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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140533/come-together-human-avatar-on-line-interactions-boost-joint-action-performance-in-apraxic-patients
#1
Matteo Candidi, Lucia M Sacheli, Vanessa Era, Loredana Canzano, Gaetano Tieri, Salvatore M Aglioti
Limb apraxia (LA) is a high-order motor disorder linked to left-hemisphere damage. It is characterized by defective execution of purposeful actions upon delayed imitation, or verbal command when the actions are performed in isolated, non-naturalistic, conditions. Whether interpersonal interactions provide social affordances that activate neural resources different from those requested by individual action execution, which may improve LA performance, is unknown. To fill this gap, we measured interaction performance, behavioral and kinematic indexes of left-brain damaged patients with/without LA in a social reach-to-grasp task involving two different degrees of spatio-temporal interactivity with an avatar...
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139304/object-directed-imitation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-differentially-influenced-by-motoric-task-complexity-but-not-social-contextual-cues
#2
Lacey Chetcuti, Kristelle Hudry, Megan Grant, Giacomo Vivanti
We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple(®) iPad(®) by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135436/defective-synaptic-transmission-causes-disease-signs-in-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#3
Benedikt Grünewald, Maren D Lange, Christian Werner, Aet O'Leary, Andreas Weishaupt, Sandy Popp, David A Pearce, Heinz Wiendl, Andreas Reif, Hans C Pape, Klaus V Toyka, Claudia Sommer, Christian Geis
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease) caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene is the most prevalent inherited neurodegenerative disease in childhood resulting in widespread central nervous system dysfunction and premature death. The consequences of CLN3 mutation on the progression of the disease, on neuronal transmission, and on central nervous network dysfunction are poorly understood. We used Cln3 knockout (Cln3(Δex7/8)) mice and found increased anxiety-related behavior and impaired aversive learning as well as markedly affected motor function including disordered coordination...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133519/deep-rna-sequencing-uncovers-a-repertoire-of-human-macrophage-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-modulated-by-macrophage-activation-and-associated-with-cardiometabolic-diseases
#4
Hanrui Zhang, Chenyi Xue, Ying Wang, Jianting Shi, Xuan Zhang, Wenjun Li, Sara Nunez, Andrea S Foulkes, Jennie Lin, Christine C Hinkle, Wenli Yang, Edward E Morrisey, Daniel J Rader, Mingyao Li, Muredach P Reilly
BACKGROUND: Sustained and dysfunctional macrophage activation promotes inflammatory cardiometabolic disorders, but the role of long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) in human macrophage activation and cardiometabolic disorders is poorly defined. Through transcriptomics, bioinformatics, and selective functional studies, we sought to elucidate the lincRNA landscape of human macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used deep RNA sequencing to assemble the lincRNA transcriptome of human monocyte-derived macrophages at rest and following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ (interferon γ) for M1 activation and IL-4 (interleukin 4) for M2 activation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132388/a-composite-robotic-based-measure-of-upper-limb-proprioception
#5
Jeffrey M Kenzie, Jennifer A Semrau, Michael D Hill, Stephen H Scott, Sean P Dukelow
BACKGROUND: Proprioception is the sense of the position and movement of our limbs, and is vital for executing coordinated movements. Proprioceptive disorders are common following stroke, but clinical tests for measuring impairments in proprioception are simple ordinal scales that are unreliable and relatively crude. We developed and validated specific kinematic parameters to quantify proprioception and compared two common metrics, Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances, to combine these parameters into an overall summary score of proprioception...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129193/experiences-of-three-states-implementing-the-medicaid-health-home-model-to-address-opioid-use-disorder-case-studies-in-maryland-rhode-island-and-vermont
#6
Lisa Clemans-Cope, Jane B Wishner, Eva H Allen, Nicole Lallemand, Marni Epstein, Brenda C Spillman
PURPOSE: The United States is facing an unprecedented opioid epidemic. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) included several provisions designed to increase care coordination in state Medicaid programs and improve outcomes for those with chronic conditions, including substance use disorders. Three states-Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont - adopted the ACA's optional Medicaid health home model for individuals with opioid use disorder. The model coordinates opioid use disorder treatment that features opioid agonist therapy provided at opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and Office-based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with medical and behavioral health care and other services, including those addressing social determinants of health...
December 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128585/a-return-to-the-psychiatric-dark-ages-with-a-two-system-framework-for-fear
#7
Michael S Fanselow, Zachary T Pennington
The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. As an alternative, he and colleagues propose that a 'two-system' framework for the study of responses to threat will expedite the advancement of medical treatments for fear disorders...
November 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128446/disrupted-focal-white-matter-integrity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#8
Xin Di, Azeezat Azeez, Xiaobo Li, Emad Haque, Bharat B Biswal
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that has long been considered to result from brain underconnectivity. However, volumetric analysis of structural MRI data has failed to find consistent white matter alterations in patients with ASD. The present study aims to examine whether there are consistent focal white matter alterations as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in individuals with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. METHOD: Coordinate-based meta-analysis was performed on 14 studies that reported fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations between individuals with ASD and TD individuals...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#9
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127110/pathways-of-cellular-proteostasis-in-aging-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Courtney L Klaips, Gopal Gunanathan Jayaraj, F Ulrich Hartl
Ensuring cellular protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, requires precise control of protein synthesis, folding, conformational maintenance, and degradation. A complex and adaptive proteostasis network coordinates these processes with molecular chaperones of different classes and their regulators functioning as major players. This network serves to ensure that cells have the proteins they need while minimizing misfolding or aggregation events that are hallmarks of age-associated proteinopathies, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126862/cortical-activity-in-fine-motor-tasks-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-preliminary-fnirs-study
#11
Priscila Caçola, Nancy Getchell, Dhivya Srinivasan, Georgios Alexandrakis, Hanli Liu
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is as a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency, which impacts academic performance and activities of daily living. Several studies have determined that children with DCD activate different regions of the brain when performing motor skills in comparison to typically developing (TD) children. However, none have used Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore cortical activation in this population. With that, the goal of this preliminary study was to investigate cortical activation using fNIRS in six children with DCD and six TD children between ages of 8 and 12 years...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125070/circulating-mitochondrial-dna-at-the-crossroads-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-during-aging-and-muscle-wasting-disorders
#12
Anna Picca, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Vito Pesce, Riccardo Calvani, Maurizio Bossola, Ester Manes-Gravina, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
Mitochondrial structural and functional integrity is maintained through the coordination of several processes (e.g., biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy), collectively referred to as mitochondrial quality control. Dysfunctional mitochondrial quality control and inflammation are hallmarks of aging and are involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting disorders, including sarcopenia and cachexia. One of the consequences of failing mitochondrial quality control is the release of mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121516/comparing-motor-performance-praxis-coordination-and-interpersonal-synchrony-between-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#13
Maninderjit Kaur, Sudha M Srinivasan, Anjana N Bhat
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have basic motor impairments in balance, gait, and coordination as well as autism-specific impairments in praxis/motor planning and interpersonal synchrony. Majority of the current literature focuses on isolated motor behaviors or domains. Additionally, the relationship between cognition, symptom severity, and motor performance in ASD is unclear. We used a comprehensive set of measures to compare gross and fine motor, praxis/imitation, motor coordination, and interpersonal synchrony skills across three groups of children between 5 and 12 years of age: children with ASD with high IQ (HASD), children with ASD with low IQ (LASD), and typically developing (TD) children...
November 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119477/pregnancy-related-deaths-florida-1999-2012-opportunities-to-improve-maternal-outcomes
#14
Leticia E Hernandez, William M Sappenfield, Karen Harris, Deborah Burch, Washington C Hill, Cheryl L Clark, Isaac Delke
Objectives To examine pregnancy-related deaths (PRDs) in Florida, to identify quality improvement (QI) opportunities, and to recommend strategies aimed at reducing maternal mortality. Methods The Florida Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review (PAMR) Committee reviewed PRDs occurring between 1999 and 2012. The PAMR Committee determined causes of PRDs, identified contributing factors, and generated recommendations for prevention and quality improvement. Information from the PAMR data registry, and live births from Florida vital statistic data were used to calculate pregnancy-related mortality ratios (PRMR) and PRD univariate risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
November 8, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114071/working-memory-and-decision-making-in-a-fronto-parietal-circuit-model
#15
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113642/prefrontal-thalamic-anatomical-connectivity-and-executive-cognitive-function-in-schizophrenia
#16
Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter P Rogers, Stephen M Damon, Bennett A Landman, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111646/structural-analyses-of-phase-stability-in-amorphous-and-partially-crystallized-ge-rich-gete-films-prepared-by-atomic-layer-deposition
#17
Taehong Gwon, Ahmed Mohamed, Chanyoung Yoo, Eui-Sang Park, Sanggyun Kim, Sijung Yoo, Han-Koo Lee, Deok-Yong Cho, Cheol Seong Hwang
The local bonding structures of GexTe1-x (x=0.5, 0.6, and 0.7) films prepared through atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Ge(N(Si(CH3)3)2)2 and ((CH3)3Si)2Te precursors were investigated using Ge K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results of the X-ray absorption fine structure analyses show that for all the compositions, the as-grown films were amorphous with a tetrahedral Ge coordination of a mixture of Ge-Te and Ge-Ge bonds, but without any signature of Ge-GeTe decomposition. The compositional evolution in the valence band electronic structures probed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a substantial chemical influence of additional Ge on the nonstoichiometric GeTe...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111521/side-chain-conformations-in-the-isomorphous-polyfluorinated-4-4-bis-2-2-difluoroethoxy-methyl-2-2-bipyridine-%C3%AE%C2%BA-2-n-n-dichloridopalladium-and-platinum-complexes
#18
Norman Lu, Jing Hung Zheng, Yi Jing Lu, Hsing Fang Chiang, Chun Wei Chu, Joseph S Thrasher, Yuh Sheng Wen, Ling Kang Liu
The polyfluorinated title compounds, [MCl2(C16H16F4N2O2)] or [4,4'-(HCF2CH2OCH2)2-2,2'-bpy]MCl2 [M = Pd, (1), and M = Pt, (2)], have -C(Hα)2OC(Hβ)2CF2H side chains with H-atom donors at the α and β sites. The structures of (1) and (2) are isomorphous, with the nearly planar (bpy)MCl2 molecules stacked in columns. Within one column, π-dimer pairs alternate between a π-dimer pair reinforced with C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds (α,α) and a π-dimer pair reinforced with C-Hβ...F(-C) interactions (abbreviated as C-Hβ...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111518/novel-modification-of-anhydrous-transition-metal-oxalates-from-powder-diffraction
#19
Anna N Puzan, Vyacheslav N Baumer, Pavel V Mateychenko
The known metal-C2O4 structures may be divided into two modifications, α and β. The α-modification has an order-disorder struxture, revealing one-dimensional disordering of the metal-oxalate chains, and the β-modification is ordered. The crystal structures of orthorhombic γ-MnC2O4 {poly[μ-oxalato-manganese(II)]; space group Pmna, a = 7.1333 (1), b = 5.8787 (1), c = 9.0186 (2) Å, V = 378.19 (1) Å(3), Z = 4 and Dx = 2.511 Mg m(-3)} and γ-CdC2O4 {poly[μ-oxalato-cadmium(II)]; space group Pmna, a = 7...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111514/a-new-two-dimensional-polymeric-cadmium-ii-complex-containing-dicyanamide-bridging-ligands
#20
Yang Lu, Wei Qiang Liao, Xiu Ni Hua
As part of an exploration of new coordination polymers, a cadmium-dicyanamide complex, namely poly[benzyltriethylammonium [tri-μ-dicyanamido-κ(6)N(1):N(5)-cadmium(II)]], {(C13H22N)[Cd(C2N3)3]}n, has been synthesized by the reaction of benzyltriethylammonium bromide, cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium dicyanamide in aqueous solution, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. In the crystal structure, each Cd(II) cation is coordinated by six nitrile N atoms from six anionic dicyanamide (dca) ligands to furnish a slightly distorted octahedral geometry...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
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