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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352860/towards-targeting-resolution-pathways-of-airway-inflammation-in-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Cindy Barnig, Nelly Frossard, Bruce D Levy
Asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways with mucosal infiltration of eosinophils, T lymphocytes, and mast cells, and release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators. The natural resolution of airway inflammation is now recognized as an active host response, with highly coordinated cellular events under the control of endogenous pro-resolving mediators that enable the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Lead members of proresolving mediators are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins, and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
January 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352529/measuring-and-improving-the-quality-of-mental-health-care-a-global-perspective
#2
Amy M Kilbourne, Kathryn Beck, Brigitta Spaeth-Rublee, Parashar Ramanuj, Robert W O'Brien, Naomi Tomoyasu, Harold Alan Pincus
Mental disorders are common worldwide, yet the quality of care for these disorders has not increased to the same extent as that for physical conditions. In this paper, we present a framework for promoting quality measurement as a tool for improving quality of mental health care. We identify key barriers to this effort, including lack of standardized information technology-based data sources, limited scientific evidence for mental health quality measures, lack of provider training and support, and cultural barriers to integrating mental health care within general health environments...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350955/rate-dependence-of-elementary-rearrangements-and-spatiotemporal-correlations-in-the-3d-flow-of-soft-solids
#3
Vishwas V Vasisht, Sudeep K Dutta, Emanuela Del Gado, Daniel L Blair
We use a combination of confocal microscopy, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate jammed emulsions under shear, by analyzing the 3D droplets rearrangements in the shear frame. Our quantitative analysis of local dynamics reveals elementary nonaffine rearrangements that underlie the onset of the flow at small strains. We find that the mechanism of unjamming and the upturn in the material flow curve are associated to a qualitative change in spatiotemporal correlations of such rearrangements with the applied shear rate...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350919/pair-distribution-function-analysis-of-structural-disorder-by-nb5-inclusion-in-ceria-evidence-for-enhanced-oxygen-storage-capacity-from-under-coordinated-oxide
#4
Craig Hiley, Helen Y Playford, Janet Fisher, Noelia Cortes Felix, David Thompsett, Reza J Kashtiban, Richard I Walton
Partial substitution of Ce4+ by Nb5+ is possible in CeO2 by co-inclusion of Na+ to balance the charge, via hydrothermal synthesis in sodium hydroxide solution. Pair distribution function analysis using reverse Monte Carlo refinement reveals that the small pentavalent substituent resides in irregular coordination positions in an average fluorite lattice, displaced away from the ideal cubic coordination towards four oxygens. This results in under-coordinated oxygen, which explains significantly enhanced oxygen storage capacity of the materials of relevance to redox catalysis used in energy and environmental applications...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347220/geometrical-properties-of-rigid-frictionless-granular-packings-as-a-function-of-particle-size-and-shape
#5
Jean-François Camenen, Yannick Descantes
Three-dimensional discrete numerical simulation is used to investigate the properties of close-packed frictionless granular assemblies as a function of particle polydispersity and shape. Unlike some experimental results, simulations show that disordered packings of pinacoids (eight-face convex polyhedra) achieve higher solid fraction values than amorphous packings of spherical or rounded particles, thus fulfilling the analog of Ulam's conjecture stated by Jiao and co-workers for random packings [Y. Jiao and S...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341251/residue-packing-in-globular-and-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#6
Rasim Murat Aydinkal, Elife Zerrin Bagci
Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions do not have well-defined secondary and tertiary structures, however, they are functional and it is critical to gain a deep understanding of their residue packing. The shape distributions methodology, which is usually utilized in pattern recognition, clustering and classification studies in computer science, may be adopted to study the residue packing of the proteins. In this study, shape distributions of the globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) were obtained to shed light on the residue packing of their structures...
January 17, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340040/identifying-the-dynamics-of-actin-and-tubulin-polymerization-in-ipscs-and-in-ipsc-derived-neurons
#7
Valentina Magliocca, Stefania Petrini, Tiziana Franchin, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Zeinab Abbaszadeh, Enrico Bertini, Claudia Compagnucci
The development of the nervous system requires cytoskeleton-mediated processes coordinating self-renewal, migration, and differentiation of neurons. It is not surprising that many neurodevelopmental problems and neurodegenerative disorders are caused by deficiencies in cytoskeleton-related genes. For this reason, we focus on the cytoskeletal dynamics in proliferating iPSCs and in iPSC-derived neurons to better characterize the underpinnings of cytoskeletal organization looking at actin and tubulin repolymerization studies using the cell permeable probes SiR-Actin and SiR-Tubulin...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339580/advantages-of-soft-subdural-implants-for-the-delivery-of-electrochemical-neuromodulation-therapies-to-the-spinal-cord
#8
Marco Capogrosso, Jérôme Gandar, Nathan Greiner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Nikolaus Wenger, Polina Shkorbatova, Pavel E Мusienko, Ivan Minev, Stephanie P Lacour, Gregoire Courtine
We recently developed soft neural interfaces enabling the delivery of electrical and chemical stimulation to the spinal cord. These stimulations restored locomotion in animal models of paralysis. Soft interfaces can be placed either below or above the dura mater. Theoretically, the subdural location combines many advantages, including increased selectivity of electrical stimulation, lower stimulation thresholds, and targeted chemical stimulation through local drug delivery. However, these advantages have not been documented, nor have their functional impact been studied in-silico or in a relevant animal model of neurological disorders using a multimodal neural interface...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339004/differential-activation-of-brain-areas-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-during-tasks-of-manual-dexterity-an-ale-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
I Fuelscher, K Caeyenberghs, P G Enticott, J Williams, J Lum, C Hyde
Recent neuroimaging studies have reported atypical neural activation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during tasks assessing manual dexterity. However, small sample sizes and subtle differences in task parameters have led to inconsistent findings, rendering interpretation difficult. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize this body of evidence using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis to identify reliable regions of differential neural activation in children with DCD, compared to age-matched controls...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335693/crystal-structures-of-uranyl-complexes-with-isobutyrate-and-isovalerate-anions
#10
Anton V Savchenkov, Anna V Vologzhanina, Artem O Dmitrienko, Yan V Zubavichus, Denis V Pushkin, Larisa B Serezhkina, Viktor N Serezhkin
Single crystals of Na[(UO2)(i-C3H7COO)3]·0.7H2O (I), Cs[(UO2)(i-C3H7COO)3] (II) and (NH4)[(UO2)(i-C4H9COO)3] (III) were obtained via isothermal evaporation and their structures were solved using X-ray diffraction techniques. Even though the ligands are branched, bulky and spatial, many carbon and hydrogen atoms are still disordered in these crystal structures at low temperature. A new type of Na coordination is observed for the first time for this family of compounds, proposing high sensitivity of compound I to humidity...
January 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335358/sox2-is-essential-for-oligodendroglial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-postnatal-brain-myelination-and-cns-remyelination
#11
Sheng Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhu, Xuehong Gui, Christopher Croteau, Lanying Song, Jie Xu, Aijun Wang, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334938/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-a-tertiary-care-center-185-patients-undergoing-912-treatments-a-one-year-retrospective-analysis
#12
Julius J Schmidt, Firas Asper, Gunilla Einecke, Gabriele Eden, Carsten Hafer, Jan T Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used throughout the world. Although the procedure itself is fairly standardized, it is yet unknown how the underlying disease entities influence the key coordinates of the treatment. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. The treatment indications were clustered into four categories. Data are presented as median and interquartile (25-75%) range [IQR]. RESULTS: Within 1 year, 912 TPE treatments were performed in 185 patients (90 female, 48...
January 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333599/developmental-coordination-disorder-the-role-of-executive-functions
#13
Rainer Blank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333493/a-quality-improvement-project-aimed-at-adapting-primary-care-to-ensure-the-delivery-of-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-adult-anxiety
#14
Mark D Williams, Craig N Sawchuk, Nathan D Shippee, Kristin J Somers, Summer L Berg, Jay D Mitchell, Angela B Mattson, David J Katzelnick
Primary care patients frequently present with anxiety with prevalence ratios up to 30%. Brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown in meta-analytic studies to have a strong effect size in the treatment of anxiety. However, in surveys of anxious primary care patients, nearly 80% indicated that they had not received CBT. In 2010, a model of CBT (Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM)) adapted to primary care for adult anxiety was published based on results of a randomised controlled trial...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#15
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329904/assembly-maturation-and-degradation-of-the-supraspinatus-enthesis
#16
REVIEW
Peter T Jensen, Kate L Lambertsen, Lars H Frich
The development of the rotator cuff enthesis is still poorly understood. The processes in the early and late developmental steps are gradually elucidated, but it is still unclear how cell activities are coordinated during development and maturation of the structured enthesis. This review summarizes current knowledge about development and age-related degradation of the supraspinatus enthesis. Healing and repair of an injured and degenerated supraspinatus enthesis also remain a challenge, as the original graded transitional tissue of the fibrocartilaginous insertion is not re-created after the tendon is surgically reattached to bone...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329670/motor-skill-interventions-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Jane J Yu, Cindy H P Sit, Angus F Burnett
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics and effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to identify potential moderators of training effects using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in six databases (CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Eric, PsycInfo, and PubMed) for papers published between 1995 and August 2017 using search items which were grouped in three components (motor skill interventions, DCD, and age group of interest)...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329237/mtor-pathways-in-cancer-and-autophagy
#18
REVIEW
Mathieu Paquette, Leeanna El-Houjeiri, Arnim Pause
TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved serine/threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival in response to nutritional status, growth factor, and stress signals. It plays a crucial role in coordinating the balance between cell growth and cell death, depending on cellular conditions and needs. As such, TOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy for more than a decade, and several deregulations of this pathway have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer...
January 12, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329044/neurological-soft-signs-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-disorder-a-case-control-study
#19
Tareq Al Sagheer, Shafika Assaad, Georges Haddad, Dory Hachem, Chadia Haddad, Souheil Hallit
Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with neurological soft signs (NSS), including motor, sensory, and inhibitory dysfunction. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of NSS and explore the association of sociodemographic characteristics with the occurrence of NSS in patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression compared to healthy controls. A case-control study included a sample of 50 bipolar and unipolar patients and 50 healthy controls. NSS subscales of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) were administered to each participant...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328779/transforming-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-the-united-states-the-raise-initiative
#20
Lisa B Dixon, Howard Goldman, Vinod H Srihari, John M Kane
The schizophrenia spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental illnesses with a lifetime prevalence near 1%, producing extensive functional impairment and low expectations for recovery. Until recently, treatment in the United States has largely attempted to stabilize individuals with chronic schizophrenia. The identification and promotion of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia via the Patient Outcomes Research Team, combined with international studies supporting the value of early intervention, provided the foundation for the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) project...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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