringaresinol-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (21), syringaresinol (22), and pinoresinol (23)...
August 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699009/bio-fabrication-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-the-leaf-extract-of-an-ancient-herbal-medicine-dandelion-taraxacum-officinale-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-anticancer-potential-and-antimicrobial-activity-against-phytopathogens
#14
Rijuta G Saratale, Giovanni Benelli, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Dong Su Kim, Ganesh D Saratale
In recent years, the use of nanoparticle-based antimicrobials has been increased due to many advantages over conventional agrochemicals. This study investigates the utilization of common medicinal plant dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (TOL-AgNPs). AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against two important phytopathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis and Pseudomonas syringae. The morphology, size, and structure of TOL-AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695334/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-are-present-on-spitsbergen
#15
K K Newsham, P B Eidesen, M L Davey, J Axelsen, E Courtecuisse, C Flintrop, A G Johansson, M Kiepert, S E Larsen, K E Lorberau, M Maurset, J McQuilkin, M Misiak, A Pop, S Thompson, D J Read
A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp...
July 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687507/gastroprotective-actions-of-taraxacum-coreanum-nakai-water-extracts-in-ethanol-induced-rat-models-of-acute-and-chronic-gastritis
#16
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Dae Young Kwon, Eun Seon Kang, Suna Kang, Sunmin Park
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Taraxacum coreanum Nakai has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory diseases including gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: We studied whether water extracts of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai (TCN) had a protective effect on acute and chronic gastritis induced by ethanol/HCl in an animal model of gastritis and its mechanism was also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the acute study, rats were orally administered 0...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653938/report-screening-of-the-anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-some-medicinal-plants-of-jordan
#17
Ahmad S Alkofahi, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour
Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in Jordan. Extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using Alloxan. Plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at every hour for 3 hours...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651306/heme-oxygenase-1-induction-and-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-and-taraxacum-herba-extracts-prevented-colitis-and-was-more-effective-than-sulfasalazine-in-preventing-relapse
#18
Kyu-Hyun Han, Jong-Min Park, Migyeong Jeong, Young-Min Han, Eun-Jin Go, Juyeon Park, Hocheol Kim, Jae Gab Han, Oran Kwon, Ki Baik Hahm
Background/Aims: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), repeated bouts of remission and relapse occur in patients and can impose a risk of colitis-associated cancer. We hypothesized that plant extracts of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) or Taraxacum herba (TH) may be better than sulfasalazine for treating this disease because these extracts can promote additional regeneration. Methods: Murine intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells were pretreated with AM or TH before a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced challenge...
September 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578091/in%C3%A2-vitro-assessment-of-argemone-mexicana-taraxacum-officinale-ruta-chalepensis-and-tagetes-filifolia-against-haemonchus-contortus-nematode-eggs-and-infective-l3-larvae
#19
Gabriela Jasso Díaz, Glafiro Torres Hernández, Alejandro Zamilpa, Carlos Miguel Becerril Pérez, J Efrén Ramírez Bribiesca, Omar Hernández Mendo, Hussein Sánchez Arroyo, Manasés González Cortazar, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
Argemone mexicana, Taraxacum officinale, Ruta chalepensis and Tagetes filifolia are plants with deworming potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methanolic extracts of aerial parts of these plants against Haemonchus contortus eggs and infective larvae (L3) and identify compounds responsible for the anthelmintic activity. In vitro probes were performed to identify the anthelmintic activity of plant extracts: egg hatching inhibition (EHI) and larvae mortality. Open column Chromatography was used to bio-guided fractionation of the extract, which shows the best anthelmintic effect...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573965/characterization-of-croatian-rape-brassica-sp-honey-by-pollen-spectrum-physicochemical-characteristics-and-multielement-analysis-by-icp-oes
#20
Blanka Bilić Rajs, Ivana Flanjak, Jelena Mutić, Vesna Vukojević, Slađana Đurđić, Ljiljana Primorac
Rape (Brassica sp.) unifloral honey from Croatia was characterized by certain physicochemical parameters, micro- and macroelement content, and pollen spectrum, as determined in 21 honey samples. The Brassica sp. pollen type was predominant in the analyzed samples and ranged between 60 and 98%, with Trifolium spp., Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosaceae, Helianthus annuus, Salix spp., and Taraxacum officinale as the main accompanying pollen types. The electrical conductivity mean value was 0.22 ± 0.05 mS/cm and the glucose/fructose ratio mean value was 1...
June 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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