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Counterfactual thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731729/imagining-what-could-have-happened-types-and-vividness-of-counterfactual-thoughts-and-the-relationship-with-post-traumatic-stress-reactions
#1
Ines Blix, Alf Børre Kanten, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Siri Thoresen
A growing body of research suggests that counterfactual thinking after traumatic events is associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. In this study we explored frequency of upward and downward counterfactuals in trauma-exposed individuals, and how trauma-related counterfactuals were represented in terms of vividness. We examined the relationships between vividness and frequency of counterfactual thoughts and post-traumatic stress reactions in two groups who had experienced different types of traumatic exposure, namely survivors and bereaved from the fire on the ferry Scandinavian Star in 1990...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731513/a-global-mitigation-hierarchy-for-nature-conservation
#2
William N S Arlidge, Joseph W Bull, Prue F E Addison, Michael J Burgass, Dimas Gianuca, Taylor M Gorham, Céline Jacob, Nicole Shumway, Samuel P Sinclair, James E M Watson, Chris Wilcox, E J Milner-Gulland
Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704755/it-s-not-going-to-be-that-fun-negative-experiences-can-add-meaning-to-life
#3
REVIEW
Kathleen D Vohs, Jennifer L Aaker, Rhia Catapano
People seek to spend time in positive experiences, enjoying and savoring. Yet there is no escaping negative experiences, from the mundane (e.g. arguing) to the massive (e.g. death of a child). Might negative experiences confer a hidden benefit to well-being? We propose that they do, in the form of enhanced meaning in life. Research suggests that negative experiences can serve to boost meaning because they stimulate comprehension (understanding how the event fits into a broader narrative of the self, relationships, and the world), a known pillar of meaning in life...
April 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558768/using-story-based-interventions-to-improve-episodic-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515475/three-year-olds-understanding-of-desire-reports-is-robust-to-conflict
#5
Kaitlyn Harrigan, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
In this paper, we present two experiments with 3-year-olds, exploring their interpretation of sentences about desires. A mature concept of desire entails that desires may conflict with reality and that different people may have conflicting desires. While previous literature is suggestive, it remains unclear whether young children understand that (a) agents can have counterfactual desires about current states of affairs and (b) agents can have desires that conflict with one's own desires or the desires of others...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482135/single-dose-testosterone-administration-modulates-emotional-reactivity-and-counterfactual-choice-in-healthy-males
#6
Yin Wu, Luke Clark, Samuele Zilioli, Christoph Eisenegger, Claire M Gillan, Huihua Deng, Hong Li
Testosterone has been implicated in the regulation of emotional responses and risky decision-making. However, the causal effect of testosterone upon emotional decision-making, especially in non-social settings, is still unclear. The present study investigated the role of testosterone in counterfactual thinking: regret is an intense negative emotion that arises from comparison of an obtained outcome from a decision against a better, non-obtained (i.e. counterfactual) alternative. Healthy male participants (n = 64) received a single-dose of 150 mg testosterone Androgel in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-participants design...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359629/it-could-have-been-true-how-counterfactual-thoughts-reduce-condemnation-of-falsehoods-and-increase-political-polarization
#7
Daniel A Effron
This research demonstrates how counterfactual thoughts can lead people to excuse others for telling falsehoods. When a falsehood aligned with participants' political preferences, reflecting on how it could have been true led them to judge it as less unethical to tell, which in turn led them to judge a politician who told it as having a more moral character and deserving less punishment. When a falsehood did not align with political preferences, this effect was significantly smaller and less reliable, in part because people doubted the plausibility of the relevant counterfactual thoughts...
May 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346434/cognitive-distortions-and-gambling-near-misses-in-internet-gaming-disorder-a-preliminary-study
#8
Yin Wu, Guillaume Sescousse, Hongbo Yu, Luke Clark, Hong Li
Increased cognitive distortions (i.e. biased processing of chance, probability and skill) are a key psychopathological process in disordered gambling. The present study investigated state and trait aspects of cognitive distortions in 22 individuals with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and 22 healthy controls. Participants completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale as a trait measure of cognitive distortions, and played a slot machine task delivering wins, near-misses and full-misses. Ratings of pleasure ("liking") and motivation to play ("wanting") were taken following the different outcomes, and gambling persistence was measured after a mandatory phase...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081596/on-the-counterfactual-nature-of-gambling-near-misses-an-experimental-study
#9
Yin Wu, Eric van Dijk, Hong Li, Michael Aitken, Luke Clark
Research on gambling near-misses has shown that objectively equivalent outcomes can yield divergent emotional and motivational responses. The subjective processing of gambling outcomes is affected substantially by close but non-obtained outcomes (i.e. counterfactuals). In the current paper, we investigate how different types of near-misses influence self-perceived luck and subsequent betting behavior in a wheel-of-fortune task. We investigate the counterfactual mechanism of these effects by testing the relationship with a second task measuring regret/relief processing...
October 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966138/human-lesion-studies-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#10
REVIEW
Brett Schneider, Michael Koenigs
Studies of neurological patients with focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have demonstrated a critical role for this brain area in various aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior. In this article, we review the key themes, methods, and findings from neuropsychological research on vmPFC lesion patients. Early case studies demonstrated profound disruptions in personality and behavior following vmPFC damage, including blunted affect, poor decision-making, and inappropriate social behavior...
December 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903677/considering-roads-taken-and-not-taken-how-psychological-distance-influences-the-framing-of-choice-events
#11
Greta Valenti, Lisa K Libby
After people make choices, they can frame the choice event in terms of what they chose, or in terms of what they did not choose. The current research proposes psychological distance as one factor influencing this framing and suggests implications. Three experiments manipulated dimensions of distance to demonstrate people's greater tendency to frame choice events in terms of chosen options at greater psychological distances. Additional findings demonstrate that these effects occur regardless of whether the decision turned out well or poorly...
September 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889061/depressive-symptoms-ruminative-thinking-drinking-motives-and-alcohol-outcomes-a-multiple-mediation-model-among-college-students-in-three-countries
#12
Adrian J Bravo, Angelina Pilatti, Matthew R Pearson, Laura Mezquita, Manuel I Ibáñez, Generós Ortet
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that ruminative thinking (specifically problem-focused thoughts) may explain why individuals engage in drinking to cope (DTC) when dealing with depressive symptoms; which in turn leads to increased negative alcohol-related consequences. Cross-cultural studies addressing these phenomena are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The present study cross-culturally tested whether four rumination facets (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) uniquely mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and drinking motives/alcohol outcomes in a multicultural sample of college student drinkers (n=1429) from Spain, Argentina, and the U...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722213/countering-resistance-to-protected-area-extension
#13
David Lindenmayer, Simon Thorn, Reed Noss
The establishment of protected areas is a critical strategy for conserving biodiversity. Key policy directives like the Aichi targets seek to expand protected areas to 17% of Earth's land surface, with calls by some conservation biologists for much more. However, in places such as the United States, Germany, and Australia, attempts to increase protected areas are meeting strong resistance from communities, industry groups, and governments. We examined case studies of such resistance in Victoria, Australia, Bavaria, Germany, and Florida, United States...
April 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671051/autobiographical-memory-functions-of-nostalgia-in-comparison-to-rumination-and-counterfactual-thinking-similarity-and-uniqueness
#14
Wing-Yee Cheung, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia...
February 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#15
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
February 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540515/explaining-intersectionality-through-description-counterfactual-thinking-and-mediation-analysis
#16
EDITORIAL
John W Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501706/upward-counterfactual-thinking-and-depression-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Anne Gene Broomhall, Wendy J Phillips, Donald W Hine, Natasha M Loi
This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r=.26, p<.001. Moderator analyses using an expanded set of 96 effect sizes indicated that upward counterfactuals and regret produced significant positive effects that were similar in strength. Effects also did not vary as a function of the theme of the counterfactual-inducing situation or study design (cross-sectional versus longitudinal)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#18
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#19
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285248/ptsd-s-risky-behavior-criterion-relation-with-dsm-5-ptsd-symptom-clusters-and-psychopathology
#20
Ateka A Contractor, Nicole H Weiss, Paula Dranger, Camilo Ruggero, Cherie Armour
A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger)...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
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