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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147931/horses-for-courses-moving-india-towards-universal-health-coverage-through-targeted-policy-design
#1
Dayashankar Maurya, Altaf Virani, S Rajasulochana
The debate on how India's health system should move towards universal health coverage was (meant to be) put to rest by the recent National Health Policy 2017. However, the new policy is silent about tackling bottlenecks mentioned in the said policy proposal. It aims to provide universal access to free primary care by strengthening the public system, and to secondary and tertiary care through strategic purchasing from the private sector, to overcome deficiencies in public provisioning in the short run. Yet, in doing so, it ignores critical factors needed to replicate successful models of public healthcare delivery from certain states that it hopes to emulate...
November 16, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141182/optogenetic-activation-of-5-ht-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-suppresses-seizure-induced-respiratory-arrest-and-produces-anticonvulsant-effect-in-the-dba-1-mouse-sudep-model
#2
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Chang Zeng, Christa Van Dort, Carl L Faingold, Norman E Taylor, Ken Solt, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) occurs in many witnessed SUDEP patients and animal models as an initiating event leading to death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying S-IRA will advance the development of preventive strategies against SUDEP. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important modulator for many vital functions, including respiration and arousal, and a deficiency of 5-HT signaling is strongly implicated in S-IRA in animal models, including the DBA/1 mouse...
November 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140802/characterization-with-scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectrometry-of-microtraces-from-the-ligature-mean-in-hanging-mechanical-asphyxia-a-series-of-forensic-cases
#3
Francesca Maghin, Salvatore Ambrogio Andreola, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Riccardo Zoja
The authors applied scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry to the furrow derived from hanging means. The study was conducted with the purpose to detect possible extraneous microtraces, deriving from the ligature, that could have had an interaction with the cutaneous biological matrix, thanks to a transfert mechanism, in the proximities of the lesion.Fifteen cutaneous samples of the furrow and an equal number of fragments of graphite tape, directly positioned on the lesion produced by the ligature mean and used as a "conductor" of possible traces, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#4
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138421/mperiod2-brdm1-and-other-single-period-mutant-mice-have-normal-food-anticipatory-activity
#5
Julie S Pendergast, Robert H Wendroth, Rio C Stenner, Charles D Keil, Shin Yamazaki
Animals anticipate the timing of food availability via the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The anatomical location and timekeeping mechanism of the FEO are unknown. Several studies showed the circadian gene, Period 2, is critical for FEO timekeeping. However, other studies concluded that canonical circadian genes are not essential for FEO timekeeping. In this study, we re-examined the effects of the Per2 (Brdm1) mutation on food entrainment using methods that have revealed robust food anticipatory activity in other mutant lines...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137651/abnormal-dendritic-calcium-activity-and-synaptic-depotentiation-occur-early-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yang Bai, Miao Li, Yanmei Zhou, Lei Ma, Qian Qiao, Wanling Hu, Wei Li, Zachary Patrick Wills, Wen-Biao Gan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid deposition, tangle formation as well as synapse loss. Synaptic abnormalities occur early in the pathogenesis of AD. Identifying early synaptic abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms is likely important for the prevention and treatment of AD. METHODS: We performed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to examine the activities of somas, dendrites and dendritic spines of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD and age-matched wild type control mice...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133824/comparison-and-evaluation-of-two-different-methods-to-establish-the-cigarette-smoke-exposure-mouse-model-of-copd
#7
Jiaze Shu, Defu Li, Haiping Ouyang, Junyi Huang, Zhen Long, Zhihao Liang, Yuqin Chen, Yiguan Chen, Qiuyu Zheng, Meidan Kuang, Haiyang Tang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
Animal model of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the primary testing methodology for drug therapies and studies on pathogenic mechanisms of disease. However, researchers have rarely run simultaneous or side-by-side tests of whole-body and nose-only CS exposure in building their mouse models of COPD. We compared and evaluated these two different methods of CS exposure, plus airway Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inhalation, in building our COPD mouse model. Compared with the control group, CS exposed mice showed significant increased inspiratory resistance, functional residual capacity, right ventricular hypertrophy index, and total cell count in BALF...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132306/rna-seq-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-sub-tropical-maize-lines-reveals-a-role-for-kauralexins-in-resistance-to-grey-leaf-spot-disease-caused-by-cercospora-zeina
#8
Jacqueline Meyer, Dave K Berger, Shawn A Christensen, Shane L Murray
BACKGROUND: Cercospora zeina is a foliar pathogen responsible for maize grey leaf spot in southern Africa that negatively impacts maize production. Plants use a variety of chemical and structural mechanisms to defend themselves against invading pathogens such as C. zeina, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In maize, a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors induce the accumulation of the terpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins and kauralexins. RESULTS: C...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#9
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124286/adjustable-loop-acl-suspension-devices-demonstrate-less-reliability-in-terms-of-reproducibility-and-irreversible-displacement
#10
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Benjamin Voumard, Sandro Kohl, Philippe Zysset, Takura Mukabeta, Dimitrios S Evangelopoulos, Atesch Ateschrang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive biomechanical examination of frequently applied femoral cortical suspension devices, comparing the properties of both fixed and adjustable fixation mechanisms. It was hypothesized that adjustable loop devices demonstrate less consistent fixation properties with increased variability compared to fixed loop devices. METHODS: Nine frequently applied fixation button types were tested, six adjustable and three rigid loop devices...
November 9, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123460/fledfold-a-novel-software-for-rna-secondary-structure-prediction
#11
Qi Zhao, Yuanning Liu, Yunna Duan, Tao Dai, Rui Xu, Hao Guo, Daiming Fan, Yongzhan Nie, Hao Zhang
Background: RNA secondary structure is essential to understand the mechanism of RNAs. Method: In this paper, fledFold, a novel software for RNA secondary structure prediction, is introduced. It combines both thermodynamic and kinetic factors of RNA secondary structures and can predict RNA secondary structures from their primary sequences with local personal computers. Results: FledFold is implemented in C++ under Windows 7 and could run on windows 7 or later version with at least 2 GB of RAM...
June 2017: Letters in Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121506/what-factors-determine-the-preferred-gait-transition-speed-in-humans-a-review-of-the-triggering-mechanisms
#12
Stacey M Kung, Philip W Fink, Stephen J Legg, Ajmol Ali, Sarah P Shultz
Human locomotion is a fundamental skill that is required for daily living, yet it is not completely known how human gait is regulated in a manner that seems so effortless. Gait transitions have been analyzed to gain insight into the control mechanisms of human locomotion since there is a known change that occurs as the speed of locomotion changes. Specifically, as gait speed changes, there is a spontaneous transition between walking and running that occurs at a particular speed. Despite the growing body of research on the determinants of this preferred transition speed and thus the triggering mechanisms of human gait transitions, a clear consensus regarding the control mechanisms of gait is still lacking...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120091/running-wheel-activity-delays-mitochondrial-respiratory-flux-decline-in-aging-mouse-muscle-via-a-post-transcriptional-mechanism
#13
Sarah Stolle, Jolita Ciapaite, Aaffien C Reijne, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Justina C Wolters, Raúl Aguirre-Gamboa, Pieter van der Vlies, Kim de Lange, Pieter B Neerincx, Gerben van der Vries, Patrick Deelen, Morris A Swertz, Yang Li, Rainer Bischoff, Hjalmar P Permentier, Peter L Horvatovitch, Albert K Groen, Gertjan van Dijk, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Barbara M Bakker
Loss of mitochondrial respiratory flux is a hallmark of skeletal muscle aging, contributing to a progressive decline of muscle strength. Endurance exercise alleviates the decrease in respiratory flux, both in humans and in rodents. Here, we dissect the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial flux decline by integrated analysis of the molecular network. Mice were given a lifelong ad libitum low-fat or high-fat sucrose diet and were further divided into sedentary and running-wheel groups. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, muscle weight, triglyceride content and mitochondrial respiratory flux were analysed...
November 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119562/validating-performance-of-triss-tarn-and-normit-survival-prediction-models-in-a-norwegian-trauma-population
#14
N O Skaga, T Eken, S Søvik
INTRODUCTION: Anatomic injury, physiological derangement, age, injury mechanism and pre-injury comorbidity are well-founded predictors of trauma outcome. Statistical prediction models may have poorer discrimination, calibration and accuracy when applied in new locations. We aimed to compare the TRISS, TARN and NORMIT survival prediction models in a Norwegian trauma population. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevål within 24 h after injury, with Injury Severity Score ≥ 10, proximal penetrating injuries, or received by trauma team, were studied...
November 8, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118839/acute-angle-closure-glaucoma-a-potential-blind-spot-in-critical-care
#15
Anna Petsas, George Chapman, Richard Stewart
We report a case of a 69-year-old gentleman who developed an acutely painful eye with loss of visual acuity whilst on the critical care unit. He was admitted three days previously with an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition, he received intravenous antibiotics, steroids, nebulised bronchodilators and intravenous aminophylline, together with noradrenaline for blood pressure support. On development of visual symptoms, an emergency ophthalmology review diagnosed acute angle closure glaucoma...
August 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118671/mir-422a-inhibits-cell-proliferation-in-colorectal-cancer-by-targeting-akt1-and-mapk1
#16
Wen-Ting Wei, Xin-Xin Nian, Shu-Yang Wang, Hong-Li Jiao, Yong-Xia Wang, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Run-Wei Yang, Yan-Qing Ding, Ya-Ping Ye, Wen-Ting Liao
Background: miRNAs are regarded as molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer (CRC), a series of miRNAs have been proven to involve into CRC carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Aberrant miR-422a expression and its roles have been reported in some cancers. However, the function and underlying mechanism of miR-422a in the progression of CRC remain largely unknown. Methods: Real-time PCR were used to quantify miR-422a expression in CRC tissues...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115485/effect-of-willed-movement-training-on-neurorehabilitation-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-on-the-neural-plasticity-associated-signaling-pathway
#17
Zhi-Wen Zhou, Qi-Dong Yang, Qing-Ping Tang, Jie Yang, Rong-Jing Guo, Wen Jiang
Neurorehabilitation training is a therapeutic intervention for the loss of neural function induced by focal cerebral ischemia, however, the effect varies depending on the neurorehabilitation exercises. Willed movement (WM) training is defined as task‑oriented training, which increases enthusiasm of patients to accomplish a specific task. The current study was performed to the evaluate effect of WM training on neurorehabilitation following focal cerebral ischemia, and further investigate the influence on neural plasticity‑associated signaling pathway...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112534/il1%C3%AE-inhibition-contributes-to-the-anti-nociceptive-effects-of-voluntary-exercise-on-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-hypersensitivity
#18
Jessica L Ross, Luis F Queme, Jordan E Lamb, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Michael P Jankowski
Issues of peripheral circulation have been increasingly suggested as an underlying cause of musculoskeletal pain in many conditions, including sickle cell anemia and peripheral vascular disease. We have previously shown in our model of transient ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) of the forelimb that individual group III and IV muscle afferents display altered chemosensitivity and mechanical thresholds 1 d following injury. Functional alterations corresponded to increased evoked and spontaneous pain-related behaviors and decreased muscle strength and voluntary activity-all actions that echo clinical symptoms of ischemic myalgia...
October 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112335/heterojunction-assisted-co3-s4-co3-o4-core-shell-octahedrons-for-supercapacitors-and-both-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide-reduction-reactions
#19
Yibo Yan, Kaixin Li, Xiaoping Chen, Yanhui Yang, Jong-Min Lee
Expedition of electron transfer efficiency and optimization of surface reactant adsorption products desorption processes are two main challenges for developing non-noble catalysts in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and CO2 reduction reaction (CRR). A heterojunction prototype on Co3 S4 @Co3 O4 core-shell octahedron structure is established via hydrothermal lattice anion exchange protocol to implement the electroreduction of oxygen and carbon dioxide with high performance. The synergistic bifunctional catalyst consists of p-type Co3 O4 core and n-type Co3 S4 shell, which afford high surface electron density along with high capacitance without sacrificing mechanical robustness...
November 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107950/a-new-method-to-determine-cortical-bone-thickness-in-ct-images-using-a-hybrid-approach-of-parametric-profile-representation-and-local-adaptive-thresholds-accuracy-results
#20
Oleg Museyko, Bastian Gerner, Klaus Engelke
MOTIVATION: Cortical bone is an important contributor to bone strength and is pivotal to understand the etiology of osteoporotic fractures and the specific mechanisms of antiosteoporotic treatment regimen. 3D computed tomography (CT) can be used to measure cortical thickness, density, and mass in the proximal femur, lumbar vertebrae, and distal forearm. However, the spatial resolution of clinical whole body CT scanners is limited by radiation exposure; partial volume artefacts severely impair the accurate assessment of cortical parameters, in particular in locations where the cortex is thin such as in the lumbar vertebral bodies or in the femoral neck...
2017: PloS One
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