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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922941/exercise-training-ameliorates-glucosamine-induced-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-rats
#1
Chung-Hwan Chen, Tsang-Hai Huang, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Chi-Fen Chang, Chau-Zen Wang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Lin Kang
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine (GlcN), which has been reported to induce insulin resistance (IR), is a popular nutritional supplement used to treat osteoarthritis in menopausal women. We previously demonstrated that GlcN treatment caused IR in ovariectomized rats by reducing the expression of glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we hypothesized that endurance exercise training can reverse GlcN-induced IR. METHODS: Fifty female rats were randomly divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group; (2) sham-operated group with GlcN treatment for 14 days; (3) ovariectomy (OVX) group; (4) OVX with GlcN treatment; and (5) OVX with GlcN treatment followed by exercise training (running program) for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#2
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919416/a-3d-model-of-the-achilles-tendon-to-determine-the-mechanisms-underlying-nonuniform-tendon-displacements
#3
Geoffrey G Handsfield, Joshua M Inouye, Laura C Slane, Darryl G Thelen, G Wilson Miller, Silvia S Blemker
The Achilles is the thickest tendon in the body and is the primary elastic energy-storing component during running. The form and function of the human Achilles is complex: twisted structure, intratendinous interactions, and differential motor control from the triceps surae muscles make Achilles behavior difficult to intuit. Recent in vivo imaging of the Achilles has revealed nonuniform displacement patterns that are not fully understood and may result from complex architecture and musculotendon interactions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919153/-nudge-strategies-at-a-glance-an-overview-more-freedom-or-new-paternalism
#4
Luca Leone
Under the theoretical assumptions of individual bounded rationality and of behavioural psychology about human actions and agency, nudge has been promoted as an alternative to traditional regulatory tools, characterized by being inexpensive, choice-preserving, and bound to promote legitimate goals and citizens' welfare within through specific choice architectures. Applicable to several domains, health included, the nudging approach runs in connection with requests and needs arising from marketing strategies, with the aim of maximizing economic rationality and efficiency...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918692/the-validity-and-reliability-of-an-iphone-app-for-measuring-running-mechanics
#5
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan, Jean-Benoit Morin
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity of an iPhone application (Runmatic) for measuring running mechanics. To do this, 96 steps from 12 different runs at speeds ranging from 2.77-5.55 m·s-1 were recorded simultaneously with Runmatic as well as with an opto-electronic device installed on a motorized treadmill to measure the contact and aerial time of each step. Additionally, several running mechanics variables were calculated using the contact and aerial times measured and previously validated equations...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918667/neuromuscular-fatigue-aetiology-after-repeated-sprints-depends-on-exercise-modality
#6
Katja Tomazin, Jean-Benoit Morin, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular fatigue induced by repeated sprint running vs cycling. METHODS: Eleven active male participants performed two repeated maximal sprint protocol (5×6 s, 24-s rest periods, 4 sets, 3-min between sets), one in running (treadmill) and one in cycling (cycle ergometer). Neuromuscular function, evaluated before (PRE), 30 s after the first (S1), the second (S2), and the last set (LAST), and 5 min after the last set (POST5), consisted in determining knee extensors maximal voluntary torque (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), single twitch (Tw), high- (Db100) and low- (Db10) frequency torque, and maximal muscle compound action potential (M-wave) amplitude and duration of vastus lateralis...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918652/does-short-duration-heat-exposure-at-a-matched-cardiovascular-intensity-improve-intermittent-running-performance-in-a-cool-environment
#7
Calvin P Philp, Martin Buchheit, Cecilia M Kitic, Christopher T Minson, James W Fell
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a five-day cycling training block in the heat (35°C) in Australian rules footballers was superior to exercising at the same relative intensity in cool conditions (15°C) for improving intermittent running performance in a cool environment (<18°C). METHODS: Using a parallel-group design, 12 semi-professional football players performed five days of cycling exercise [70% heart rate reserve (HRR) for 45 min (5 x 50 min sessions in total)] in a hot (HEAT, 35±1°C, 56±9% RH) or cool environment (COOL, 15±3°C, 81±10% RH)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918287/measuring-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-mouse-models-within-4-days-and-without-prior-food-deprivation
#8
Esther Remmelink, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food restriction, extended training periods and labor-intensive, and stress-inducing animal handling. Here, we describe a novel 4-day (4-d) continuously running task measuring discrimination- and reversal learning in an automated home cage (CognitionWall DL/RL task) that largely eliminates these limitations...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#9
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917249/perspectives-in-flow-based-microfluidic-gradient-generators-for-characterizing-bacterial-chemotaxis
#10
Christopher J Wolfram, Gary W Rubloff, Xiaolong Luo
Chemotaxis is a phenomenon which enables cells to sense concentrations of certain chemical species in their microenvironment and move towards chemically favorable regions. Recent advances in microbiology have engineered the chemotactic properties of bacteria to perform novel functions, but traditional methods of characterizing chemotaxis do not fully capture the associated cell motion, making it difficult to infer mechanisms that link the motion to the microbiology which induces it. Microfluidics offers a potential solution in the form of gradient generators...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915453/effects-of-chronic-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-on-v-o2max-and-exercise-capacity-in-mice
#11
M Wojewoda, K Przyborowski, B Sitek, A Zakrzewska, L Mateuszuk, J A Zoladz, S Chlopicki
Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2max) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-))) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production in C57BL6/J mice...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915092/acupuncture-ameliorates-inflammatory-response-in-a-chronic-unpredictable-stress-rat-model-of-depression
#12
Jun Lu, Run-Hui Shao, Shu-Ying Jin, Li Hu, Ya Tu, Jian-You Guo
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Chronic inflammatory response has been viewed as a key factor in depression. Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying antidepressant effect of acupuncture. The rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 28days to induce depressive-like behaviors. Acupuncture treatment was applied once every other day during the 28-day stress period...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913953/neuroinflammation-induced-downregulation-of-hippocampacal-neuregulin-1-erbb4-signaling-in-the-parvalbumin-interneurons-might-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#13
Rong Gao, Mu-Huo Ji, Da-Peng Gao, Run-Hua Yang, Shao-Gang Zhang, Jian-Jun Yang, Jin-Chun Shen
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication associated with poor prognosis in septic patients, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that disturbed neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the parvalbumin interneurons was involved in sepsis-induced cognitive impairment in a mouse model of SAE. The SAE model was induced by cecal ligation/perforation (CLP). Animals were randomly divided into the following six groups: sham + vehicle group, sham + NRG1 group, CLP + vehicle group, CLP + NRG1 group, CLP + NRG1 + AG1478 (ErbB4 inhibitor) group, and CLP + minocycline group...
December 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913855/what-can-the-microstructure-of-stones-tell-us
#14
REVIEW
James C Williams, Elaine Worcester, James E Lingeman
How stones are retained within the kidney while small in size is still not fully understood. In this paper, we show two examples of how stones are retained during early growth: one is growth on Randall's (interstitial) plaque, and the other is growth on mineral that has formed as a luminal plug in a terminal collecting duct. These two mechanisms of stone retention during early growth have distinctive morphologic features that can be seen by methods that show the microscopic structure of the stones. Stones growing on Randall's plaque display an apatite region that is typically not large in size (<0...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913757/the-impact-of-fiscal-policies-on-the-socioeconomic-determinants-of-health-a-structured-review
#15
Isabel Mosquera, Yolanda González-Rábago, Amaia Bacigalupe, Marc Suhrcke
There has been considerable recent debate around the alleged impact of discretionary fiscal policies - especially austerity policies - on health and health inequalities. Assuming that most of the impact will have to run via the effect of fiscal policies on socioeconomic determinants of health (SDH), it is of interest to gain a further understanding of the relationship between fiscal policies and SDH. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the recent evidence on the impact of discretionary fiscal policies on key SDH, i...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913688/left-ventricle-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-connective-tissue-accumulation-associates-with-initial-age-dependent-decline-in-v%C3%AC-o2peak-from-its-lifetime-apex
#16
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch, Joshua F Braselton, Thomas E Childs, Frank W Booth
Peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) strongly predicts morbidity and mortality better than other established risk factors, yet mechanisms associated with its age-associated decline are unknown. Our lab has shown that V̇O2peak first begins to decrease at the same age of 19-20 weeks old in both sedentary and wheel-running, female Wistar rats (Toedebusch et al., Physiol Genomics. 48:101-15, 2016). Here, we employed a total systemic approach using unsupervised interrogation of mRNA with RNA-sequencing. The purpose of our study was to analyze transcriptomic profiles from both sedentary (SED) and wheel-running (RUN) conditions as a strategy to identify pathways in the left ventricle that may contribute to the initial reductions in V̇O2peak occurring between 19 and 27 weeks of age...
December 2, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913354/a-novel-elastic-force-field-to-influence-mediolateral-foot-placement-during-walking
#17
Elizabeth Nyberg, Jordan Broadway, Christian Finetto, Jesse Dean
Bipedal gait can be stabilized through mechanically-appropriate mediolateral foot placement, although this strategy is disrupted in a subset of neurologically injured individuals with balance deficits. The goal of the present work was to develop a device to influence mediolateral foot placement during treadmill walking. We created a novel force-field using a combination of passive elasticity and active control; wires in series with extension springs run parallel to the treadmill belts and can be rapidly repositioned to exert mediolateral forces on the legs of users...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913289/damage-repair-and-regeneration-in-insect-cuticle-the-story-so-far-and-possibilities-for-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Eoin Parle, Jan-Henning Dirks, David Taylor
The exoskeleton of an insect can contain countless specializations across an individual, across developmental stages, and across the class Insecta. Hence, the exoskeleton's building material cuticle must perform a vast variety of functions. Cuticle displays a wide range of material properties which are determined by several known factors: the amount and orientation of the chitin fibres, the constituents and degree of cross-linking and hydration of the protein matrix, the relative amounts of exo- and endocuticle, and the shape of the structures themselves...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909228/divergent-outcomes-of-fructose-consumption-on-exercise-capacity-of-rats-friend-or-foe
#19
Angela Sun, An Huang, Elizabeth Kertowidjojo, Su Song, Thomas H Hintze, Dong Sun
To test the hypothesis that high fructose (HF) consumption divergently affects exercise capability, as a function of feeding duration, rats were fed a normal (as control) or a normal caloric diet with HF for 3, 6, 10 and 30 days respectively, and run on a treadmill. Results show that running distance and work were significantly increased, associated with greater exercise oxygen consumption in rats fed HF for 3 (HF-3D) and 6 days, but were decreased in rats fed HF for 30 days (HF-30D) compared to their respective control rats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#20
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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