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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439403/policy-entrepreneurship-and-policy-networks-in-healthcare-systems-the-case-of-israel-s-pediatric-dentistry-reform
#1
Nissim Cohen, Tuvia Horev
BACKGROUND: Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423819/exploring-innovation-capabilities-of-hospital-cios-an-empirical-assessment
#2
Moritz Esdar, Jan-David Liebe, Jan-Patrick Weiß, Ursula Hübner
Hospital CIOs play a central role in the adoption of innovative health IT. Until now, it remained unclear which particular conditions constitute their capability to innovate in terms of intrapersonal as well as organisational factors. An inventory of 20 items was developed to capture these conditions and examined by analysing data obtained from 164 German hospital CIOs. Principal component analysis resulted in three internally consistent components that constitute large portions of the CIOs innovation capability: organisational innovation culture, entrepreneurship personality and openness towards users...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413254/non-farm-entrepreneurship-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa-new-empirical-evidence
#3
Paula Nagler, Wim Naudé
We report on the prevalence and patterns of non-farm enterprises in six sub-Saharan African countries, and study their performance in terms of labor productivity, survival and exit, using the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). Rural households operate enterprises due to both push and pull factors and tend to do so predominantly in easy-to-enter activities, such as sales and trade, rather than in activities that require higher starting costs, such as transport services, or educational investment, such as professional services...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395239/eco-innovations-in-the-functioning-of-companies
#4
A Ociepa-Kubicka, P Pachura
The development of entrepreneurships in the 21st century cannot occur without taking care of the natural environment. The article presents issues related to eco-innovation. Despite the opportunities offered by eco-innovations, implementation of such initiatives remains to lead to various difficulties. They vary across countries and sectors. The insufficient number of enterprises in Poland and other European countries implement adequate level of eco-innovations. The main aim of this paper is to indicate the causes of this status and activities aimed to develop eco-innovativeness...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385393/how-scientists-can-become-entrepreneurs
#5
Jonathan N Thon, Sven Karlsson
Translating basic research discoveries through entrepreneurship must be scientist driven and institutionally supported to be successful (not the other way around). Here, we describe why scientists should engage in entrepreneurship, where institutional support for scientist-founders falls short, and how these challenges can be overcome.
April 3, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358527/-going-out-of-the-box-close-intercultural-friendships-and-romantic-relationships-spark-creativity-workplace-innovation-and-entrepreneurship
#6
Jackson G Lu, Andrew C Hafenbrack, Paul W Eastwick, Dan J Wang, William W Maddux, Adam D Galinsky
The present research investigates whether close intercultural relationships promote creativity, workplace innovation, and entrepreneurship-outcomes vital to individual and organizational success. We triangulate on these questions with multiple methods (longitudinal, experimental, and field studies), diverse population samples (MBA students, employees, and professional repatriates), and both laboratory and real-world measures. Using a longitudinal design over a 10-month MBA program, Study 1 found that intercultural dating predicted improved creative performance on both divergent and convergent thinking tasks...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348534/the-emotional-side-of-entrepreneurship-a-meta-analysis-of-the-relation-between-positive-and-negative-affect-and-entrepreneurial-performance
#7
Oana C Fodor, Sebastian Pintea
The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies (N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343700/fostering-a-culture-of-innovation-in-academic-surgery
#8
Daniel P McCarthy
Dr McCarthy is a fellow in cardiothoracic surgery at the University of Washington. During his general surgery training at Northwestern University, he completed a research fellowship in surgical innovation and obtained masters' degrees with a focus on health enterprise management, entrepreneurship, and innovation.
April 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335689/trends-of-occupational-hygiene-in-finland
#9
Rauno Pääkkönen, Milja Koponen
The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society, and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods, and advances of construction methods were recognised as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities, and product safety issues...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284538/the-policy-work-of-piloting-mobilising-and-managing-conflict-and-ambiguity-in-the-english-nhs
#10
Simon Bailey, Kath Checkland, Damian Hodgson, Anne McBride, Rebecca Elvey, Stephen Parkin, Katy Rothwell, Dean Pierides
In spite of their widespread use in policy making in the UK and elsewhere, there is a relatively sparse literature specifically devoted to policy pilots. Recent research on policy piloting has focused on the role of pilots in making policy work in accordance with national agendas. Taking this as a point of departure, the present paper develops the notion of pilots doing policy work. It does this by situating piloting within established theories of policy formulation and implementation, and illustrating using an empirical case...
February 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260413/the-institutional-logic-of-integrated-care-an-ethnography-of-patient-transitions
#11
James A Shaw, Pia Kontos, Wendy Martin, Christina Victor
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use theories of institutional logics and institutional entrepreneurship to examine how and why macro-, meso-, and micro-level influences inter-relate in the implementation of integrated transitional care out of hospital in the English National Health Service. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an ethnographic case study of a hospital and surrounding services within a large urban centre in England. Specific methods included qualitative interviews with patients/caregivers, health/social care providers, and organizational leaders; observations of hospital transition planning meetings, community "hub" meetings, and other instances of transition planning; reviews of patient records; and analysis of key policy documents...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202155/-the-liability-of-newness-revisited-theoretical-restatement-and-empirical-testing-in-emergent-organizations
#12
Tiantian Yang, Howard E Aldrich
The mismatch between Stinchcombe's original propositions regarding "the liability of newness" and subsequent attempts to test those propositions suggests to us that the form and causes of the liability remain open to further investigation. Taking organizational emergence as a process comprising entrepreneurs engaging in actions that produce outcomes, we propose hypotheses about the social mechanisms of organizational construction involved in investing resources, developing routines, and maintaining boundaries...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190915/the-employment-environment-for-youth-in-rural-south-africa-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Andra Wilkinson, Audrey Pettifor, Molly Rosenberg, Carolyn Halpern, Harsha Thirumurthy, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn
South Africa has high youth unemployment. This paper examines the predictors of youth employment in rural Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province. A survey of 187 out-of-school 18-24 year olds found only 12% of women and 38% of men were currently employed. Men with skills/training were significantly more likely to report employment, mostly physical labour (aOR: 4.5; CI: 1.3, 15.3). In-depth interviews with 14 of the youth revealed women are perceived more suitable for formal employment, which is scarce informing why women were more likely to pursue further education and yet less likely to be employed...
2017: Development Southern Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178270/encouraging-entrepreneurship-in-university-labs-research-activities-research-outputs-and-early-doctorate-careers
#14
Michael Roach
This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173789/participatory-science-and-innovation-for-improved-sanitation-and-hygiene-process-and-outcome-evaluation-of-project-shine-a-school-based-intervention-in-rural-tanzania
#15
Erin Hetherington, Matthijs Eggers, Joyce Wamoyi, Jennifer Hatfield, Mange Manyama, Susan Kutz, Sheri Bastien
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121653/health-professions-education-scholarship-unit-leaders-as-institutional-entrepreneurs
#16
Lara Varpio, Bridget O'Brien, Steven Durning, Cees van der Vleuten, Larry Gruppen, Olle Ten Cate, Susan Humphrey-Murto, David M Irby, Stanley J Hamstra, Wendy Hu
PURPOSE: Health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) are organizational structures within which a group is substantively engaged in health professions education scholarship. Little research investigates the strategies employed by HPESU administrative leaders to secure and maintain HPESU success. Using institutional entrepreneurship as a theoretical lens, this study asks: Do HPESU administrative leaders act as institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)? METHOD: This study recontextualizes two preexisting qualitative datasets that comprised interviews with leaders in health professions education in Canada (2011-2012) and Australia and New Zealand (2013-1014)...
January 24, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100080/the-commercialization-of-genome-editing-technologies
#17
Katelyn Brinegar, Ali K Yetisen, Sun Choi, Emily Vallillo, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Anand M Prabhakar, Ali Khademhosseini, Seok-Hyun Yun
The emergence of new gene-editing technologies is profoundly transforming human therapeutics, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have created a fertile environment for mass-scale manufacturing of cost-effective products ranging from basic research to translational medicine. In our analyses, we evaluated the patent landscape of gene-editing technologies and found that in comparison to earlier gene-editing techniques, CRISPR has gained significant traction and this has established dominance...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093798/the-student-volunteer-army-a-repeat-emergent-emergency-response-organisation
#18
Sally Carlton, Colleen E Mills
This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication...
January 17, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933015/high-entrepreneurship-leadership-and-professionalism-help-toward-an-integrated-empirically-based-perspective
#19
Annamaria Di Fabio, Ornella Bucci, Alessio Gori
This article evaluates the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing the constructs of entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism, from an integrated point of view, the High Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Professionalism Questionnaire (HELP-Q). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a factor structure with three principal dimensions, and confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit indices indicated a good fit of the model to the data. All the dimensions showed good values of internal consistency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924105/innovating-affordable-neonatal-care-equipment-for-use-at-scale
#20
REVIEW
V Sashi Kumar, V K Paul, K Sathasivam
The care of small and sick neonates requires biomedical technologies, such as devices that can keep babies warm (radiant warmers and incubators), resuscitate (self-inflating bags), track growth (weighing scales), treat jaundice (phototherapy units) and provide oxygen or respiratory support (hoods, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices and ventilators). Until the 1990s, most of these products were procured through import at a high cost and with little maintenance support. Emerging demand and an informal collaboration of neonatologists, engineers and entrepreneurs has led to the production of good quality equipment of several high-volume categories at affordable cost in India...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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