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Mri rectum

R J Cassidy, X Yang, T Liu, M Thomas, S G Nour, A B Jani
PURPOSE: Sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer remains an important late adverse toxicity. The neurovascular bundles (NVB) that lie posterolaterally to the prostate are typically spared during prostatectomy, but in traditional radiotherapy planning they are not contoured as an organ-at-risk with dose constraints. Our goal was to determine the dosimetric feasibility of "NVB-sparing" prostate radiotherapy while still delivering adequate dose to the prostate. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with prostate cancer (with no extraprostatic disease on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) who that were treated with external beam radiotherapy, with the same primary planning target volume margins, to a dose of 79...
October 13, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Benny V Jensen, Anne L Fromm, Kirsten K Vistisen, Vibeke K Parner, Dorte Linnemann, Rasmus H Hansen, Helle H Johannesen, Jakob V Schou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
R Boissier, C Udrescu, X Rebillard, J E Terrier, A Faix, O Chapet, D Azria, M Devonec, P Paparel, A Ruffion
OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid (HA)) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided EBRT with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. MATERIAL & METHOD: Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
October 7, 2016: Urology
Peter Bondeven
Rectal cancer constitutes one-third of all colorectal cancers, and the incidence in Denmark increasing. In 2012, 1.400 cases were registered, and of these 38% were located in the upper rectum. There have been several key advances in the optimal management of rectal cancer during the past decades, primarily by standardisation and improvement of the surgical procedure. There is now general agreement that the optimal surgical treatment involves the concept of total mesorectal excision and that a resection with tumour-free margins is crucial...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Grant Harmon, Abbie Diak, Steven M Shea, Joseph H Yacoub, William Small, Matthew M Harkenrider
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of MRI-based brachytherapy in small and large high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) in cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-eight fractions obtained from sixteen cervical cancer patients treated with MRI-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy with standard tandem and ovoid applicators were used; original fractions were optimized to HR-CTV D90. Fractions were separated based on the median volume into small and large (HR-CTV <25 cm(3) or >25 cm(3)) lesion groups...
September 29, 2016: Brachytherapy
Juan Ren, Wei Yuan, Ruihua Wang, Qiuping Wang, Yi Li, Chaofan Xue, Yanli Yan, Xiaowei Ma, Li Tan, Zi Liu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively compare the 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided and conventional 2-dimensional (2D) point A-based intracavitary brachytherapy (BT) planning for cervical cancer with regard to target dose coverage and dosages to adjacent organs-at risk (OARs). METHODS: A total of 79 patients with cervical cancer were enrolled to receive 2D point A-based BT planning and then immediately to receive 3D planning between October 2011 and April 2013 at the First Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiao Tong University (Xi'an, China)...
2016: PloS One
Ashesh Jani, Eduard Schreibmann, Peter J Rossi, Joseph W Shelton, Karen Godette, Peter Nieh, Viraj A Master, Omer Kucuk, Mark Goodman, Raghuveer Halkar, Sherrie Cooper, Zhengjia Chen, David M Schuster
: The purpose was to evaluate the role of the synthetic amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer fluciclovine ((18)F) in modifying the clinical and planning target volume (CTV and PTV) definition in post-prostatectomy patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy and to evaluate the resulting dosimetric consequences to surrounding organs at risk. METHODS: 96 patients were enrolled in a randomized prospective intention to treat clinical trial for potential salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Dae Yup Han, Habib Safigholi, Abraam Soliman, Ananth Ravi, Eric Leung, Daniel J Scanderbeg, Zhaowei Liu, Amir Owrangi, William Y Song
PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive comparative planning study evaluating the utility of the proposed direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator against standard applicators, in the setting of image guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed conceptual article was published in 2014. The proposed DMBT tandem applicator has 6 peripheral grooves of 1.3-mm width, along a 5.4-mm-thick nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Shimpei Ogawa, Jin-Ichi Hida, Hideyuki Ike, Tetsushi Kinugasa, Mitsuyoshi Ota, Eiji Shinto, Michio Itabashi, Takahiro Okamoto, Kenichi Sugihara
PURPOSE: This study seeks to evaluate lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) and perirectal lymph node (PRLN) status on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis. METHODS: The subjects were 394 patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent MRI prior to mesorectal excision (combined with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in 272 patients) at 6 institutes. No patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Cases were classified as cN(+) and cN(-) based on the short axis of the largest lymph node ≥5 and <5 mm, respectively...
October 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Gang Yin, Pei Wang, Jinyi Lang, Yin Tian, Yangkun Luo, Zixuan Fan, Kin Yip Tam
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) boost technique (ICBT + IMRT) has been used in our hospital for advanced cervix carcinoma patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the four different boost techniques (the conventional 2D HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [CICBT], 3D optimized HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [OICBT], and IMRT-alone with the applicator in situ)...
June 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Chun-Han Nigel Tan, Choon-Seng Chong, Yoke-Fai Fong, Shakina Rauff, Ker-Kan Tan
BACKGROUND: Natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) has evolved to circumvent the need for a specimen extraction site. Transvaginal specimen extraction (TVSE) for colorectal disease has been shown to be safe and feasible in selected cases.1 (,) 2 We describe our technique of TVSE in a case of laparoscopic ultra-low anterior resection (ULAR) with defunctioning ileostomy (DI) with a concomitant total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophrectomy (THBSO). METHODS AND RESULTS: A 74-year-old Chinese female was diagnosed with a mid-rectal cancer following colonoscopic evaluation for a change in bowel habits...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
W A A Borstlap, P J Tanis, T W A Koedam, C A M Marijnen, C Cunningham, E Dekker, M E van Leerdam, G Meijer, N van Grieken, I D Nagtegaal, C J A Punt, M G W Dijkgraaf, J H De Wilt, G Beets, E J de Graaf, A A W van Geloven, M F Gerhards, H L van Westreenen, A W H van de Ven, P van Duijvendijk, I H J T de Hingh, J W A Leijtens, C Sietses, E J Spillenaar-Bilgen, R J C L M Vuylsteke, C Hoff, J W A Burger, W M U van Grevenstein, A Pronk, R J I Bosker, H Prins, A B Smits, S Bruin, D D Zimmerman, L P S Stassen, M S Dunker, M Westerterp, P P Coene, J Stoot, W A Bemelman, J B Tuynman
BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer surgery is accompanied with high morbidity and poor long term functional outcome. Screening programs have shown a shift towards more early staged cancers. Patients with early rectal cancer can potentially benefit significantly from rectal preserving therapy. For the earliest stage cancers, local excision is sufficient when the risk of lymph node disease and subsequent recurrence is below 5 %. However, the majority of early cancers are associated with an intermediate risk of lymph node involvement (5-20 %) suggesting that local excision alone is not sufficient, while completion radical surgery, which is currently standard of care, could be a substantial overtreatment for this group of patients...
2016: BMC Cancer
Natalia Mukai, Lílian Vital Pinheiro, Maria de Lourdes Setsuko Ayrizono, Guilherme Cardinali Barreiro, Paulo Kharmandayan, Mariana Hanayo Akinaga, Adriano Mesquita Bento, Carlos Augusto Real Martinez, Rita Barbosa de Carvalho, Marc Ward, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Raquel Franco Leal
INTRODUCTION: Chronic suppurative hidradenitis (CSH) is a benign condition that can affect the perineal region and often leads to the formation of abscesses and fistulas. It is rare for CSH to undergo malignant degeneration into mucinous adenocarcinoma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 55-year-old male patient with perineal CSH who suffered worsening long-term pain despite multiple surgical procedures to alleviate his symptoms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiloculated cystic lesion on the left side wall of the distal rectum with gluteal extension...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
A O Atolagbe, O Ogunleye, C T Apakama
Perirectal epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts originating from the ectodermal germ cell layer of the hind gut. Their presenting symptoms are most often nonspecific and distinguishing them from other presacral developmental cysts often present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. We present a 58-year-old woman who presented with chronic dyschezia and hematochezia of a few days duration and no prior colonoscopies. Initial blood work and tumor markers were unremarkable. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 7...
May 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
N Guedj, M Zappa, L Maggiori, C Bertin, C Hennequin, Y Panis
AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for T3-T4 and/or N+ mid-rectal tumours, regardless of the exact tumour level. This leads to optimal oncological results but possible impaired functional results. Reducing rectal excision could reduce the functional drawbacks. This study prospectively assessed the risk of N+ or other mesorectal tumour deposit (OTD) below the tumour level by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed after chemoradiotherapy and pathological examination of the TME specimen...
September 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Francesco De Luca, Evangelos Zacharakis, Majed Shabbir, Angela Maurizi, Emy Manzi, Antonio Zanghì, Carlo De Dominicis, David Ralph
Malignant priapism secondary to penile metastases is a rare condition. This term was originally used by Peacock in 1938 to describe a condition of painful induration and erection of the penis due to metastatic infiltration by a neoplasm. In the current literature there are 512 case reports. The primary tumor sites are bladder, prostate and rectum. The treatment has only palliative intent and consists of local tumor excision, penectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We present one case of malignant priapism originated from prostate cancer, and two from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder...
2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
I M L van Kalleveen, H Kroeze, A Sbrizzi, V O Boer, O Reerink, M E P Philippens, C A T van de Berg, P R Luijten, D W J Klomp
PURPOSE: The high precession frequency in ultrahigh field MRI coincides with reduced RF penetration, increased RF power deposition and consequently can lead to reduced scan efficiency. However, the shorter wavelength enables the use of efficient antennas rather than loop coils. In fact, ultrathin monopole antennas have been demonstrated at 7 T, which fit in natural cavities like the rectum in the human body. As the RF field generated by the antenna provides an extremely nonuniform B1 field, the use of conventional RF pulses will lead to severe image distortions and highly nonuniform contrast...
July 2016: Medical Physics
Bincheng Wang, Di Wu, David Dornbos Iii, Jingfei Shi, Yanhui Ma, Mo Zhang, Yumei Liu, Jian Chen, Yuchuan Ding, Yinghao Luo, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia has shown promise as a neuroprotective strategy for stroke. The use of whole body hypothermia has limited clinical utility due to many severe side effects. Selective brain cooling, or local brain hypothermia, has been previously proposed as an alternative treatment strategy. This study investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of selective brain hypothermia induced by local infusion of ice-cold lactated Ringer's solution in rhesus monkeys...
June 2016: Neurological Research
Amr Abdelhamid AbouZeid, Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad
PURPOSE: To define the degree of deviation from the norm among boys with minor forms of anorectal malformations (ARM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2015 and January 2016, we studied the preoperative MRI of nine boys with low-type ARM. For comparison, we included another nine boys (control group) who underwent MRI pelvis for causes other than ARM (e.g. impalpable testes). RESULTS: In boys with low-type ARM, the rectum descends forwards to touch the back of the prostate (as in the norm), but then goes downwards (with little or no backward deflection) keeping intimately attached to the bulb of the corpus spongiosum and displacing it downwards and forwards...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Valentine Guimas, Magali Quivrin, Aurélie Bertaut, Etienne Martin, Damien Chambade, Philippe Maingon, Frédéric Mazoyer, Luc Cormier, Gilles Créhange
PURPOSE: Salvage prostate permanent implant (sPPI) for postradiation local failure provides high rates of biochemical control. The cumulative dose delivered to the prostate and the rectum is still unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed the postimplant CT-based dosimetry of 18 selected patients who underwent sPPI with (125)I seeds for isolated biopsy-proven local failure several years after external beam radiation therapy. Ten patients had whole-prostate sPPI, and 8 patients had multiparametric MRI-based focal sPPI...
July 2016: Brachytherapy
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