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Firearms public health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426305/us-public-opinion-on-carrying-firearms-in-public-places
#1
Julia A Wolfson, Stephen P Teret, Deborah Azrael, Matthew Miller
OBJECTIVES: To estimate US public opinion, overall and by gun ownership status, about the public places where legal gun owners should be allowed to carry firearms. METHODS: We fielded an online survey among 3949 adults, including an oversample of gun owners and veterans, in April 2015. We used cross-tabulations with survey weights to generate nationally representative estimates. RESULTS: Fewer than 1 in 3 US adults supported gun carrying in any of the specified venues...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426304/a-significant-and-quiet-threat-to-public-health-in-the-united-states-state-preemption
#2
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Mark Pertschuk
State and local governments traditionally protect the health and safety of their populations more strenuously than does the federal government. Preemption, when a higher level of government restricts or withdraws the authority of a lower level of government to act on a particular issue, was historically used as a point of negotiation in the legislative process. More recently, however, 3 new preemption-related issues have emerged that have direct implications for public health. First, multiple industries are working on a 50-state strategy to enact state laws preempting local regulation...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423460/individual-and-neighborhood-characteristics-of-children-seeking-emergency-department-care-for-firearm-injuries-within-the-pecarn-network
#3
Patrick M Carter, Lawrence J Cook, Michelle L Macy, Mark R Zonfrillo, Rachel M Stanley, James M Chamberlain, Joel A Fein, Elizabeth R Alpern, Rebecca Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children seeking emergency care for firearm injuries within the PECARN network, and assess the influence of both individual and neighborhood factors on firearm-related injury risk. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cross-sectional analysis of children (<19-years-old) presenting to 16 pediatric EDs (2004-2008). ICD-9-CM E-codes were used to identify and categorize firearm injuries by mechanism/intent. Neighborhood variables were derived from home address data...
April 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422921/population-based-estimate-of-trauma-related-deaths-for-law-enforcement-personnel-risks-for-death-are-higher-and-increasing-over-time
#4
Alexander L Eastman, Michael W Cripps, Kareem R Abdelfattah, Kenji Inaba, Thomas G Weiser, David A Spain, Kristan L Staudenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Trauma-related deaths remain an important public health problem. One group susceptible to death due to traumatic mechanisms is U.S. Law Enforcement (LE). We hypothesized that LE officers experienced a higher chance of violent death compared to the general U.S. population and that risks have increased over time. METHODS: The National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) is a population-based survey of occupational deaths...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418431/body-burdens-sources-and-interrelations-of-selected-toxic-and-essential-elements-among-the-nine-cree-first-nations-of-eeyou-istchee-james-bay-region-of-northern-quebec-canada
#5
Evert Nieboer, Ian D Martin, Eric N Liberda, Eric Dewailly, Elizabeth Robinson, Leonard J S Tsuji
BACKGROUND: this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. METHODS: the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395357/development-of-the-safety-score-a-clinical-screening-tool-for-predicting-future-firearm-violence-risk
#6
Jason E Goldstick, Patrick M Carter, Maureen A Walton, Linda L Dahlberg, Steven A Sumner, Marc A Zimmerman, Rebecca M Cunningham
Background: Interpersonal firearm violence among youth is a substantial public health problem, and emergency department (ED) physicians require a clinical screening tool to identify high-risk youth. Objective: To derive a clinically feasible risk index for firearm violence. Design: 24-month prospective cohort study. Setting: Urban level 1 ED. Participants: Substance-using youths, age 14 to 24 years, seeking ED care for an assault-related injury and a proportionately sampled group of non-assault-injured youth enrolled from September 2009 through December 2011...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376827/lead-exposure-at-firing-ranges-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Mark A S Laidlaw, Gabriel Filippelli, Howard Mielke, Brian Gulson, Andrew S Ball
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. METHODS: The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375722/the-link-between-mental-illness-and-firearm-violence-implications-for-social-policy-and-clinical-practice
#8
John S Rozel, Edward P Mulvey
The United States has substantially higher levels of firearm violence than most other developed countries. Firearm violence is a significant and preventable public health crisis. Mental illness is a weak risk factor for violence despite popular misconceptions reflected in the media and policy. That said, mental health professionals play a critical role in assessing their patients for violence risk, counseling about firearm safety, and guiding the creation of rational and evidence-based public policy that can be effective in mitigating violence risk without unnecessarily stigmatizing people with mental illness...
March 30, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336508/using-web-based-search-data-to-study-the-public-s-reactions-to-societal-events-the-case-of-the-sandy-hook-shooting
#9
Nir Menachemi, Saurabh Rahurkar, Mandar Rahurkar
BACKGROUND: Internet search is the most common activity on the World Wide Web and generates a vast amount of user-reported data regarding their information-seeking preferences and behavior. Although this data has been successfully used to examine outbreaks, health care utilization, and outcomes related to quality of care, its value in informing public health policy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Internet search query data in health policy development...
March 23, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323539/guns-in-the-home-and-the-possibility-of-aggressive-tendencies-exploring-a-community-sample-of-adolescents-in-low-income-communities
#10
Brad Lian, Beatrice Abiero, Paula Kamara
Firearm violence has been the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in the United States since 2000 and is a major public health concern. But firearms may be related to less lethal forms of violence as well. Here we examine the relationship between the presence of a gun in the home and several behavioral and psychosocial measures related to aggression and violence among adolescents using data from a community-based survey of nearly 2,000 youths living in low-income neighborhoods. Our results indicate that adolescents living in homes where a gun is present display more aggressive attitudes and behaviors than their counterparts living in homes with no gun present...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323465/costs-and-financial-burden-of-initial-hospitalizations-for-firearm-injuries-in-the-united-states-2006-2014
#11
Sarabeth A Spitzer, Kristan L Staudenmayer, Lakshika Tennakoon, David A Spain, Thomas G Weiser
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the inflation-adjusted costs associated with initial hospitalizations for firearm-related injuries in the United States. METHODS: We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify patients admitted for firearm-related injuries from 2006 to 2014. We converted charges from hospitalization to costs, which we inflation-adjusted to 2014 dollars. We used survey weights to create national estimates. RESULTS: Costs for the initial inpatient hospitalization totaled $6...
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207333/handgun-legislation-and-changes-in-statewide-overall-suicide-rates
#12
Michael D Anestis, Joye C Anestis, Sarah E Butterworth
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which 4 laws regulating handgun ownership were associated with statewide suicide rate changes. METHODS: To test between-group differences in statewide suicide rate changes between 2013 and 2014 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia with and without specific laws, we ran analyses of covariance. RESULTS: We found significant differences in suicide rate changes from 2013 to 2014 in states with mandatory waiting periods and universal background checks relative to states without such laws...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182606/elevated-blood-lead-levels-associated-with-retained-bullet-fragments-united-states-2003-2012
#13
Debora Weiss, Carrie D Tomasallo, Jon G Meiman, Walter Alarcon, Nathan M Graber, Kristine M Bisgard, Henry A Anderson
An estimated 115,000 firearm injuries occur annually in the United States, and approximately 70% are nonfatal (1). Retained bullet fragments (RBFs) are an infrequently reported, but important, cause of lead toxicity; symptoms are often nonspecific and can appear years after suffering a gunshot wound (2,3). Adult blood lead level (BLL) screening is most commonly indicated for monitoring of occupational lead exposure; routine testing of adults with RBFs is infrequent (3). States collaborate with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to monitor elevated BLLs through the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program (4,5)...
February 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177819/changing-patterns-in-rates-and-means-of-suicide-in-california-2005-to-2013
#14
Ellicott C Matthay, Jessica Galin, Jennifer Ahern
OBJECTIVES: To describe recent trends in suicide throughout California and to compare rates and methods of suicide ("means") across demographic groups. METHODS: Data from statewide mortality records were used to estimate age-adjusted rates of suicide from 2005 to 2013, overall and by means, age, gender, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and county. RESULTS: The suicide rate increased 12.6% between 2005 and 2013, from 11.2 to 12.6 per 100 000 population, but this overall trend masks substantial heterogeneity across subgroups...
March 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146597/using-plan-do-study-act-cycle-to-enhance-completeness-of-suicide-firearm-reporting
#15
Yongwen Jiang, Shannon Young, Karen Foss, Magaly Angeloni, Erica Norcini, Samara Viner-Brown
The Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) collects comprehensive surveillance data on violent deaths to support violence prevention programs in Rhode Island and nationwide. Successful collection of firearm information is critical to understanding gun violence in public health. A recent quality improvement (QI) project was performed to improve gun information collection in the RIVDRS program. Our aim was to increase the presence of firearm model information for 2014 suicides from 50% to 80% by December 31, 2015...
February 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134675/firearm-related-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
Cordelia W Carter, Melinda S Sharkey, Felicity Fishman
Firearm injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States and take financial and emotional tolls on the affected children, their families, and society as a whole. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from firearms are common and may involve bones, joints, and neurovascular structures and other soft tissues. Child-specific factors that must be considered in the setting of gunshot injuries include physeal arrest and lead toxicity. Understanding the ballistics associated with various types of weaponry is useful for guiding orthopaedic surgical treatment...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103077/quantifying-disparities-in-urban-firearm-violence-by-race-and-place-in-philadelphia-pennsylvania-a-cartographic-study
#17
Jessica H Beard, Christopher N Morrison, Sara F Jacoby, Beidi Dong, Randi Smith, Carrie A Sims, Douglas J Wiebe
OBJECTIVES: To describe variability in the burden of firearm violence by race, income, and place in an urban context. METHODS: We used Philadelphia Police Department data from 2013 to 2014 to calculate firearm assault rates within census block groups for both victim residence and event locations, stratifying by race and block group income. We used cartographic modeling to determine variations in incidence of firearm assault by race, neighborhood income, and place...
March 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103062/academic-public-health-and-the-firearm-crisis-an-agenda-for-action
#18
Charles C Branas, Andrew Flescher, Margaret K Formica, Sandro Galea, Nils Hennig, Karen D Liller, Hala N Madanat, Andrew Park, John E Rosenthal, Jun Ying
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053363/global-research-priorities-for-interpersonal-violence-prevention-a-modified-delphi-study
#19
Christopher R Mikton, Masako Tanaka, Mark Tomlinson, David L Streiner, Lil Tonmyr, Bandy X Lee, Jane Fisher, Kathy Hegadoren, Joam Evans Pim, Shr-Jie Sharlenna Wang, Harriet L MacMillan
OBJECTIVE: To establish global research priorities for interpersonal violence prevention using a systematic approach. METHODS: Research priorities were identified in a three-round process involving two surveys. In round 1, 95 global experts in violence prevention proposed research questions to be ranked in round 2. Questions were collated and organized according to the four-step public health approach to violence prevention. In round 2, 280 international experts ranked the importance of research in the four steps, and the various substeps, of the public health approach...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051972/characteristics-classification-and-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-fatalities
#20
James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
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