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Pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110369/neuroradiology-of-human-prion-diseases-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
Simona Gaudino, Emma Gangemi, Raffaella Colantonio, Annibale Botto, Emanuela Ruberto, Rosalinda Calandrelli, Matia Martucci, Maria Gabriella Vita, Carlo Masullo, Alfonso Cerase, Cesare Colosimo
Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are invariably fatal conditions associated with a range of clinical presentations. TSEs are classified as sporadic [e.g. sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), which is the most frequent form], genetic (e.g. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia, and inherited CJD), and acquired or infectious (e.g. Kuru, iatrogenic CJD, and variant CJD). In the past, brain imaging played a supporting role in the diagnosis of TSEs, whereas nowadays magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays such a prominent role that MRI findings have been included in the diagnostic criteria for sCJD...
January 21, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110332/role-of-insulin-in-placental-transport-of-nutrients-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio José Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Sanchez-Campillo, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased fetal adiposity, which may increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The placenta has insulin receptors and maternal insulin can activate its signaling pathways, affecting the transport of nutrients to the fetus. However, the effects of diet or insulin treatment on the placental pathophysiology of GDM are unknown. SUMMARY: There are very few studies on possible defects in the insulin signaling pathway in the GDM placenta...
January 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110323/aggf1-attenuates-hepatic-inflammation-and-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-repressing-ccl2-transcription
#3
Xu Wenping, Zeng Sheng, Li Min, Fan Zhiwen, Zhou Bisheng
Liver injury represents a continuum of pathophysiological processes involving a complex interplay between hepatocytes, macrophages, and hepatic stellate cells. The mechanism whereby these intercellular interactions contribute to liver injury and fibrosis is not completely understood. We report here that angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 (Aggf1) was downregulated in the livers of cirrhotic patients compared to healthy controls and in primary hepatocytes in response to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) stimulation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110320/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-recent-update
#4
Alam Azeem, Chun Suen Ka, Ma Daqing
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) was first described in 1995 as a clinical syndrome distinct to classic acute decompensation. Characterized by complications of decompensation, ACLF occurs on a background of chronic liver dysfunction and is associated with high rates of organ failure and significant short-term mortality estimated between 45% and 90%. Despite the clinical relevance of the condition, it still remains largely undefined with continued disagreement regarding its precise etiological factors, clinical course, prognostic criteria and management pathways...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110319/perioperative-remote-acute-lung-injury-recent-update
#5
Jin Zhaosheng, Suen Ka Chun, Ma Daqing
Perioperative acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome characterised by hypoxia and chest radiograph changes. It is a serious post-operative complication, associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In addition to mechanical ventilation, remote organ insult could also trigger systemic responses which induce ALI. Currently, there are limited treatment options available beyond conservative respiratory support. However, increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI and the biochemical pathways involved will aid the development of novel treatments and help to improve patient outcome as well as to reduce cost to the health service...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110300/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-diet
#6
REVIEW
Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Ornella de Bari, Anthony Lembo, Sarah Ballou
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. The impact of IBS on the general population is large due to its high prevalence, suboptimal medical treatments and significant economic burden. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and treatments are often symptom-specific. The most common therapeutic approaches for IBS include education and reassurance, lifestyles (especially nutrition-based interventions), peripherally acting medications (which typically target motility), centrally acting medications (which target visceral hypersensitivity and pain) and psychological interventions (which aim to reduce the effects of stress or symptom-specific anxiety)...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109891/redox-regulation-of-electrophilic-signaling-by-reactive-persulfides-in-cardiac-cells
#7
REVIEW
Motohiro Nishida, Akiyuki Nishimura, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Hozumi Motohashi, Shingo Kasamatsu, Takaaki Akaike
Maintaining a redox balance by means of precisely controlled systems that regulate production, and elimination, and metabolism of electrophilic substances (electrophiles) is essential for normal cardiovascular function. Electrophilic signaling is mainly regulated by endogenous electrophiles that are generated from reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and the derivative reactive species of nitric oxide during stress responses, as well as by exogenous electrophiles including compounds in foods and environmental pollutants...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109889/vascular-remodeling-a-redox-modulated-mechanism-of-vessel-caliber-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Y Tanaka, Francisco R M Laurindo
Vascular remodeling, i.e. whole-vessel structural reshaping, determines lumen caliber in (patho)physiology. Here we review mechanisms underlying vessel remodeling, with emphasis in redox regulation. First, we discuss confusing terminology and focus on strictu sensu remodeling. Second, we propose a mechanobiological remodeling paradigm based on the concept of tensional homeostasis as a setpoint regulator. We first focus on shear-mediated models as prototypes of remodeling closely dominated by highly redox-sensitive endothelial function...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109865/a-survey-of-membrane-receptor-regulation-in-valvular-interstitial-cells-cultured-under-mechanical-stresses
#9
Mir S Ali, Xinmei Wang, Carla M R Lacerda
Degenerative valvular diseases have been linked to the action of abnormal forces on valve tissues during each cardiac cycle. It is now accepted that the degenerative behavior of valvular cells can be induced mechanically in vitro. This approach of in vitro modeling of valvular cells in culture constitutes a powerful tool to study, characterize, and develop predictors of heart valve degeneration in vivo. Using such in vitro systems, we expect to determine the exact signaling mechanisms that trigger and mediate propagation of degenerative signals...
January 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109856/adenosine-contribution-to-normal-renal-physiology-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Carlos Oyarzún, Wallys Garrido, Sebastián Alarcón, Alejandro Yáñez, Luis Sobrevia, Claudia Quezada, Rody San Martín
Adenosine is a nucleoside that is particularly interesting to many scientific and clinical communities as it has important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the kidney. The distribution of adenosine receptors has only recently been elucidated; therefore it is likely that more biological roles of this nucleoside will be unveiled in the near future. Since the discovery of the involvement of adenosine in renal vasoconstriction and regulation of local renin production, further evidence has shown that adenosine signaling is also involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sodium reabsorption and the adaptive response to acute insults, such as ischemia...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109578/liver-fibrogenesis-marker-7s-domain-of-collagen-type-iv-in-patients-with-acutely-decompensated-heart-failure-correlates-prognostic-value-and-time-course
#11
Kazuya Nagao, Akinori Tamura, Takeshi Morimoto, Kiyotaka Shimamura, Hiroshi Yukawa, Haruyasu Ito, Fujio Hayashi, Toshinori Makita, Genzou Takemura, Yukihito Sato, Tsukasa Inada, Takeshi Kimura, Masaru Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Congestion in heart failure (HF) induces multiple organ injury, which may cause remodeling of extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that liver fibrogenesis marker, 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP 7S) was correlated with congestion and liver injury in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured serum P4NP 7S in two cohorts. Cohort 1 included 70 patients undergoing catheterization. P4NP 7S was correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right ventricular and atrial pressure (r=0...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109561/lithium-reverses-behavioral-and-axonal-transport-related-changes-associated-with-ank3-bipolar-disorder-gene-disruption
#12
Michael G Gottschalk, Melanie P Leussis, Tillmann Ruland, Klaudio Gjeluci, Tracey L Petryshen, Sabine Bahn
Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder (BD), however the resulting pathophysiological and treatment implications remain elusive. In a preclinical systems biological approach, we aimed to characterize the behavioral and proteomic effects of Ank3 haploinsufficiency and chronic mood-stabilizer treatment in mice. Psychiatric-related behavior was evaluated with the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm, elevated plus maze (EPM) and a passive avoidance task (PAT). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(E)) was employed for hippocampal proteome profiling...
January 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109482/prevalence-and-independent-risk-factors-for-hearing-impairment-among-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#13
Chien-Ho Wang, Chang-Yo Yang, Reyin Lien, Shih-Ming Chu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Ming-Chou Chiang
BACKGROUND: Although we've made big strides in perinatal and neonatal care, auditory handicap remains a serious complication in those who were born very premature. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the prevalence and analyze possible risk factors of hearing impairment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study by reviewing medical records of all VLBW infants (BW ≤ 1500 g) admitted to NICU of Chang Gung Children's Hospital over 2 years period from Jan...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109286/acetaminophen-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-antioxidant-activity
#14
Wei-Xing Zhao, Jun-Han Zhang, Jiang-Bei Cao, Wei Wang, Dong-Xin Wang, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Jun Yu, Yong-Yi Zhang, You-Zhi Zhang, Wei-Dong Mi
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109273/blocking-of-platelet-glycoprotein-receptor-ib-reduces-thrombo-inflammation-in-mice-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Michael K Schuhmann, Josua Guthmann, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a strong inflammatory response that includes T cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. Interaction of these immune cells with platelets and endothelial cells facilitates microvascular dysfunction and leads to secondary infarct growth. We recently showed that blocking of platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptor Ib improves stroke outcome without increasing the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Until now, it has been unclear whether GPIb only mediates thrombus formation or also contributes to the pathophysiology of local inflammation...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109123/sodium-butyrate-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-metabolic-disorders-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice
#16
Ling Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Naohiro Yano, Hao Wang, Yu Tina Zhao, Dubielecka-Szczerba Patricia, Shougang Zhuang, Eugene Y Chin, Gangjian Qin, Ting C Zhao
Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108991/mucosal-immune-tolerance-at-the-ocular-surface-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jeremías G Galletti, Mauricio Guzmán, Mirta N Giordano
The ocular surface is constantly exposed to environmental irritants, allergens and pathogens, against which it can mount a prompt immune response to preserve its integrity. But to avoid unnecessary inflammation, the ocular surface's mucosal immune system must also discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens, a seemingly complicated task. Despite its unique features, the ocular surface is a mucosal lining, and as such, it shares some homeostatic and pathophysiological mechanisms with other mucosal surfaces...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108847/airway-mucus-inflammation-and-remodeling-emerging-links-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Julia Duerr, Matthias Hagner, Raman Agrawal, Marcus A Mall
Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108537/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-hs-ctnt-as-a-predictor-of-incident-diabetes-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#19
Seamus P Whelton, John W McEvoy, Mariana Lazo, Josef Coresh, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin
OBJECTIVE: Many individuals with prediabetes have evidence of subclinical myocardial damage and are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). If subclinical myocardial damage is independently associated with incident diabetes, this may contribute to the understanding of the association between diabetes and CVD. This study was conducted to determine whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is associated with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models, we prospectively analyzed 8,153 participants without known diabetes or CVD...
February 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108534/cell-biology-and-pathophysiology-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#20
Jacqueline Burré, Manu Sharma, Thomas C Südhof
α-Synuclein is an abundant neuronal protein that is highly enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals. Genetics and neuropathology studies link α-synuclein to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulation of misfolded oligomers and larger aggregates of α-synuclein defines multiple neurodegenerative diseases called synucleinopathies, but the mechanisms by which α-synuclein acts in neurodegeneration are unknown. Moreover, the normal cellular function of α-synuclein remains debated...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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