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M G Aartsen, M Ackermann, J Adams, J A Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, I Al Samarai, D Altmann, K Andeen, T Anderson, I Ansseau, G Anton, C Argüelles, J Auffenberg, S Axani, H Bagherpour, X Bai, J P Barron, S W Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, J J Beatty, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, S BenZvi, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Z Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, E Blaufuss, S Blot, C Bohm, M Börner, F Bos, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Bourbeau, F Bradascio, J Braun, L Brayeur, M Brenzke, H-P Bretz, S Bron, J Brostean-Kaiser, A Burgman, T Carver, J Casey, M Casier, E Cheung, D Chirkin, A Christov, K Clark, L Classen, S Coenders, G H Collin, J M Conrad, D F Cowen, R Cross, M Day, J P A M de André, C De Clercq, J J DeLaunay, H Dembinski, S De Ridder, P Desiati, K D de Vries, G de Wasseige, M de With, T DeYoung, J C Díaz-Vélez, V di Lorenzo, H Dujmovic, J P Dumm, M Dunkman, B Eberhardt, T Ehrhardt, B Eichmann, P Eller, P A Evenson, S Fahey, A R Fazely, J Felde, K Filimonov, C Finley, S Flis, A Franckowiak, E Friedman, T Fuchs, T K Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, K Ghorbani, W Giang, T Glauch, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, J G Gonzalez, D Grant, Z Griffith, C Haack, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Hebecker, D Heereman, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, J Hignight, G C Hill, K D Hoffman, R Hoffmann, B Hokanson-Fasig, K Hoshina, F Huang, M Huber, K Hultqvist, M Hünnefeld, S In, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, G S Japaridze, M Jeong, K Jero, B J P Jones, P Kalaczynski, W Kang, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, U Katz, M Kauer, A Keivani, J L Kelley, A Kheirandish, J Kim, M Kim, T Kintscher, J Kiryluk, T Kittler, S R Klein, G Kohnen, R Koirala, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, J P Koschinsky, D J Koskinen, M Kowalski, K Krings, M Kroll, G Krückl, J Kunnen, S Kunwar, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, A Kyriacou, M Labare, J L Lanfranchi, M J Larson, F Lauber, D Lennarz, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, Q R Liu, L Lu, J Lünemann, W Luszczak, J Madsen, G Maggi, K B M Mahn, S Mancina, R Maruyama, K Mase, R Maunu, F McNally, K Meagher, M Medici, M Meier, T Menne, G Merino, T Meures, S Miarecki, J Micallef, G Momenté, T Montaruli, R W Moore, M Moulai, R Nahnhauer, P Nakarmi, U Naumann, G Neer, H Niederhausen, S C Nowicki, D R Nygren, A Obertacke Pollmann, A Olivas, A O'Murchadha, T Palczewski, H Pandya, D V Pankova, P Peiffer, J A Pepper, C Pérez de Los Heros, D Pieloth, E Pinat, M Plum, P B Price, G T Przybylski, C Raab, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, I C Rea, R Reimann, B Relethford, M Relich, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Richman, S Robertson, M Rongen, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Ryckbosch, D Rysewyk, T Sälzer, S E Sanchez Herrera, A Sandrock, J Sandroos, S Sarkar, S Sarkar, K Satalecka, P Schlunder, T Schmidt, A Schneider, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, L Schumacher, D Seckel, S Seunarine, J Soedingrekso, D Soldin, M Song, G M Spiczak, C Spiering, J Stachurska, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, A Stasik, J Stettner, A Steuer, T Stezelberger, R G Stokstad, A Stößl, N L Strotjohann, G W Sullivan, M Sutherland, I Taboada, J Tatar, F Tenholt, S Ter-Antonyan, A Terliuk, G Tešić, S Tilav, P A Toale, M N Tobin, S Toscano, D Tosi, M Tselengidou, C F Tung, A Turcati, C F Turley, B Ty, E Unger, M Usner, J Vandenbroucke, W Van Driessche, N van Eijndhoven, S Vanheule, J van Santen, M Vehring, E Vogel, M Vraeghe, C Walck, A Wallace, M Wallraff, F D Wandler, N Wandkowsky, A Waza, C Weaver, M J Weiss, C Wendt, J Werthebach, S Westerhoff, B J Whelan, K Wiebe, C H Wiebusch, L Wille, D R Williams, L Wills, M Wolf, J Wood, T R Wood, E Woolsey, K Woschnagg, D L Xu, X W Xu, Y Xu, J P Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, T Yuan, M Zoll
We present a measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters using three years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The DeepCore infill array in the center of IceCube enables the detection and reconstruction of neutrinos produced by the interaction of cosmic rays in Earth's atmosphere at energies as low as ∼5  GeV. That energy threshold permits measurements of muon neutrino disappearance, over a range of baselines up to the diameter of the Earth, probing the same range of L/E_{ν} as long-baseline experiments but with substantially higher-energy neutrinos...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Julia F Litzky, Maya A Deyssenroth, Todd M Everson, Barry M Lester, Luca Lambertini, Jia Chen, Carmen J Marsit
BACKGROUND: Depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with impaired fetal growth and neurodevelopmental. Because placental imprinted genes play a central role in fetal development and respond to environmental stressors, we hypothesized that imprinted gene expression would be affected by prenatal depression and anxiety. METHODS: Placental gene expression was compared between mothers with prenatal depression and/or anxiety/obsessive compulsive disorder/panic and control mothers without psychiatric history (n=458) in the Rhode Island Child Health Study...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Sarah J Ronaldson, Lisa Dyson, Laura Clark, Catherine E Hewitt, David J Torgerson, Brendan G Cooper, Matt Kearney, William Laughey, Raghu Raghunath, Lisa Steele, Rebecca Rhodes, Joy Adamson
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Yi Wang, Hao Fan, Rudy Banerjee, Anne M Weaver, Michael Weiner
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases disease risk in older adults. Nursing facilities located near major roadways potentially expose older adults to traffic pollution. No studies, however, have described the association between nursing facilities and traffic pollution. We obtained data on facility- and census-tract-level characteristics of 15,706 U.S. facilities from the Medicare Nursing Home Compare datasets. We calculated distance to major roadways and traffic density for each facility. In the contiguous U...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Haylett, D Koumaki, L E Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Solar urticaria (SU) is a rare chronic inducible urticaria triggered via uncharacterised chromophores. We detail responses of a large patient series to monochromator phototesting and broadband ultraviolet radiation (UVR); relationship to life quality is explored. METHODS: Retrospective review of all SU patients undergoing standardised diagnostic photoinvestigation at a specialist centre during 2000-2016. From 2011, patients completed dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaires for the past week and year...
March 13, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Jacob E Hill, Travis L DeVault, James C Beasley, Olin E Rhodes, Jerrold L Belant
Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Anna Cassell, Duncan Edwards, Amelia Harshfield, Kirsty Rhodes, James Brimicombe, Rupert Payne, Simon Griffin
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity places a substantial burden on patients and the healthcare system, but few contemporary epidemiological data are available. AIM: To describe the epidemiology of multimorbidity in adults in England, and quantify associations between multimorbidity and health service utilisation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study, undertaken in England. METHOD: The study used a random sample of 403 985 adult patients (aged ≥18 years), who were registered with a general practice on 1 January 2012 and included in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Suzanne Phelan, Rena R Wing, Anna Brannen, Angelica McHugh, Todd A Hagobian, Andrew Schaffner, Elissa Jelalian, Chantelle N Hart, Theresa O Scholl, Karen Munoz-Christian, Elaine Yin, Maureen G Phipps, Sarah Keadle, Barbara Abrams
Background: Behavioral lifestyle interventions during pregnancy can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with normal weight; however, effective interventions to reduce GWG in ethnically diverse women with obesity are lacking. Objective: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test whether a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement reduces GWG rate in Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight or obesity relative to enhanced usual care...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kelly R Rhodes, Jordan J Green
Exciting developments in cancer nanomedicine include the engineering of nanocarriers to deliver drugs locally to tumors, increasing efficacy and reducing off-target toxicity associated with chemotherapies. Despite nanocarrier advances, metastatic cancer remains challenging to treat due to barriers that prevent nanoparticles from gaining access to remote, dispersed, and poorly vascularized metastatic tumors. Instead of relying on nanoparticles to directly destroy every tumor cell, immunotherapeutic approaches target immune cells to train them to recognize and destroy tumor cells, which, due to the amplification and specificity of an adaptive immune response, may be a more effective approach to treating metastatic cancer...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Catharine A Rhodes, D Gareth Beevers, David Churchill
To assess the feasibility of a prospective randomised trial of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) versus clinic blood pressure (CBP) readings for managing pregnancy hypertension. The primary outcome measure was admission to hospital. The secondary measures were number of antenatal attendances, use of anti-hypertensive drugs and duration of hospital stay. In general, there were no statistical differences between the two groups including the primary outcome, the rate of hospital admission p=0.76. 89% of participants would undergo ABPM in future pregnancies...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Warren Pan, Jessica M Adams, Margaret B Allison, Christa Patterson, Jonathan N Flak, Justin Jones, Garth Strohbehn, James Trevaskis, Christopher J Rhodes, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on central nervous system neurons to communicate the repletion of long-term energy stores, to decrease food intake and promote energy expenditure. We generated mice that express cre recombinase from the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) locus (Calcrcre mice) to study Calcr-expressing LepRb (LepRbCalcr) neurons, which reside predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Calcrcre-mediated ablation of LepRb in LepRbCalcrKO mice caused hyperphagic obesity...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Brian Sullivan, Dennis Hilliard, Samara Viner-Brown, Nicole Alexander-Scott
CONTEXT: National data on the epidemiology of firearm injuries and circumstances of firearm deaths are difficult to obtain and often are nonreliable. Since firearm injury and death rates and causes can vary substantially between states, it is critical to consider state-specific data sources. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we illustrate how states can systematically examine demographic characteristics, firearm information, type of wound, toxicology tests, precipitating circumstances, and costs to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm injuries and deaths using data sets from a single state with relatively low rates of firearm injury and death...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Salimah H Meghani, Caroline Peterson, Donna H Kaiser, Joseph Rhodes, Hengyi Rao, Jesse Chittams, Anjan Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer frequently experience physical and psychological distress that can worsen their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) intervention, Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out, on symptoms, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, sense of coherence (SOC), and spirituality in outpatients with cancer. METHODS: A 1-group, pre-post intervention design with repeated measures at baseline, week 4, and week 8...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Christina A Cuomo, Johanna Rhodes, Christopher A Desjardins
Cryptococcus species are the causative agents of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Initial work on the molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen utilized genotyping approaches to describe the genetic diversity and biogeography of two species, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Whole genome sequencing of representatives of both species resulted in reference assemblies enabling a wide array of downstream studies and genomic resources...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Margot P Bickler, Laura J Rhodes
Detecting life-threatening common dyshemoglobins such as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb, resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning) or methemoglobin (MetHb, caused by exposure to nitrates) typically requires a laboratory CO-oximeter. Because of cost, these spectrophotometer-based instrument are often inaccessible in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an inexpensive pocket infrared spectrometer and smartphone (SCiO®Pocket Molecular Sensor, Consumer Physics Ltd., Israel) accurately detects COHb and MetHb in single drops of blood...
2018: PloS One
Nathaniel J Rhodes, Caroline E Cruce, J Nicholas O'Donnell, Richard G Wunderink, Alan R Hauser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are frequent causes of infection among critically ill patients. VAP is the most common hospital-acquired bacterial infection among mechanically ventilated patients. Unfortunately, many of the nosocomial Gram-negative bacteria that cause VAP are increasingly difficult to treat. Additionally, the evolution and dissemination of multi- and pan-drug resistant strains leave clinicians with few treatment options. VAP patients represent a dynamic population at risk for antibiotic failure and under-dosing due to altered antibiotic pharmacokinetic parameters...
March 6, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Huijuan Bi, Zhuang Liu, Congjiao Sun, Guangqi Li, Guiqin Wu, Fengying Shi, Aiqiao Liu, Ning Yang
The dynamic change in brown eggshell color as hens age has been observed, but much uncertainty still exists. We aimed to analyze the depth of eggshell color and quantity of protoporphyrin ΙΧ throughout the laying period to explore the reasons for color variation. In this study, 120 Rhode Island Red hens were used, and two eggs were collected from each individual at 26, 34, 42, 50, 60, and 70 wk of age. The eggshell color (L*, a*, b*), egg weight, eggshell dry weight, and protoporphyrin ΙΧ quantity in eggshell were measured for individual eggs...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Rosamond Rhodes
This article provides a critique of the monolithic accounts that define justice in terms of a single and often inappropriate goal. By providing an array of real examples, I argue that there is no simple definition of justice, because allocations that express justice are governed by a variety of reasons that reasonable people endorse for their saliency. In making difficult choices about ranking priorities, different considerations have different importance in different kinds of situations. In this sense, justice is a conclusion about whether an allocation reflects the human interests and priorities that are at stake...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Tracey M Dalton, Di Jin
This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Management
Sofie A M Gernaat, Jolanda M A Boer, Desiree H J van den Bongard, Angela H E M Maas, Carmen C van der Pol, Rhodé M Bijlsma, Diederick E Grobbee, Helena M Verkooijen, Petra H Peeters
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) following breast cancer, accounting for baseline CVD risk. METHODS: Within the EPIC-NL (Dutch part of the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer) cohort, 1103 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. For every breast cancer patient, 3-4 women without breast cancer (n = 4328) were selected matched for age, year, and time since cohort enrollment. Based on CVD risk factors at cohort enrollment, 10-year risk of CVD was calculated and categorized: low (< 10%), intermediate (10-20%), high (> 20%)...
February 28, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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