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Firearms public health

Dana E Goin, Kara E Rudolph, Jennifer Ahern
Interpersonal firearm violence is a leading cause of death and injuries in the United States. Identifying community characteristics associated with firearm violence is important to improve confounder selection and control in health research, to better understand community-level factors that are associated with firearm violence, and to enhance community surveillance and control of firearm violence. The objective of this research was to use machine learning to identify an optimal set of predictors for urban interpersonal firearm violence rates using a broad set of community characteristics...
March 14, 2018: Health & Place
Sasha Mintz, Ethan Jamison, Kirk Bol
Suicide is a public health concern with risks that vary between occupation groups. Many suicide victims with a health care occupation die by poisoning, but few studies have epidemiologically studied this association. The objective of this study was to quantify the increased risk of suicide death by poisoning among health care professionals in Colorado. Eleven years (2004-2014, N = 8,753) of suicide deaths in Colorado were compiled from the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. A retrospective cohort study using multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the risk associated with having a health care occupation and eventual suicide death by poisoning, compared independently to firearm and hanging methods...
March 7, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Adam Lankford
In the United States and Europe, the distinction between public mass shooters and suicide terrorists no longer seems particularly meaningful. A number of public mass shooters have considered using bombs and claimed to be sacrificing themselves for an ideological cause, and many suicide terrorists have attacked without organizational support, using firearms, for what appear to be largely personal reasons. Previous research has also documented several common factors in these offenders' lives, including (a) suicidal motives and life indifference, (b) perceived victimization, and (c) desires for attention or fame...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Banwari Meel
Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Pamela Behrman, Colleen A Redding, Sheela Raja, Tamara Newton, Nisha Beharie, Destiny Printz
The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership...
February 21, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Sualeha S Shekhani, Shagufta Perveen, Dur-E-Sameen Hashmi, Khawaja Akbar, Sara Bachani, Murad M Khan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major global public health problem with more than 800,000 incidents worldwide annually. Seventy-five percent of the global suicides occur in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pakistan is a LMIC where information on suicidal behavior is limited. The aim of the review is to map available literature on determinants, risk factors and other variables of suicidal behavior in Pakistan. METHOD: This study was based on Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework of scoping review, combining peer reviewed publications with grey literature...
February 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons, Carter J Betz, Emiko Petrosky
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2014, approximately 59,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 18 U.S. states for 2014. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 2, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Wen-Jan Tuan, John J Frey
BACKGROUND: Despite low firearm mortality rates in Wisconsin, overall firearm fatalities continue to rise in recent years. In 2013, the statewide age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 9.6 per 100,000 persons, the highest mark since the new millennium. This raises not only public safety concerns, but also raises questions regarding ongoing gun violence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the population and geographic characteristics of firearm mortality rates on population and geographic characteristics in Wisconsin...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Meel Banwari
Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luzia Michelle Santos, Alysson Vinicius Porto Ferreira, Tomás Lucio Marques de Almeida Lima, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
Romana Malik, Iffat Atif, Farah Rashid, Maqbool Abbas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medico legal cases are essential component of medical practice and comprise most important constituent of emergencies. The reporting of such cases is imperative to recognize theirsocioeconomic burden on any country. The present study was conducted to scrutinize different categories of medico legal cases and characteristics of the victims at casualty department oftertiary care hospital Rawalpindi. The objective of the study was to find out the frequency ofvarious categories of medico legal cases and major characteristics ofvictims at tertiary care hospital, Rawalpindi...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Michael Siegel, Ziming Xuan, Craig S Ross, Sandro Galea, Bindu Kalesan, Eric Fleegler, Kristin A Goss
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation of "shall-issue" laws, in which permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met; "may-issue" laws, which give law enforcement officials wide discretion over whether to issue concealed firearm carry permits or not; and homicide rates. METHODS: We compared homicide rates in shall-issue and may-issue states and total, firearm, nonfirearm, handgun, and long-gun homicide rates in all 50 states during the 25-year period of 1991 to 2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Katherine Simbaña, Lenin Gómez, Aquiles R Henriquez-Trujillo, Fernando Cornejo-Leon, Eduardo Vasconez, Diana Castillo, Ginés Viscor
BACKGROUND: Suicide affects people from different backgrounds, ethnical groups, socio-economic status and geographical locations. In Latin America, suicide reports arescarce, specially in Andean countries. In Ecuador, very few reports have partially described this phenomenon, nonetheless, estimation of the burden of disease (BoD) hasnever been reported in the country. METHODS: A country-wide comparison was performed using the Ministry of Public Health's national databases of overall mortality, Hospital Discharges Database, and the Population Census of the National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC)...
October 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Molly Rosenberg, Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Ashley Townes, Angela M Bengtson
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models...
2017: PloS One
Darren B Taichman, Howard Bauchner, Jeffrey M Drazen, Christine Laine, Larry Peiperl
The U.S.-based Editors of ICMJE journals call for health-care professionals to act against the public health crisis of injury and death from guns.
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
David Hemenway, Steven Rausher, Pina Violano, Toby A Raybould, Catherine W Barber
INTRODUCTION: Firearm safety instructors and public health professionals are natural allies in the quest to prevent firearm injuries. We audited basic firearm classes to provide information that can help familiarise public health professionals and others with the content covered. METHODS: With the advice of expert instructors, we created an audit form. Volunteers audited 20 basic firearm classes in seven north-eastern states. RESULTS: All trainers covered a wide variety of safety issues...
October 7, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Asha Z Ivey-Stephenson, Alex E Crosby, Shane P D Jack, Tadesse Haileyesus, Marcie-Jo Kresnow-Sedacca
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Suicide is a public health problem and one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. Substantial geographic variations in suicide rates exist, with suicides in rural areas occurring at much higher rates than those occurring in more urban areas. Understanding demographic trends and mechanisms of death among and within urbanization levels is important to developing and targeting future prevention efforts. REPORTING PERIOD: 2001-2015...
October 6, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Jordan L Nichols, Ambrozine Ayers, Natalie Mullins
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Lucélia Silva Nico, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
Injuries and deaths resulting from violence constitute a major public health problem in Brazil. The article aims to describe the profile of calls for violence in emergency departments and emergency Brazilian capitals. This is a descriptive study of Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA), carried out in public emergencies Brazilian cities, from September to November 2014, a total of 4406 calls for aggression. We considered the following categories of analysis: 1) sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, race / skin color, education, place of residence, vulnerability, alcohol intake); 2) Event feature (probable author, nature and means of aggression); and characteristics of care (getting to the hospital, prior service, evolution)...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Deborah L McBride
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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