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Prenylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632484/rab-gtpases-and-their-interacting-protein-partners-structural-insights-into-rab-functional-diversity
#1
Olena Pylypenko, Hussein Hammich, I-Mei Yu, Anne Houdusse
Rab molecular switches are key players in defining membrane identity and regulating intracellular trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. In spite of their global structural similarity, Rab-family members acquired particular features that allow them to perform specific cellular functions. The overall fold and local sequence conservations enable them to utilize a common machinery for prenylation and recycling; while individual Rab structural differences determine interactions with specific partners such as GEFs, GAPs and effector proteins...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627872/xanthohumol-blocks-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vitro-and-reduces-neointima-formation-in-vivo
#2
Rongxia Liu, Elke H Heiss, Daniel Schachner, Baohong Jiang, Wanhui Liu, Johannes M Breuss, Verena M Dirsch, Atanas G Atanasov
Xanthohumol (1) is a principal prenylated chalcone found in hops. The aim of this study was to examine its influence on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-triggered vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration in vitro and on experimentally induced neointima formation in vivo. Quantification of resazurin conversion indicated that 1 can inhibit PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation concentration-dependently (IC50 = 3.49 μM). Furthermore, in a wound-healing assay 1 potently suppresses PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration at 15 μM...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620689/silencing-of-a-second-dimethylallyltryptophan-synthase-of-penicillium-roqueforti-reveals-a-novel-clavine-alkaloid-gene-cluster
#3
Ángeles Fernández-Bodega, Rubén Álvarez-Álvarez, Paloma Liras, Juan F Martín
Penicillium roqueforti produces several prenylated indole alkaloids, including roquefortine C and clavine alkaloids. The first step in the biosynthesis of roquefortine C is the prenylation of tryptophan-derived dipeptides by a dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, specific for roquefortine biosynthesis (roquefortine prenyltransferase). A second dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, DmaW2, different from the roquefortine prenyltransferase, has been studied in this article. Silencing the gene encoding this second dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, dmaW2, proved that inactivation of this gene does not prevent the production of roquefortine C, but suppresses the formation of other indole alkaloids...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614730/antigenotoxic-prenylated-flavonoids-from-stem-bark-of-erythrina-latissima
#4
Yancho Zarev, Kenn Foubert, Vera Lucia de Almeida, Roel Anthonissen, Esameldin Elgorashi, Sandra Apers, Iliana Ionkova, Luc Verschaeve, Luc Pieters
A series of prenylated flavonoids was obtained from antigenotoxic extracts and fractions of stem bark of Erythrina latissima E. Mey (Leguminosae). In addition to five constituents never reported before, i.e. (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin D), (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin E), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (erylatissin F), (2S)-5,7,8'-trihydroxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (erylatissin G) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-8'-methoxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (dihydroabyssinin I), 18 known flavonoids were identified...
June 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605679/a-re-investigation-of-the-phytochemical-composition-of-the-edible-herb-amaranthus-retroflexus-l
#5
Serena Fiorito, Francesco Epifano, Roberta Palmisano, Salvatore Genovese, Vito Alessandro Taddeo
In this paper the presence of selected prenylated and unprenylated phenylpropanoids of nutraceutical value, namely umbelliferone, apigenin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, auraptene, and umbelliprenin have been determined in all parts of the edible herb Amaranthus retroflexus extracted with different methodologies. Roots were seen to contain the widest variety of unprenylated and prenylated phenylpropanoids both in terms of number of secondary metabolites and their quantitites. Findings described in the present study underline how A...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600778/semisynthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-prenylated-resveratrol-derivatives-as-multi-targeted-agents-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Thanchanok Puksasook, Shinya Kimura, Sarin Tadtong, Jutamas Jiaranaikulwanitch, Jaturong Pratuangdejkul, Worawan Kitphati, Khanit Suwanborirux, Naoki Saito, Veena Nukoolkarn
A series of prenylated resveratrol derivatives were designed, semisynthesized and biologically evaluated for inhibition of β-secretase (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation as well as free radical scavenging and neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities, as potential novel multifunctional agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results showed that compound 4b exhibited good anti-Aβ aggregation (IC50 = 4.78 µM) and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 41.22 µM) and moderate anti-BACE1 inhibitory activity (23...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595067/pentapeptides-for-the-treatment-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-optimisation-by-n-ind-alkyl-modification-of-the-tryptophan-side-chain
#7
Osama Haitham Abusara, Sally Freeman, Harmesh Singh Aojula
The pentapeptide, tert-Prenyl(4th)-NH2 (DMePhe-DTrp-Phe-DTrp(N-tert-prenyl)-Leu-NH2), has recently been reported by our group to exhibit properties of substance P (SP) antagonist G against small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we undertook a systematic structure activity investigation to optimise this lead compound to improve its in vitro anti-tumour activity and biocompatibility. A series of d-tryptophan (D-Trp) derivatives were synthesised, with a range of aliphatic N-alkyl chains (methyl to pentyl) on the indole nitrogen (N(ind))...
May 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586721/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-the-metabolites-isolated-from-the-culture-of-the-mangrove-derived-endophytic-fungus-eurotium-chevalieri-kufa-0006
#8
War War May Zin, Suradet Buttachon, Tida Dethoup, José A Pereira, Luís Gales, Ângela Inácio, Paulo M Costa, Michael Lee, Nazim Sekeroglu, Artur M S Silva, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
Five previously undescribed metabolites, including acetylquestinol, two prenylated indole 3-carbaldehyde derivatives, an anthranilic acid derivative and an isochromone derivative, were isolated, in addition to eleven known compounds: palmitic acid, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, emodin, physcion, questin, questinol, (11S, 14R)-cyclo(tryptophylvalyl), preechinulin, neoechinulin E, echinulin and eurocristatine, from the culture of the endophytic fungus Eurotium chevalieri KUFA 0006. The structures of the previously undescribed compounds were established based on an extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis as well as HRMS and IR data...
June 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585422/menaquinone-7-production-from-maize-meal-hydrolysate-by-bacillus-isolates-with-diphenylamine-and-analogue-resistance
#9
Jian-Zhong Xu, Wei-Guo Zhang
A menaquinone-7 (MK-7) high-producing strain needs to be isolated to increase MK-7 production, in order to meet a requirement of MK-7 given the low MK-7 content in food products. This article focuses on developing MK-7 high-producing strains via screening and mutagenesis by an atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation breeding system. We isolated an MK-7-producing strain Y-2 and identified it as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, which produced (7.1±0.5) mg/L of MK-7 with maize meal hydrolysate as carbon source...
June 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583373/mechanisms-of-mutant-pde6-proteins-underlying-retinal-diseases
#10
Kota N Gopalakrishna, Kimberly Boyd, Nikolai O Artemyev
Mutations in PDE6 genes encoding the effector enzymes in rods and cones underlie severe retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB), and achromatopsia (ACHM). Here we examined a spectrum of pathogenic missense mutations in PDE6 using the system based on co-expression of cone PDE6C with its specialized chaperone AIPL1 and the regulatory Pγ subunit as a potent co-chaperone. We uncovered two mechanisms of PDE6C mutations underlying ACHM: (a) folding defects leading to expression of catalytically inactive proteins and (b) markedly diminished ability of Pγ to co-chaperone mutant PDE6C proteins thereby dramatically reducing the levels of functional enzyme...
June 2, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582635/prenylated-flavonoids-from-commiphora-opobalsamum-stem-bark
#11
Ali A El-Gamal, Shaza M Al-Massarani, Wael M Abdel-Mageed, Amina El-Shaibany, Hassan M Al-Mahbashi, Omer A Basudan, Farid A Badria, Mansour S Al-Said, Maged S Abdel-Kader
A phytochemical study on the stem bark of Commiphora opobalsamum looking for cytotoxic compounds afforded eleven flavonoids, including six previously undescribed prenylated congeners, comophorin A-E, and comophoroside A. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. Isolated compounds were biologically evaluated using in vitro cytotoxicity MTT-based assay against two cancer cell lines; namely human hepato-cellular carcinoma (HepG-2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)...
June 2, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574644/new-prenylated-ortho-dihydroxycoumarins-from-the-fruits-of-ficus-nipponica
#12
Yui Akihara, Emi Ohta, Tatsuo Nehira, Hisashi Ômura, Shinji Ohta
Two new prenylated ortho-dihydroxycoumarins, designated fipsomin (1) and fipsotwin (2), were isolated from the fruits of Ficus nipponica together with a known prenylated coumarin, apigravin (3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with an MIC value of 61 μM, while 2 and 3 showed very weak activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 2, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570807/mechanism-of-formation-of-the-nonstandard-product-in-the-prenyltransferase-reaction-of-the-g115t-mutant-of-ftmpt1-a-case-of-reaction-dynamics-calling-the-shots
#13
Li-Li Pan, Lin Frank Song, Yipu Miao, Yue Yang, Kenneth M Merz
FtmPT1 is a fungal indole prenyltransferase that affords Tryprostatin B from Brevianamide F and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate; however, when a single residue in the active site is mutated (Gly115Thr), a novel five-membered ring compound is obtained as the major product with Tryprostatin B as the minor product. Herein, we describe detailed studies of the catalysis of the Gly115Thr mutant of FtmPT1 with a focus on the observed regioselectivity of the reaction. We employ one- and two-dimensional potential of mean force simulations to explore the catalytic mechanism, along with molecular dynamics simulations exploring the reaction dynamics of the prenyl transfer reaction...
June 9, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554840/atorvastatin-augments-temozolomide-s-efficacy-in-glioblastoma-via-prenylation-dependent-inhibition-of-ras-signaling
#14
Peng Peng, Wei Wei, Cheng Long, Jingwen Li
Ras signaling is often dysregulated and plays essential roles for the maintenance of glioblastoma. The proper function of Ras depends largely on the appropriate post-translational modification termed prenylation. Targeting protein prenylation therefore represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma. In this study, we demonstrate that prenylation inhibition by atorvastatin is active against glioblastoma. Atorvastatin alone dose-dependently inhibits growth and survival of multiple glioblastoma cell lines...
May 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554582/geranylgeraniol-prevents-the-simvastatin-induced-pcsk9-expression-role-of-the-small-g-protein-rac1
#15
Nicola Ferri, Silvia Marchianò, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Annalisa Trenti, Giuseppe Biondo, Paola Castaldello, Alberto Corsini
Statins are known to increase the plasma levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) through the activation of the sterol responsive element binding protein (SREBP) pathway due to the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. In the present study, we explore a possible role of the prenylated proteins on the statin-mediated PCSK9 induction in Caco-2 cells. Simvastatin (40μM) induced both PCSK9 mRNA (10.7±3.2 fold) and protein (2.2±0.3 fold), after 24h incubation. The induction of PCSK9 mRNA was partially, but significantly, prevented by the co-incubation with mevalonate (MVA), farnesol (FOH) and geranylgeraniol (GGOH), while a complete prevention was observed on secreted PCSK9, evaluated by ELISA assay...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553073/involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-hsp70-signaling-pathways-in-the-apoptosis-of-mda-mb-231-cells-induced-by-a-prenylated-xanthone-compound-%C3%AE-mangostin-from-cratoxylum-arborescens-retraction
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 1629 in vol. 8.].
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542128/hmg-coa-reductase-promotes-protein-prenylation-and-therefore-is-indispensible-for-t-cell-survival
#17
Sonja M Lacher, Julia Bruttger, Bettina Kalt, Jean Berthelet, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Simone Wörtge, Ari Waisman
Statins are a well-established family of drugs that lower cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In addition, the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins on T cells make them attractive as therapeutic drugs in T-cell-driven autoimmune disorders. Since statins do not exclusively target HMGCR and thus might have varying effects on different cell types, we generated a new mouse strain allowing for the tissue-specific deletion of HMGCR...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536643/icariin-prevents-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rat-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells
#18
Xiangyu Deng, Sheng Chen, Dong Zheng, Zengwu Shao, Hang Liang, Hongzhi Hu
Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum. This study investigated the mechanism by which icariin prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NP cells were isolated from the rat intervertebral disc and they were divided into five groups after 3 passages: (A) blank control; (B) 200 μM H2O2; (C) 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM icariin; (D) 20 μM icariin + 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002; (E) 200 μM H2O2 + 25 μM LY294002. LY294002 is a selective inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530791/farnesyltransferase-mediated-delivery-of-a-covalent-inhibitor-overcomes-alternative-prenylation-to-mislocalize-k-ras
#19
Christopher J Novotny, Gregory L Hamilton, Frank McCormick, Kevan Shokat
Mutationally activated Ras is one of the most common oncogenic drivers found across all malignancies, and its selective inhibition has long been a goal in both pharma and academia. One of the oldest and most validated methods to inhibit overactive Ras signaling is by interfering with its post-translational processing and subsequent cellular localization. Previous attempts to target Ras processing led to the development of farnesyltransferase inhibitors, which can inhibit H-Ras localization but not K-Ras due to its ability to bypass farnesyltransterase inhibition though alternative prenylation by geranylgeranyltransferase...
May 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527895/suppression-of-pmrab11-inhibits-yhv-infection-in-penaeus-monodon
#20
Akechai Kongprajug, Sakol Panyim, Chalermporn Ongvarrasopone
Yellow head virus (YHV) is one of the most serious pathogens that causes worldwide shrimp production loss. It enters the cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and utilizes small GTPase Rab proteins such as PmRab5 and PmRab7 for intracellular trafficking. In this study, molecular cloning and functional analysis of Rab11 during YHV infection were investigated. PmRab11 cDNA was cloned by Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs). It contained two forms of sizes 1200 and 1050 bp distinct at the 5' UTR. The coding region of PmRab11 was 645 bp, encoding 214 amino acids...
May 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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