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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331489/modulation-of-lower-extremity-joint-stiffness-work-and-power-at-different-walking-and-running-speeds
#2
Li Jin, Michael E Hahn
Locomotion task and speed changes affect dynamic joint function. Walking and running require different coordination patterns of lower extremity joint mechanics. These coordination differences can result in measurable changes in kinematic and kinetic patterns. When locomotion speed changes, the functional role and movement strategy of each joint is altered. A deeper understanding of joint level mechanics and functional interactions will benefit rehabilitation programs and assistive device development. In this study, joint stiffness, joint mechanical work and power were assessed, as they relate to dynamic function of joints during locomotion...
January 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330149/voluntary-exercise-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rodents-are-we-running-in-the-right-direction
#3
Joram D Mul
Acute or chronic exposure to stress can increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder, a severe, recurrent and common psychiatric condition. Depression places an enormous social and financial burden on modern society. Although many depressed patients are treated with antidepressants, their efficacy is only modest, underscoring the necessity to develop clinically-effective pharmaceutical or behavioral treatments. Exercise training produces beneficial effects on stress-related mental disorders, indicative of clinical potential...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329981/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-leucine-aminopeptidase-gene-from-taenia-pisiformis
#4
Shaohua Zhang, Xuepeng Cai, Xuenong Luo, Shuai Wang, Aijiang Guo, Junling Hou, Run Wu
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, EC: 3.4.11.1) is an important metalloexopeptidase that catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-terminal leucine residues from polypeptides and proteins. In this study, a full length of cDNA encoding leucine aminopeptidase of Taenia pisiformis (TpLAP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA-ends using the polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) method. The full-length cDNA of the TpLAP gene is 1823 bp and contains a 1569 bp ORF encoding 533 amino acids with a putative mass of 56.4 kDa...
January 9, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329429/how-to-convene-an-international-health-or-development-commission-ten-key-steps
#5
Gavin Yamey, Lawrence H Summers, Dean T Jamison, Jessica Brinton
The Commission on Investing in Health (CIH), an international group of 25 economists and global health experts, published its Global Health 2035 report in The Lancet in December 2013. The report laid out an ambitious investment framework for achieving a "grand convergence" in health-a universal reduction in deaths from infectious diseases and maternal and child health conditions-within a generation. This article captures ten key elements that the CIH found important to its process and successful outcomes. The elements are presented in chronological order, from inception to post-publication activities...
January 10, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325009/efficient-generation-of-complete-sequences-of-mdr-encoding-plasmids-by-rapid-assembly-of-minion-barcoding-sequencing-data
#6
Ruichao Li, Miaomiao Xie, Ning Dong, Dachuan Lin, Xuemei Yang, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR)-encoding plasmids are considered major molecular vehicles responsible for transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria of the same or different species. Delineating the complete sequences of such plasmids could provide valuable insight into the evolution and transmission mechanisms underlying bacterial antibiotic resistance development. However, due to the presence of multiple repeats of mobile elements, complete sequencing of MDR plasmids remains technically complicated, expensive and time-consuming...
January 9, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324843/beta-hpv38-oncoproteins-act-with-a-hit-and-run-mechanism-in-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#7
Daniele Viarisio, Karin Müller-Decker, Rosita Accardi, Alexis Robitaille, Matthias Dürst, Katrin Beer, Lars Jansen, Christa Flechtenmacher, Matthias Bozza, Richard Harbottle, Catherine Voegele, Maude Ardin, Jiri Zavadil, Sandra Caldeira, Lutz Gissmann, Massimo Tommasino
Cutaneous beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Studies in in vitro and in vivo experimental models have highlighted the transforming properties of beta HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins. However, epidemiological findings indicate that beta HPV types may be required only at an initial stage of carcinogenesis, and may become dispensable after full establishment of NMSC. Here, we further investigate the potential role of beta HPVs in NMSC using a Cre-loxP-based transgenic (Tg) mouse model that expresses beta HPV38 E6 and E7 oncogenes in the basal layer of the skin epidermis and is highly susceptible to UV-induced carcinogenesis...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324684/comparative-effect-of-self-or-dual-curing-on-polymerization-kinetics-and-mechanical-properties-in-a-novel-dental-resin-based-composite-with-alkaline-filler-running-title-resin-composites-with-alkaline-fillers
#8
Nicoleta Ilie
Dental bulk-fill restorations with resin-composites (RBC) are increasing in popularity, but doubts concerning insufficient curing in depth still disconcert clinicians. An alternative might be offered by modern dual-cured RBCs, which additionally provide bioactive properties. This study assessed the impact of additional light-curing on polymerization kinetics, the degree of conversion (DC) and mechanical properties of a novel, dual-cured RBC with alkaline fillers. Since the bioactivity of a material often implies a release of compounds, the mechanical stability in simulated clinical environments was also evaluated...
January 11, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324270/agcl-ag3po4-a-stable-ag-based-nanocomposite-photocatalyst-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-activity-for-the-degradation-of-parabens
#9
Jianhao Guo, Huixian Shi, Xiaobo Huang, Huifang Shi, Zhongfu An
An AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite has been successfully fabricated by a simple desorption-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite. The photocatalytic activity of the AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite has been tested by the degradation of parabens under visible-light irradiation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317658/roles-of-sliding-induced-defects-and-dissociated-water-molecules-on-low-friction-of-graphene
#10
Zaixiu Yang, Sukanta Bhowmick, Fatih G Sen, Anindya Banerji, Ahmet T Alpas
Sliding contact experiments and first-principles calculations were performed to elucidate the roles of structural defects and water dissociative adsorption process on the tribo-chemical mechanisms responsible for low friction of graphene. Sliding friction tests conducted in ambient air and under a dry N2 atmosphere showed that in both cases a high running-in coefficient of friction (COF) occurred initially but a low steady-state COF was reached only when the sliding was continued in air with moisture. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the energy barrier (E b ) for dissociative adsorption of H2O was significantly lower in case of reconstructed graphene with a monovacancy compared to pristine graphene...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314158/synthesis-of-boronate-functionalized-organic-inorganic-hybrid-monolithic-column-for-the-separation-of-cis-diol-containing-compounds-at-low-ph
#11
Heqing Zhao, Haixia Lyu, Wenfei Qin, Zenghong Xie
In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column...
January 3, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305227/current-trends-in-neonatal-ecmo
#12
REVIEW
Burhan Mahmood, Debra Newton, Eugenia K Pallotto
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving therapy for patients with respiratory and cardiac failure refractory to maximal medical management. The extracorporeal life support organization registry is the largest available resource for describing the population and outcomes of patients treated with this therapy. The use of ECMO for neonatal patients is decreasing in proportion to the total annual ECMO runs most likely due to advancements in medical management. Although the overall survival for neonatal ECMO has decreased, this is likely a reflection of the increasingly complex neonatal patients treated with this therapy...
January 2, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304923/potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-for-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-critical-illness-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Amra Sakusic, John C O'Horo, Mikhail Dziadzko, Dziadzko Volha, Rashid Ali, Tarun D Singh, Rahul Kashyap, Ann M Farrell, John D Fryer, Ronald Petersen, Ognjen Gajic, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Long-term cognitive impairment is common in survivors of critical illness. Little is known about the etiology of this serious complication. We sought to summarize current scientific knowledge about potentially modifiable risk factors during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment that may play a substantial role in the development of long-term cognitive impairment. All searches were run on October 1, 2017. The search strategy included Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid CDR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect, Scopus, and Web of Science, and included MeSH headings and keywords related to intensive care, critical care, and cognitive disorders...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304428/approach-towards-the-porous-fibrous-structure-of-the-periodontal-ligament-using-micro-computerized-tomography-and-finite-element-analysis
#14
J Ortún-Terrazas, J Cegoñino, U Santana-Penín, U Santana-Mora, A Pérez Del Palomar
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a porous and fibrous soft tissue situated around the tooth, which plays a key role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the alveolar bone of the mandible. Although several studies have tried to characterize its mechanical properties, the behaviour of this tissue is not clear yet. In this study, a new simulation methodology based on a material model which considers the contribution of porous and fibrous structure with different material model formulations depending on the effort direction is proposed...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303322/anomalous-tensile-detwinning-in-twinned-nanowires
#15
Guangming Cheng, Sheng Yin, Tzu-Hsuan Chang, Gunther Richter, Huajian Gao, Yong Zhu
In spite of numerous studies on mechanical behaviors of nanowires (NWs) focusing on the surface effect, there is still a general lack of understanding on how the internal microstructure of NWs influences their deformation mechanisms. Here, using quantitative in situ transmission electron microscopy based nanomechanical testing and molecular dynamics simulations, we report a transition of the deformation mechanism from localized dislocation slip to delocalized plasticity via an anomalous tensile detwinning mechanism in bitwinned metallic NWs with a single twin boundary (TB) running parallel to the NW length...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298215/are-group-size-and-composition-associated-with-treatment-outcomes-in-group-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-chronic-pain
#16
Dianne Wilson, M App Sc, Shylie Mackintosh, Michael K Nicholas, G Lorimer Moseley, Daniel Costa, Claire Ashton-James
This study explored whether group size and group member characteristics (age, gender, compensation status) were associated with patient outcomes (changes in pain and disability). Retrospective analyses of outcome data obtained from two independently run group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programs for chronic pain (Program A: N = 317 and Program B: N = 693) were conducted. Intracluster correlations (ICCs) were significant in both studies, indicating group-level effects on patient outcomes in both group CBT programs for chronic pain...
December 29, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296613/mglur2-3-activation-of-the-sirt1-axis-preserves-mitochondrial-function-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#17
Krish Chandrasekaran, Anjaneyulu Muragundla, Tyler G Demarest, Joungil Choi, Avinash R Sagi, Neda Najimi, Pranith Kumar, Anmol Singh, Cheng-Ying Ho, Gary Fiskum, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, James W Russell
Objectives: There is a critical need to develop effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy. This study determined if a selective mGluR2/3 receptor agonist prevented or treated experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) through glutamate recycling and improved mitochondrial function. Methods: Adult male streptozotocin treated Sprague-Dawley rats with features of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Low Capacity Running (LCR) rats with insulin resistance or glucose intolerance were treated with 3 or 10 mg/kg/day LY379268...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294794/perceived-group-threat-perceived-injustice-and-self-reported-right-wing-violence-an-integrative-approach-to-the-explanation-right-wing-violence
#18
Lieven J R Pauwels, Ben Heylen
The present study aims at explaining individual differences in self-reported political violence. We integrate key concepts from the field of criminology that are conceptually related to social identity theory (Flemish identity, feelings of group superiority, and ethnocentrism) and the dual process model on prejudice (perceived injustice, perception of threat, and right-wing authoritarianism). In our model, social identity concepts are hypothesized to play a mediating role between mechanisms derived from the dual process model and political violence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294701/elevated-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-sexual-minority-girls-indirect-risk-pathways-through-peer-victimization-and-heavy-drinking
#19
Sarah S Dermody, Mark Friedman, Deena J Chisolm, Chad M Burton, Michael P Marshal
Sexual minority girls (SMGs), compared with heterosexual females, are more likely to report negative sexual outcomes including earlier age of sexual intercourse debut, more lifetime and recent sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and sex while intoxicated. Data describing the mechanisms related to these health disparities are limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to longitudinally assess the roles of sexual minority-related peer victimization and heavy episodic drinking (HED) as mediators of the relation between sexual minority status and sexual outcomes...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291183/prediction-of-optimal-bending-angles-of-a-running-loop-to-achieve-bodily-protraction-of-a-molar-using-the-finite-element-method
#20
Woon-Kuk Ryu, Jae Hyun Park, Kiyoshi Tai, Yukio Kojima, Youngjoo Lee, Jong-Moon Chae
Objective: The purpose of this study was to predict the optimal bending angles of a running loop for bodily protraction of the mandibular first molars and to clarify the mechanics of molar tipping and rotation. Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model was developed for predicting tooth movement, and a mechanical model based on the beam theory was constructed for clarifying force systems. Results: When a running loop without bends was used, the molar tipped mesially by 9...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
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