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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781158/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-distention-associated-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction
#1
Y Fu, Y M Lin, J H Winston, R Radhakrishnan, L-Y M Huang, X Z Shi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that visceral sensitivity is increased in bowel obstruction (BO). We hypothesized that mechanical stress-induced expression of BDNF in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the distended bowel plays a critical role in visceral hypersensitivity in BO by altering voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv ) activity in sensory neurons. METHODS: Partial colon obstruction was maintained in rats for 7 days. Colon-projecting neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were isolated for electrophysiological and gene expression studies...
May 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780939/sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-and-ipsilateral-trigeminal-neuralgia-caused-by-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#2
Thong Pham, Jeffrey Wesolowski, Jonathan D Trobe
Purpose: To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy. Observations: A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780922/mri-findings-of-contralateral-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-in-parry-romberg-syndrome
#3
Emily K Tam, Marcela Lonngi, Joseph L Demer
Purpose: To study a case of right Parry Romberg syndrome associated with contralateral oculomotor nerve palsy using high-resolution cerebral and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observations: There were no brain MRI abnormalities. However, there was marked enophthalmos on the right with reduction of orbital fat. Extraocular muscles contracted normally in the right eye, but in the left eye, there was reduced contractility of the medial, inferior, and superior rectus muscles...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779597/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-the-respiratory-system
#4
REVIEW
Andrew T Braun, Candelaria Caballero-Eraso, Noah Lechtzin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that always affects the respiratory muscles. It is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Respiratory complications are the most common causes of death in ALS and typically occur within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis. Because ALS affects both upper and lower motor neurons, it causes hyperreflexia, spasticity, muscle fasciculations, muscle atrophy, and weakness. It ultimately progresses to functional quadriplegia...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779590/pathophysiology-of-neuromuscular-respiratory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Joshua O Benditt
Gas exchange between the atmosphere and the human body depends on the lungs and the function of the respiratory pump. The respiratory pump consists of the respiratory control center located in the brain, bony rib cage, diaphragm, and intercostal, accessory, and abdominal muscles. A variety of muscles serve to fine-tune adjustments of ventilation to metabolic demands. Appropriate evaluation and interventions can prevent respiratory complications and prolong life in individuals with neuromuscular diseases. This article discusses normal function of the respiratory pump, general pathophysiologic issues, and abnormalities in more common neuromuscular diseases...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778688/molecular-basis-of-diseases-caused-by-the-mtdna-mutation-m-8969g-a-in-the-subunit-a-of-atp-synthase
#6
Natalia Skoczeń, Alain Dautant, Krystyna Binko, François Godard, Marine Bouhier, Xin Su, Jean-Paul Lasserre, Marie-France Giraud, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier, Huimei Chen, Jean-Paul di Rago, Roza Kucharczyk
The ATP synthase which provides aerobic eukaryotes with ATP, organizes into a membrane-extrinsic catalytic domain, where ATP is generated, and a membrane-embedded FO domain that shuttles protons across the membrane. We previously identified a mutation in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene (m.8969G>A) in a 14-year-old Chinese female who developed an isolated nephropathy followed by brain and muscle problems. This mutation replaces a highly conserved serine residue into asparagine at amino acid position 148 of the membrane-embedded subunit a of ATP synthase...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778285/subcutaneous-tissue-metastasis-from-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Natalia Frade Porto, Juan Delgado Fernández, María de Los Ángeles García Pallero, Juan Ramón Penanes Cuesta, Paloma Pulido Rivas, Ricardo Gil Simoes
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary brain tumor, despite an aggressive clinical course, less than 2% of patients develop extraneural metastasis. We present a 72-year-old male diagnosed with a right temporal glioblastoma due to headache. He underwent total gross resection surgery and after that the patient was treated with adyuvant therapy. Five months after the patient returned with trigeminal neuralgia, and MRI showed an infratemporal cranial mass which infiltrates masticator space, the surrounding bone, the temporal muscle and superior cervical and parotid lymph nodes...
May 16, 2018: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776859/increased-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-in-un-medicated-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Martin Schecklmann, Carmen Weidler, Peter Eichhammer, Göran Hajak, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with changes in inhibitory and facilitatory brain networks which can be assessed by motor cortex excitability. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate differences between large cross-sectional samples of un-medicated and medicated patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls in single- and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters. METHODS: We measured right abductor digiti minimi muscle activity in 71 un-medicated, 43 medicated patients and 131 healthy controls...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776378/differential-induction-of-mutant-sod1-misfolding-and-aggregation-by-tau-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#9
Michael C Pace, Guilian Xu, Susan Fromholt, John Howard, Benoit I Giasson, Jada Lewis, David R Borchelt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in C. elegans demonstrated that the expression of aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins in muscle wall cells compromised the folding of co-expressed temperature-sensitive proteins, prompting interest in whether the accumulation of a misfolded protein in pathologic features of human neurodegenerative disease burdens cellular proteostatic machinery in a manner that impairs the folding of other cellular proteins. METHODS: Mice expressing high levels of mutant forms of tau and α-synuclein (αSyn), which develop inclusion pathologies of the mutant protein in brain and spinal cord, were crossed to mice expressing low levels of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (G85R-SOD1:YFP) for aging and neuropathological evaluation...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775413/human-cerebral-collateral-arteriole-function-in-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-subjects
#10
Raymond Q Migrino, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Geidy Serrano, Calvin Madrigal, Hannah A Davies, Jillian Madine, Peter Reaven, Thomas G Beach
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a link between cardiovascular disease and dementia disorders but the role of collateral brain circulation in cognitive dysfunction remains unknown. We aim to test the hypothesis that leptomeningeal arteriole (LMA) function and response to metabolic stressors differ among dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN) subjects. Following rapid autopsy, LMA were isolated from CN (N=10), MCI (N=12) or dementia subjects (N=42, Alzheimer's disease [AD], vascular dementia [VaD], or Other Dementia) and endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent function were measured at baseline and following exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ42 2 μM), palmitic acid (PA 150 μM) or medin (5μM) and compared...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775031/-neurofeedback-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-tinnitus
#11
REVIEW
Z Q Zhao, G X Lei, Y L Li, D Zhang, W D Shen, S M Yang, Y H Qiao
Neurofeedback therapy is a fast-growing field of tinnitus treatment, which is a new type of biofeedback therapy. In the past, the "muscle tone" and "blood flow" were used as feedback signals in biofeedback therapy to treat tinnitus, however there was no long-term follow-up report. Instead, neurofeedback therapy utilizes EEG (electroencephalogram) as the feedback signal, which is also called EEG biofeedback therapy. At present, most treatments of tinnitus only record subjective measures of patients as evaluation indicators, whereas neurofeedback therapy is more convincing for using comprehensive evaluation including changes of brain wave as objective indicators and subjective measures of patients...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774825/dietary-zinc-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773223/corrigendum-to-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-differentially-regulate-cell-shape-changes-during-zebrafish-brain-morphogenesis-dev-biol-397-2015-103-115
#13
Jennifer H Gutzman, Srishti U Sahu, Constance Kwas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773185/kinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-bismuth-tin-and-lead-after-implantation-of-miniature-shotgun-alloy-pellets-in-rats
#14
Vidar Skaug, Einar Eilertsen, Asbjørn Skogstad, Finn E S Levy, Balázs Berlinger, Yngvar Thomassen, Dag G Ellingsen
INTRODUCTION: Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) as substitute for lead (Pb) are increasingly being used due to environmental concerns. Information on toxicokinetics of Bi is lacking for the assessment of humans accidentally shot by Bi-containing shotgun alloy pellets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to miniature alloy pellets containing Bi, tin (Sn) and minor amounts of Pb by implantation in muscle tissues of the hind legs. RESULTS: The concentrations of Bi in whole blood and urine increased up to 53 weeks after implantation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773001/combined-administration-of-monosodium-glutamate-and-high-sucrose-diet-accelerates-the-induction-of-type-2-diabetes-vascular-dysfunction-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#15
Kaja Saikrishna, Ringu Kumari, Kantamaneni Chaitanya, Subhankar Biswas, Pawan G Nayak, Jayesh Mudgal, Anoop Kishore, Krishnadas Nandakumar
In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770363/the-multifaceted-clinical-presentation-of-vcp-proteinopathy-in-a-greek-family
#16
George K Papadimas, George P Paraskevas, Thomas Zambelis, Chrisostomos Karagiaouris, Mara Bourbouli, Anastasia Bougea, Maggie C Walter, Nicolas U Schumacher, Sabine Krause, Elisabeth Kapaki
VCP-proteinopathy is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in valosin containing protein. Here, we report the first Greek case of VCP-proteinopathy in a 62 year old patient with a slowly progressing muscular weakness since his mid-40s and a severe deterioration during the last year. He also manifested dementia with prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms, including aggression, apathy, palilalia and obsessions. Brain MRI revealed frontal atrophy, while muscle MRI showed diffuse muscle atrophy...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770362/study-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-preliminary-results
#17
Manuela Ergoli, Massimo Venditti, Raffaele Dotolo, Esther Picillo, Sergio Minucci, Luisa Politano
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness and involvement of several organs and apparatus such as heart, lungs, eye, brain and endocrine system. Hypogonadism and reproductive abnormalities are frequently reported. A progressive testicular atrophy occurs in about 80% in the affected males leading to Leydig cell hyperproliferation and elevated basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) - a dimeric glycoprotein belonging to the super-family of transforming grow factor beta (TGF-beta) - is the earliest Sertoli cell hormone secreted in males and, together with inhibin B and FSH, is an important indicator of Sertoli cell function...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768313/the-incidence-of-myocardial-injury-after-loading-doses-of-clopidogrel-versus-prasugrel-in-the-candidates-for-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Reza Rahmani, Laya Jiriaee, Zahra Jiriaee, Akbar Shafiee, Amir Farhang Zand Parsa
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of myocardial injury is an essential issue in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the incidence of myocardial injury after loading doses of clopidogrel versus prasugrel in the candidates for PCI. METHODS: In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 88 stable angina patients, candidate for PCI. Patients received either prasugrel (60 mg orally) (n = 42) or clopidogrel (600 mg orally) (n = 46). Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase muscle-brain type, cardiac troponin I, and high sensitive C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 hours postprocedural...
June 2018: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765892/botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-the-treatment-of-spasticity-in-a-infantile-onset-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation-a-case-report
#19
Hwan Kwon Do, Geun Yeol Jo, Jun Koo Kwon, Woo Jin Kim
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by iron accumulation in the globus pallidus (GP) of the brain (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation [NBIA]), which is characterized by dystonia and spasticity resulting in postural difficulties. A 33-month-old boy was admitted with a pronounced gait disturbance. Marked hypertonicity in the patient's both calf muscles was noted, resulting in waddling with repeated slip-falls. NBIA was suspected by high T2 intensity in the GP on brain MRI, then it was confirmed by detecting PANK2 mutation...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765890/intraoperative-monitoring-of-hypoglossal-nerve-using-hypoglossal-motor-evoked-potential-in-infratentorial-tumor-surgery-a-report-of-two-cases
#20
Seung Yeun Kim, Hyo Won Im, Young-Doo Choi, Keewon Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Han Gil Seo
The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) may be placed at risk during posterior fossa surgeries. The use of intraoperative monitoring (IOM), including the utilization of spontaneous and triggered electromyography (EMG), from tongue muscles innervated by CN XII has been used to reduce these risks. However, there were few reports regarding the intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) of hypoglossal nerve from the tongue muscles. For this reason, we report here two cases of intraoperative hypoglossal MEP monitoring in brain surgery as an indicator of hypoglossal deficits...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
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