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Montse Rigat, Airy Gras, Ugo D'Ambrosio, Teresa Garnatje, Montse Parada, Joan Vallès
BACKGROUND: Wild food plants (WFP) have always been consumed by humans, first as the main basis of their food and, since the origins of agriculture, as ingredients of normal diets or as an alternative during situations of scarcity. In contemporary industrialized societies their use is for the most part being abandoned, but they may still play an important role. With the purpose of advancing in the ethnobotanical knowledge of one region of the Catalan Pyrenees, the present study reports the findings of a research project conducted in the Ripollès district (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula), concerning ethnobotanical knowledge and use of wild and semi-wild vascular plants as foods, along with minor crops...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Sachiko Nishida, Keisuke Hashimoto, Masahiro M Kanaoka, Ko-Ichi Takakura, Takayoshi Nishida
Reproductive interference (RI) may be a contributing factor to the displacement of native species by an alien congener, and RI strength has been shown theoretically to affect distributional relationships between species. Thus, variations in RI strength from alien to native species result in different consequences of invasions and efforts to conserve native species, but the variations have seldom been examined empirically. We therefore investigated RI strength variations from the alien species Taraxacum officinale and its hybrids to eight populations of native dandelions, four T...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
S B Lerman, J Milam
Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km(2) of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014...
September 2016: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Takashi Kikuchi, Ayaka Tanaka, Mayu Uriuda, Takeshi Yamada, Reiko Tanaka
Three novel lupane-, bauerane-, and euphane-type triterpenoids (1-3), in addition to seven known triterpenoids (4-10)-18β,19β-epoxy-21β-hydroxylupan-3β-yl acetate (4), 21-oxolup-18-en-3β-yl acetate (5), betulin (6), officinatrione (7), 11α-methoxyolean-12-en-3-one (8), eupha-7,24-dien-3-one (9), and 24-oxoeupha-7,24-dien-3β-yl acetate (10)-were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D-NMR spectra and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Katherine A Orford, Phil J Murray, Ian P Vaughan, Jane Memmott
Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact of conventional grassland diversity and management on the functional diversity and ecosystem service provision of pollinator communities were investigated...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Katie M Becklin, George W R Mullinix, Joy K Ward
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180-1,000 µL L(-1)). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Jozef Kováčik, Matej Dudáš, Josef Hedbavny, Pavol Mártonfi
Accumulation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Zn) and phenolic metabolites (total soluble phenols, cichoric and caftaric acid) in dandelion organs (leaves, roots, inflorescences/anthodia) collected from six localities within the industrial town Košice (eastern Slovakia) were studied. Localities from the vicinity of a steel factory (Cd, Fe) and heavy traffic (Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn) contained the highest amount of individual metals in the soil but a significant correlation between soil and organ metal content was found only for Cr in the leaves (r(2) = 0...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Nan Yang, Gang Tian, Maomao Zhu, Chao Li, Weiquan Bu, Juan Chen, Xuefeng Hou, Ying Liu, Gang Wang, Xiaobin Jia, Liuqing Di, Zibo Dong, Liang Feng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: TMHM is a type of Chinese medicine commonly used in medical practice and has multiple functions, including clearing heat, detoxification, reducing swelling, and tumor therapy. Previous research has demonstrated that the OAC of TMHM (TMHM-OAC) displays advantageous therapeutic action against respiratory inflammation. However, the effect of TMHM-OAC on inflammatory injury and its anti-inflammatory role requires further clarification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro inflammation damage model was employed using NHBE cells and 100 ng/ml of (LPS)...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Monica Colitti, Bruno Stefanon
Several natural compounds exhibit strong capacity for decreasing triglyceride accumulation, enhancing lipolysis and inducing apoptosis. The present study reports the anti-adipogenic effects of Silybum marianum (SL), Citrus aurantium (CA), Taraxacum officinale (TO), resveratrol (RE), Curcuma longa (CU), caffeine (CF), oleuropein (OL) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing differentiation and increasing lipolysis and apoptosis. Analyses were performed on human primary visceral pre-adipocytes after 10 (P10) and 20 (P20) days of treatment during differentiation and on mature adipocytes after 7 days of treatment (A7)...
2016: EXCLI journal
Matej Dudáš, Mária Vilková, Tibor Béres, Miroslav Repcák, Pavol Mártonfi
Two isomers, (Z)- and (E)-palmityl 4-hydroxycinnamate [hexadecyl(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate and hexadecyl(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate] were isolated for the first time from ligulate flowers of Taraxacum linearisquameum Soest (sect. Taraxacum). The highest amount of these compounds was detected in pollen grains; 0.26 mg/100 mg DW of the (E)-isomer and 0.096 mg/100 mg DW of the (Z)-isomer. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of HPLC-ESI-Qtof-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
MiaoMiao Chen, Jianjun Wu, Songshan Shi, Yonglin Chen, Huijun Wang, Hongwei Fan, Shunchun Wang
A homogenous water-soluble polysaccharide, DPSW-A, with a deduced chemical structure was extracted from the herb Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. Moreover, 80.813-kDa DPSW-A is composed of three types of monosaccharide, namely rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose, at a molar ratio of 1.0:10.7:11.9. The main chain of DPSW-A contains Terminal-Galp, 1,3-Galp, 1,6-Galp, 1,3,6-Galp, and 1,2,4-Rhap; the branched chain contains Terminal-Araf, 1,5-Araf, and 1,3,5-Araf. The sulfated derivatives prepared from DPSW-A showed inhibitory effects on complement activation through the classical pathway (CH50: Sul-DPSW-A, 3...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sidra Rehman, Bushra Ijaz, Nighat Fatima, Syed Aun Muhammad, Sheikh Riazuddin
Discovery of alternative and complementary regimens for HCV infection treatment is a need of time from clinical as well as economical point of views. Low cost of bioactive natural compounds production, high biochemical diversity and inexistent/milder side effects contribute to new therapies. Aim of this study is to clarify anti-HCV role of Taraxacum officinale, a natural habitat plant rich of flavonoids. In this study, methanol extract of T. officinale leaves was initially analyzed for its cytotoxic activity in human hepatoma (Huh-7) and CHO cell lines...
August 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marina Arias, Monica Hernandez, Naroa Remondegui, Koen Huvenaars, Peter van Dijk, Enrique Ritter
Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin (TKS) has been studied in many occasions as a possible alternative source for natural rubber production of good quality and for inulin production. Some tire companies are already testing TKS tire prototypes. There are also many investigations on the production of bio-fuels from inulin and inulin applications for health improvement and in the food industry. A limited amount of genomic resources exist for TKS and particularly no genetic linkage map is available in this species. We have constructed the first TKS genetic linkage map based on AFLP, COS, SSR and EST-SSR markers...
2016: Scientific Reports
Liu Xueshibojie, Yu Duo, Wang Tiejun
Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of taraxasterol against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of taraxasterol on CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. CS-induced mouse lung inflammation model was used to investigate the protective effects of taraxasterol in vivo. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were used to investigate the protective mechanism of taraxasterol in vitro...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Damien M Hicks, Pierre Ouvrard, Katherine C R Baldock, Mathilde Baude, Mark A Goddard, William E Kunin, Nadine Mitschunas, Jane Memmott, Helen Morse, Maria Nikolitsi, Lynne M Osgathorpe, Simon G Potts, Kirsty M Robertson, Anna V Scott, Frazer Sinclair, Duncan B Westbury, Graham N Stone
Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many 'pollinator-friendly' seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Hahn, Andrea Klemm, Patrick Ziesse, Karsten Harms, Wolfgang Wach, Steffen Rupp, Thomas Hirth, Susanne Zibek
The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales...
May 2016: Natural Product Communications
Jun-bin Guo, Hai-hong Ye, Jian-feng Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the anti-proliferation effect of Taraxacum mongolicum extract in HepG2 cells and its mechanism. METHODS: The total proteins of HepG2 cells treated with Taraxacum mongolicum extract were. extracted and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related proteins (Survivin, Mcl-1, BCL-xL, BCL-2, Smac, BAX, Bad, Cytochrome c and Caspase-3/7/9) were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Taraxacum mongolicum extract obviously inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Survivin, BCL-xL and BCL-2), increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Smac and Caspase-3/7/9), and promoted the release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm in HepG2 cells...
October 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Robert Gawecki, Katarzyna Sala, Ewa U Kurczyńska, Piotr Świątek, Bartosz J Płachno
In apomictic Taraxacum species, the development of both the embryo and the endosperm does not require double fertilisation. However, a structural reduction of ovular transmitting tissue was not observed in apomictic dandelions. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition of the cell walls to describe the presence of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), hemicellulose and some pectic epitopes in the micropylar transmitting tissue of apomictic Taraxacum. The results point to (1) the similar distribution of AGPs in different developmental stages, (2) the absence of highly methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (HG) in transmitting tissue of ovule containing a mature embryo sac and the appearance of this pectin domain in the young seed containing the embryo and endosperm, (3) the similar pattern of low methyl-esterified pectin occurrence in both an ovule and a young seed with an embryo and endosperm in apomictic Taraxacum and (4) the presence of hemicelluloses recognised by LM25 and LM21 antibodies in the reproductive structure of Taraxacum...
May 6, 2016: Protoplasma
Shasha Wang, Ying Wang, Xinyu Liu, Lizeng Guan, Longzheng Yu, Xuemei Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Taraxasterol was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum which has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we determined the in vivo anti-arthritic effect of taraxasterol on arthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were immunized with FCA by intradermal injection into the right hind metatarsal footpad, and were orally treated daily with taraxasterol at 2, 4 and 8mg/kg from day 2-28 after immunization...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paulo Milet-Pinheiro, Kerstin Herz, Stefan Dötterl, Manfred Ayasse
BACKGROUND: Many insects have multiple generations per year and cohorts emerging in different seasons may evolve their own phenotypes if they are subjected to different selection regimes. The bivoltine bee Andrena bicolor is reported to be polylectic and oligolectic (on Campanula) in the spring and summer generations, respectively. Neurological constraints are assumed to govern pollen diet in bees. However, evidence comes predominantly from studies with oligolectic bees. We have investigated how sensory constraints influence the innate foraging behavior of A...
2016: BMC Ecology
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