Read by QxMD icon Read

Counterfactual thinking

Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Kaitlyn Harrigan, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
In this paper, we present two experiments with 3-year-olds, exploring their interpretation of sentences about desires. A mature concept of desire entails that desires may conflict with reality and that different people may have conflicting desires. While previous literature is suggestive, it remains unclear whether young children understand that (a) agents can have counterfactual desires about current states of affairs and (b) agents can have desires that conflict with one's own desires or the desires of others...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yin Wu, Luke Clark, Samuele Zilioli, Christoph Eisenegger, Claire M Gillan, Huihua Deng, Hong Li
Testosterone has been implicated in the regulation of emotional responses and risky decision-making. However, the causal effect of testosterone upon emotional decision-making, especially in non-social settings, is still unclear. The present study investigated the role of testosterone in counterfactual thinking: regret is an intense negative emotion that arises from comparison of an obtained outcome from a decision against a better, non-obtained (i.e. counterfactual) alternative. Healthy male participants (n = 64) received a single-dose of 150 mg testosterone Androgel in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-participants design...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daniel A Effron
This research demonstrates how counterfactual thoughts can lead people to excuse others for telling falsehoods. When a falsehood aligned with participants' political preferences, reflecting on how it could have been true led them to judge it as less unethical to tell, which in turn led them to judge a politician who told it as having a more moral character and deserving less punishment. When a falsehood did not align with political preferences, this effect was significantly smaller and less reliable, in part because people doubted the plausibility of the relevant counterfactual thoughts...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Yin Wu, Guillaume Sescousse, Hongbo Yu, Luke Clark, Hong Li
Increased cognitive distortions (i.e. biased processing of chance, probability and skill) are a key psychopathological process in disordered gambling. The present study investigated state and trait aspects of cognitive distortions in 22 individuals with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and 22 healthy controls. Participants completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale as a trait measure of cognitive distortions, and played a slot machine task delivering wins, near-misses and full-misses. Ratings of pleasure ("liking") and motivation to play ("wanting") were taken following the different outcomes, and gambling persistence was measured after a mandatory phase...
2018: PloS One
Yin Wu, Eric van Dijk, Hong Li, Michael Aitken, Luke Clark
Research on gambling near-misses has shown that objectively equivalent outcomes can yield divergent emotional and motivational responses. The subjective processing of gambling outcomes is affected substantially by close but non-obtained outcomes (i.e. counterfactuals). In the current paper, we investigate how different types of near-misses influence self-perceived luck and subsequent betting behavior in a wheel-of-fortune task. We investigate the counterfactual mechanism of these effects by testing the relationship with a second task measuring regret/relief processing...
October 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
Brett Schneider, Michael Koenigs
Studies of neurological patients with focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have demonstrated a critical role for this brain area in various aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior. In this article, we review the key themes, methods, and findings from neuropsychological research on vmPFC lesion patients. Early case studies demonstrated profound disruptions in personality and behavior following vmPFC damage, including blunted affect, poor decision-making, and inappropriate social behavior...
December 2017: Neuropsychologia
Greta Valenti, Lisa K Libby
After people make choices, they can frame the choice event in terms of what they chose, or in terms of what they did not choose. The current research proposes psychological distance as one factor influencing this framing and suggests implications. Three experiments manipulated dimensions of distance to demonstrate people's greater tendency to frame choice events in terms of chosen options at greater psychological distances. Additional findings demonstrate that these effects occur regardless of whether the decision turned out well or poorly...
September 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Adrian J Bravo, Angelina Pilatti, Matthew R Pearson, Laura Mezquita, Manuel I Ibáñez, Generós Ortet
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that ruminative thinking (specifically problem-focused thoughts) may explain why individuals engage in drinking to cope (DTC) when dealing with depressive symptoms; which in turn leads to increased negative alcohol-related consequences. Cross-cultural studies addressing these phenomena are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The present study cross-culturally tested whether four rumination facets (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) uniquely mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and drinking motives/alcohol outcomes in a multicultural sample of college student drinkers (n=1429) from Spain, Argentina, and the U...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
David Lindenmayer, Simon Thorn, Reed Noss
The establishment of protected areas is a critical strategy for conserving biodiversity. Key policy directives like the Aichi targets seek to expand protected areas to 17% of the earth's land surface, with calls by some conservation biologists for much more. However, in places such as the USA, Germany and Australia, attempts to increase protected areas are meeting strong resistance from communities, industry groups, and governments. Here we provide case studies of such resistance and suggest four ways to tackle this problem: (1) Broaden the case for protected areas beyond just nature conservation, to include the economic, human health, and other benefits, and translate these into a persuasive business case for protected areas...
July 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Wing-Yee Cheung, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia...
July 1, 2017: Memory
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
John W Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Anne Gene Broomhall, Wendy J Phillips, Donald W Hine, Natasha M Loi
This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r=.26, p<.001. Moderator analyses using an expanded set of 96 effect sizes indicated that upward counterfactuals and regret produced significant positive effects that were similar in strength. Effects also did not vary as a function of the theme of the counterfactual-inducing situation or study design (cross-sectional versus longitudinal)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Ateka A Contractor, Nicole H Weiss, Paula Dranger, Camilo Ruggero, Cherie Armour
A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger)...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
Raluca A Briazu, Clare R Walsh, Catherine Deeprose, Giorgio Ganis
This paper explores the proposal that there is a close link between counterfactual thinking and lying. Both require the imagination of alternatives to reality and we describe four studies which explore this link. In Study 1 we measured individual differences in both abilities and found that individuals with a tendency to generate counterfactual thoughts were also more likely to generate potential lies. Studies 2 and 3 showed that counterfactual availability influences people's ability to come up with lies and the extent to which they expect others to lie...
April 2017: Cognition
Matthew L Stanley, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Episodic counterfactual thoughts-imagined alternative ways in which personal past events might have occurred-are frequently accompanied by intense emotions. Here, participants recollected positive and negative autobiographical memories and then generated better and worse episodic counterfactual events from those memories. Our results suggest that the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event is significantly higher than but typically positively related to the emotional intensity while remembering/imagining the event...
February 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Cecilia Hammell, Amy Y C Chan
Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on "what might have been") has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining "what might be if…") may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"