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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550760/exercise-training-ameliorates-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-messenger-rna-expression-and-mitigates-adverse-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#1
Flávio S Silva, Raul H Bortolin, Diego N Araújo, Dáfiny E S Marques, João Paulo M S Lima, Adriana A Rezende, Wouber H B Vieira, Naisandra B Silva, Karina C P Medeiros, Paul W Ackermann, Bento J Abreu, Fernando A L Dias
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether exercise training (ExT) would ameliorate expression of key genes for myocardial morphostructure and mitigate adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in experimental type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC, n=9), trained control (TC, n=13), sedentary diabetic (SD, n=20), and trained diabetic (TD, n=17). T1D was induced by 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (single dose, i...
May 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549655/experimental-winter-warming-modifies-thermal-performance-and-primes-acorn-ants-for-warm-weather
#2
Heidi J MacLean, Clint A Penick, Robert R Dunn, Sarah E Diamond
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#3
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548158/visible-light-assisted-hydrogen-generation-from-complete-decomposition-of-hydrous-hydrazine-using-rhodium-modified-tio2-photocatalysts
#4
Pawan Kumar, Anurag Kumar, Clémence Queffélec, Dietrich Gudat, Qi Wang, Suman L Jain, Rabah Boukherroub, Sabine Szunerits
Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy carrier, which produces only water when combined with oxygen and thus has no detrimental effect on the environment. While the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine for the production of hydrogen is well explored, little is known about its photocatalytic decomposition. The present paper describes a highly efficient photochemical methodology for the production of hydrogen through the decomposition of aqueous hydrazine using titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified with a Rh(i) coordinated catechol phosphane ligand (TiO2-Rh) as a photocatalyst under visible light irradiation...
May 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544949/the-influence-of-shoe-aging-on-children-running-biomechanics
#5
Alexis Herbaut, Pascale Chavet, Maxime Roux, Nils Guéguen, Franck Barbier, Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger
Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first...
May 17, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544529/excess-cholesterol-inhibits-glucose-stimulated-fusion-pore-dynamics-in-insulin-exocytosis
#6
Yingke Xu, Derek K Toomre, Jonathan S Bogan, Mingming Hao
Type 2 diabetes is caused by defects in both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Glucose triggers insulin secretion by causing exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic β-cells. High circulating cholesterol levels and a diminished capacity of serum to remove cholesterol from β-cells are observed in diabetic individuals. Both of these effects can lead to cholesterol accumulation in β-cells and contribute to β-cell dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol accumulation impairs β-cell function remain largely unknown...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544415/inertial-microfluidic-cell-stretcher-imcs-fully-automated-high-throughput-and-near-real-time-cell-mechanotyping
#7
Yanxiang Deng, Steven P Davis, Fan Yang, Kevin S Paulsen, Maneesh Kumar, Rebecca Sinnott DeVaux, Xianhui Wang, Douglas S Conklin, Assad Oberai, Jason I Herschkowitz, Aram J Chung
Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543791/the-association-between-eccentric-hip-abduction-strength-and-hip-and-knee-angular-movements-in-recreational-male-runners-an-explorative-study
#8
René B K Brund, Sten Rasmussen, Rasmus O Nielsen, Uwe G Kersting, Uffe Laessoe, Michael Voigt
Weak hip abductors may be related with increased hip adduction and knee abduction angular movement, which may be risk factors of lower extremity injuries. Since the role of eccentric hip abduction strength (EHAS) on hip adduction angular movement and the knee abduction angular movement (KABD) remains unclear and the purpose of the present study was to explore the association between EHAS and hip- and knee angular movement. In 100 healthy male recreational runners, EHAS was quantified using an isokinetic dynamometer, while hip- and knee angular movement were collected using pressure sensitive treadmill and Codamotion active marker system...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543166/chronic-emgs-in-treadmill-running-sod1-mice-reveal-early-changes-in-muscle-activation
#9
K A Quinlan, E Kajtaz, J D Ciolino, R D Imhoff-Manuel, M C Tresch, C J Heckman, V M Tysseling
To improve our understanding of early disease mechanisms and find reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, we measured electromyogram (EMG) activity in hind limb muscles of SOD1G93A mice. In contrast to clinical diagnostic measures using EMGs, which are performed on quiescent patients, we monitored activity during treadmill running in order to detect presymptomatic changes in motor patterning. Chronic EMG electrodes were implanted into vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris posterior (BFP), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) in mice from postnatal day (P) 55-100, and results were assessed using linear mixed models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540583/circadian-rhythm-in-melatonin-release-as-a-mechanism-to-reinforce-the-temporal-organization-of-the-circadian-system-in-crayfish
#10
Leonor Mendoza-Vargas, Armida Báez-Saldaña, Ramón Alvarado, Beatriz Fuentes-Pardo, Edgar Flores-Soto, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán
Melatonin (MEL) is a conserved molecule with respect to its synthesis pathway and functions. In crayfish, MEL content in eyestalks (Ey) increases at night under the photoperiod, and this indoleamine synchronizes the circadian rhythm of electroretinogram amplitude, which is expressed by retinas and controlled by the cerebroid ganglion (CG). The aim of this study was to determine whether MEL content in eyestalks and CG or circulating MEL in hemolymph (He) follows a circadian rhythm under a free-running condition; in addition, it was tested whether MEL might directly influence the spontaneous electrical activity of the CG...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539591/characterization-of-the-adult-head-transcriptome-and-identification-of-migration-and-olfaction-genes-in-the-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separate
#11
Hai-Xu Bian, Hong-Fang Ma, Xi-Xi Zheng, Ming-Hui Peng, Yu-Ping Li, Jun-Fang Su, Huan Wang, Qun Li, Run-Xi Xia, Yan-Qun Liu, Xing-Fu Jiang
The oriental armyworm Mythimna separate is an economically important insect with a wide distribution and strong migratory activity. However, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the physiological and behavioural responses of the oriental armyworm is scarce. In the present study, we took a transcriptomic approach to characterize the gene network in the adult head of M. separate. The sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 63,499 transcripts, which were further assembled into 46,459 unigenes with an N50 of 1,153 bp...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536450/sustainability-is-possible-despite-greed-exploring-the-nexus-between-profitability-and-sustainability-in-common-pool-resource-systems
#12
Friedrich Burkhard von der Osten, Michael Kirley, Tim Miller
The sustainable use of common pool resources has become a significant global challenge. It is now widely accepted that specific mechanisms such as community-based management strategies, institutional responses such as resource privatization, information availability and emergent social norms can be used to constrain individual 'harvesting' to socially optimal levels. However, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on aligning profitability and sustainability goals. In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of a common pool resource game is developed to explore the nexus between the underlying costs and benefits of harvesting decisions and the sustainable level of a shared, dynamic resource...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535836/season-of-birth-is-associated-with-first-lactation-milk-yield-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#13
M Van Eetvelde, M M Kamal, L Vandaele, G Opsomer
The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#14
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528530/evaluation-of-ratite-skinning-force-in-order-to-fix-plant-and-mechanical-solutions
#15
Biagio Bianchi
The skin is the most requested product of ratite slaughter and 'first-rate' ratite's skin has a high economic market. Ostrich hide is tanned in South Africa and sold all over the world. Besides, the ostrich meat is considered a niche production in the marketplace, thus allowing for another pro t for the ostrich breeding. Theorical analysis of skinning process has been carried out, and an automatic measurement system has been designed to record the drawing-force on the animal's body during skinning tests. The aim of this study was to indentify the best animal position and provide values of drawing-force in order to design a speci c machine for ostrich skinning...
May 12, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#16
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525884/training-volume-and-soft-tissue-injury-in-professional-and-non-professional-rugby-union-players-a-systematic-review
#17
Shane Ball, Mark Halaki, Rhonda Orr
AIM: To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. DESIGN: A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. DATA SOURCES: Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence...
October 8, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525811/an-online-supervised-learning-method-based-on-gradient-descent-for-spiking-neurons
#18
Yan Xu, Jing Yang, Shuiming Zhong
The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by precise firing times of spikes. The gradient-descent-based (GDB) learning methods are widely used and verified in the current research. Although the existing GDB multi-spike learning (or spike sequence learning) methods have good performance, they work in an offline manner and still have some limitations. This paper proposes an online GDB spike sequence learning method for spiking neurons that is based on the online adjustment mechanism of real biological neuron synapses...
April 27, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524659/synthesis-molecular-docking-molecular-dynamics-studies-and-biological-evaluation-of-4h-chromone-1-2-3-4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate-derivatives-as-potential-antileukemic-agents
#19
Zahra Dolatkhah, Shahrzad Javanshir, Ahmad Shahir Sadr, Jaber Hosseini, Soroush Sardari
A series of 4H-chromone-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylates derivatives were synthesized via a three component one-pot condensation of chromone-3-carbaldehyde, alkyl acetoacetate, and urea or thiourea, using MCM-41-SO3H as efficient nanocatalysts and evaluated for their anticancer activity using a combined in silico docking and molecular dynamics protocol to estimate the binding affinity of the title compounds with the Bcr-Abl oncogene. Two programs, AutoDock 4 and AutoDock Vina software were applied to dock the target protein with synthesized compounds and ATP...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524193/high-ph-instability-of-quaternary-ammonium-surfactant-coatings-in-capillary-electrophoresis
#20
Lisa Shulman, Lei Pei, Mahmoud F Bahnasy, Charles A Lucy
The two-tailed cationic surfactant dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DODAB) produces semi-permanent coatings that yield strongly reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF), for example -0.31 ± 0.01 cm(2) kV(-1) s(-1) at pH 3.5. Moreover, these coatings are easy to prepare, regenerable, cost effective, and yield high efficiency (520 000-900 000 plates per m) separations of cationic proteins over many runs under acidic (pH 3.5) conditions. Given the quaternary amine functionality of DODAB, we were surprised to observe that DODAB coatings become unstable at pH > 7...
May 19, 2017: Analyst
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