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Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236298/leptin-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Zunaira Alina
Leptin is an endogenous protein having 167 amino acids and is derived from adipocytes. It hass tertiary structure that resembles with that of the pro-inflammatory cytokines family. The fundamental role of leptin is to maintain the energy homeostasis with the aid of its counter hormone called ghrelin, known as the "hunger hormone". Small quantities of leptin are also present in various tissues like ovary, placenta, pituitary gland, mammary gland, skeletal muscle, stomach and lymphoid tissue. Expression of leptin is strongly associated with various inflammatory responses and immune system, and plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of obesity and development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235656/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-psoriasis-a-consequence-of-systemic-inflammatory-burden
#2
REVIEW
R B Prussick, L Miele
Patients with psoriasis are at an increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compared to the general population. However, the pathophysiology underlying this comorbidity and elucidation of effective treatment strategies are unclear. This review provides insights into the possible role of chronic, low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in patients with psoriasis. Both conditions are associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines (such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6), and hepatokines, and decreased levels of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine...
December 13, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235577/out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#3
Martin Porzer, Eva Mrazkova, Miroslav Homza, Vladimir Janout
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death in developed industrial countries. The global worldwide average of OHCA incidence in adults is 95.9/100,000/year. European incidences vary according to source from 16 to 119/100,000/year. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of current information on OHCA. The incidences in various populations are discussed, along with the factors affecting the prognosis and outcome of these patients. The etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms are also described, especially in relation to the most common causes - acute and chronic forms of coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathies...
December 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235520/ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-e2t-ube2t-and-denticleless-protein-homolog-dtl-are-linked-to-poor-outcome-in-breast-and-lung-cancers
#4
Javier Perez-Peña, Verónica Corrales-Sánchez, Eitan Amir, Atanasio Pandiella, Alberto Ocana
Protein ubiquitination and degradation represent druggable vulnerabilities of cancer cells. We used gene expression and functional annotation analyses to identify genes in the ubiquitin pathway which are differentially expressed between normal breast and basal-like tumors. With this approach we identified 16 ubiquitin related genes overexpressed in basal-like breast cancers compared with normal breast. We then explored the association between these genes and outcomes using the KMPlotter online tool. Two genes, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) and the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) were overexpressed and linked with detrimental outcome in basal-like and luminal breast cancer patients...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235389/extracellular-genomic-biomarkers-of-osteoarthritis
#5
Emma Budd, Giovanna Nalesso, Ali Mobasheri
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic, debilitating and degenerative disease of the joints, is the most common form of arthritis. The seriousness of this prevalent and chronic disease is often overlooked. Disease modifying OA drug development is hindered by the lack of soluble biomarkers to detect OA early. The objective of OA biomarker research is to identify early OA prior to the appearance of radiographic signs and the development of pain. Areas covered This review has focused on extracellular genomic material that could serve as biomarkers of OA...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235066/dysthyroidism-and-chronic-heart-failure-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#6
Caterina Rizzo, Margherita Ilaria Gioia, Giuseppe Parisi, Vincenzo Triggiani, Massimo Iacoviello
Among comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF), dysthyroidism represents a relevant problem especially in the ageing CHF patients worldwide. Thyroid greatly affects many cardiovascular activities and its dysfunction may worsen a CHF condition. In particular, hypothyroidism has a relative high prevalence in patients with heart failure and it plays a key role in influencing CHF onset, progression and prognosis. Hyperthyroidism, is less frequent in this clinical context but it necessitates of immediate treatment because of its negative effects on cardiovascular balance...
December 13, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234969/monoclonal-antibodies-for-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#7
REVIEW
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Amal H Assa'ad, Nima Rezaei
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus affecting both children and adults, with debilitating and progressive symptoms. EoE has shown an explosive epidemiological rise in the past few decades. Many patients experience a poor level of disease control despite maximal use of available guideline-based therapies, which seriously hampers their quality of life. Diet restrictions and systemic and topical corticosteroids are the current mainstays of EoE therapy, but are associated with significant efficacy, treatment compliance, and safety issues such as oral or esophageal candidiasis, growth retardation, osteopenia, osteoporosis, glucose intolerance, and cataract formation...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234866/results-from-atrial-fibrillation-models-and-af-patients
#8
REVIEW
Alicja Bukowska, Matthias Hammwöhner, Domenico Corradi, Wisno Mahardhika, Andreas Goette
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cause of thromboembolic complications. The risk of suffering a thromboembolic complication depends on the accompanying cardiac risk factors and the patient's age. For patients who have an increased risk, which is now classified using the CHA2DS2-VASc score, initiation of long-term oral anticoagulation is the first-line treatment. In AF, thrombi arise in the left atrial appendage. The present review will summarize the basic pathophysiology of thrombogenesis in AF and will provide the molecular basis of a process called prothrombotic endocardial remodeling...
December 12, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234598/investigating-structural-and-perfusion-deficits-due-to-repeated-head-trauma-in-active-professional-fighters
#9
Virendra Mishra, Karthik Sreenivasan, Sarah J Banks, Xiaowei Zhuang, Zhengshi Yang, Dietmar Cordes, Charles Bernick
Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234502/nuchal-cord-and-its-implications
#10
REVIEW
Morarji Peesay
Nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cords occur in about 10-29% of fetuses and the incidence increases with advancing gestation age. Most are not associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality, but a few studies have shown that nuchal cord can affect the outcome of delivery with possible long-term effects on the infants. Nuchal cords are more likely to cause problems when the cord is tightly wrapped around the neck, with effects of a tight nuchal cord conceptually similar to strangulation...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234492/no-preliminary-evidence-of-differences-in-astrocyte-density-within-the-white-matter-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-autism
#11
Ting Ting Lee, Efstratios Skafidas, Mirella Dottori, Daniela Zantomio, Christos Pantelis, Ian Everall, Gursharan Chana
Background: While evidence for white matter and astrocytic abnormalities exist in autism, a detailed investigation of astrocytes has not been conducted. Such an investigation is further warranted by an increasing role for neuroinflammation in autism pathogenesis, with astrocytes being key players in this process. We present the first study of astrocyte density and morphology within the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with autism. Methods: DLPFC formalin-fixed sections containing white matter from individuals with autism (n = 8, age = 4-51 years) and age-matched controls (n = 7, age = 4-46 years) were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234364/eghb010-a-standardized-extract-of-paeoniae-radix-and-glycyrrhizae-radix-inhibits-vegf-induced-tube-formation-in-vitro-and-retinal-vascular-leakage-and-choroidal-neovascularization-in-vivo
#12
Eunsoo Jung, Wookwon Jung, Su-Bin Park, Chan-Sik Kim, Jin Sook Kim, Junghyun Kim
EGHB010 is a hot water extract of the rhizome mixture of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular leakage are the common pathophysiologies of age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of EGHB010 on retinal vascular leakage and laser-induced CNV in a rat model. Vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) induced tube formation was assayed in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Intravitreal VEGF-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown was assayed in Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234214/clinical-practice-updates-in-the-management-of-immune-thrombocytopenia
#13
Ayesha M Khan, Halina Mydra, Ana Nevarez
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), previously called idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reduction in peripheral blood platelet count. In healthy individuals, normal platelet count ranges from 150-450 × 109/L, while in thrombocytopenia counts fall to less than 100 × 109/L.1 In adults, the incidence of ITP is approximately two to four per 100,000.2,3 Bleeding risks, specifically hemorrhage and intracranial hemorrhage, represent the most serious complications for patients with ITP...
December 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233881/autophagy-in-health-and-disease-focus-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#14
REVIEW
Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Cécile Vindis
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosome-mediated protein and organelle degradation that plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last few years, specific functions for autophagy have been identified in many tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system, autophagy appears to be essential to heart and vessel homeostasis and function; however defective or excessive autophagy activity seems to contribute to major cardiovascular disorders including heart failure (HF) or atherosclerosis...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233875/to-be-or-not-to-be-cell-autonomous-autophagy-says-both
#15
REVIEW
Nina Fenouille, Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Joëlle Botti-Millet, Nicolas Dupont, Etienne Morel, Patrice Codogno
Although cells are a part of the whole organism, classical dogma emphasizes that individual cells function autonomously. Many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, have been considered mechanistically as cell-autonomous pathologies, meaning those that damage or defect within a selective population of affected cells suffice to produce disease. It is becoming clear, however, that cells and cellular processes cannot be considered in isolation...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233751/differential-binding-of-antibodies-in-pandas-patients-to-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#16
Luciana Frick, Maximiliano Rapanelli, Kantiya Jindachomthong, Paul Grant, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo, Kyle Williams, Christopher Pittenger
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus, or PANDAS, is a syndrome of acute childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other neuropsychiatric symptoms in the aftermath of an infection with Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS). Its pathophysiology remains unclear. PANDAS has been proposed to result from cross-reactivity of antibodies raised against GABHS with brain antigens, but the targets of these antibodies are unclear and may be heterogeneous. We developed an in vivo assay in mice to characterize the cellular targets of antibodies in serum from individuals with PANDAS...
December 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233703/the-risk-of-osteonecrosis-on-alveolar-healing-after-tooth-extraction-and-systemic-administration-of-antiresorptive-drugs-in-rodents-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Victor Lousan do Nascimento Poubel, Carolina Amália Barcellos Silva, Luis André Mendonça Mezzomo, Graziela De Luca Canto, Elena Riet Correa Rivero
PURPOSE: There is much concern about the increasing number of patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), and many studies have been published in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of this condition. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on MRONJ arising in rodents under antiresorptive drug therapy after tooth extraction. METHODS: A search of electronic databases, including LILACS, PROQUEST, PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Web of Science...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233700/volumetric-analysis-of-keratocystic-odontogenic-tumors-and-non-neoplastic-jaw-cysts-comparison-and-its-clinical-relevance
#18
Martin Kauke, Ali-Farid Safi, Andrea Grandoch, Hans-Joachim Nickenig, Joachim Zöller, Matthias Kreppel
The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is capable of causing vast osseous destruction. Histopathological examination is pivotal for diagnosis. The diagnostic process can sometimes be hindered by tissue inflammation of KCOTs with loss of defining criteria, resulting in misdiagnosis as an odontogenic jaw cyst. We discuss the possible merits of volumetric analysis when facing this particular diagnostic dilemma and for pathophysiological characterization of KCOTs. We included 114 patients, of whom 27 were histopathologically diagnosed with a KCOT and 87 with dentigerous (n = 41) and periapical cyst (n = 46)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233636/amylin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathological-peptide-or-potential-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which we currently lack effective treatments or a cure. The pancreatic peptide hormone amylin has recently garnered interest as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of AD. A number of studies have demonstrated that amylin and amylin analogs like the FDA-approved diabetes drug pramlintide can reduce amyloid burden in the brain and improve cognitive symptoms of AD. However, other data suggest that amylin may have pathological effects in AD due to its propensity to misfold and aggregate under certain conditions...
December 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233604/axonal-excitability-changes-and-acute-symptoms-of-oxaliplatin-treatment-in-vivo-evidence-for-slowed-sodium-channel-inactivation
#20
Rikke Heide, Hugh Bostock, Lise Ventzel, Peter Grafe, Joseph Bergmans, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Nanna B Finnerup, Hatice Tankisi
OBJECTIVE: Neurotoxicity is the most frequent dose-limiting side effect of the anti-cancer agent oxaliplatin, but the mechanisms are not well understood. This study used nerve excitability testing to investigate the pathophysiology of the acute neurotoxicity. METHODS: Questionnaires, quantitative sensory tests, nerve conduction studies and nerve excitability testing were undertaken in 12 patients with high-risk colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant oxaliplatin and in 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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