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Firearms public health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067067/an-analysis-of-3105-medico-legal-cases-at-tertiary-care-hospital-rawalpindi
#1
Romana Malik, Iffat Atif, Farah Rashid, Maqbool Abbas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medico legal cases are essential component of medical practice and comprise most important constituent of emergencies. The reporting of such cases is imperative to recognize theirsocioeconomic burden on any country. The present study was conducted to scrutinize different categories of medico legal cases and characteristics of the victims at casualty department oftertiary care hospital Rawalpindi. The objective of the study was to find out the frequency ofvarious categories of medico legal cases and major characteristics ofvictims at tertiary care hospital, Rawalpindi...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048964/easiness-of-legal-access-to-concealed-firearm-permits-and-homicide-rates-in-the-united-states
#2
Michael Siegel, Ziming Xuan, Craig S Ross, Sandro Galea, Bindu Kalesan, Eric Fleegler, Kristin A Goss
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation of "shall-issue" laws, in which permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met; "may-issue" laws, which give law enforcement officials wide discretion over whether to issue concealed firearm carry permits or not; and homicide rates. METHODS: We compared homicide rates in shall-issue and may-issue states and total, firearm, nonfirearm, handgun, and long-gun homicide rates in all 50 states during the 25-year period of 1991 to 2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017474/the-disease-burden-of-suicide-in-ecuador-a-15%C3%A2-years-geodemographic-cross-sectional-study-2001-2015
#3
Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Katherine Simbaña, Lenin Gómez, Aquiles R Henriquez-Trujillo, Fernando Cornejo-Leon, Eduardo Vasconez, Diana Castillo, Ginés Viscor
BACKGROUND: Suicide affects people from different backgrounds, ethnical groups, socio-economic status and geographical locations. In Latin America, suicide reports arescarce, specially in Andean countries. In Ecuador, very few reports have partially described this phenomenon, nonetheless, estimation of the burden of disease (BoD) hasnever been reported in the country. METHODS: A country-wide comparison was performed using the Ministry of Public Health's national databases of overall mortality, Hospital Discharges Database, and the Population Census of the National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC)...
October 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016639/do-black-lives-matter-in-public-health-research-and-training
#4
Molly Rosenberg, Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Ashley Townes, Angela M Bengtson
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016601/firearm-related-injury-and-death-a-u-s-health-care-crisis-in-need-of-health-care-professionals
#5
EDITORIAL
Darren B Taichman, Howard Bauchner, Jeffrey M Drazen, Christine Laine, Larry Peiperl
The U.S.-based Editors of ICMJE journals call for health-care professionals to act against the public health crisis of injury and death from guns.
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988203/firearms-training-what-is-actually-taught
#6
David Hemenway, Steven Rausher, Pina Violano, Toby A Raybould, Catherine W Barber
INTRODUCTION: Firearm safety instructors and public health professionals are natural allies in the quest to prevent firearm injuries. We audited basic firearm classes to provide information that can help familiarise public health professionals and others with the content covered. METHODS: With the advice of expert instructors, we created an audit form. Volunteers audited 20 basic firearm classes in seven north-eastern states. RESULTS: All trainers covered a wide variety of safety issues...
October 7, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981481/suicide-trends-among-and-within-urbanization-levels-by-sex-race-ethnicity-age-group-and-mechanism-of-death-united-states-2001-2015
#7
Asha Z Ivey-Stephenson, Alex E Crosby, Shane P D Jack, Tadesse Haileyesus, Marcie-Jo Kresnow-Sedacca
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Suicide is a public health problem and one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. Substantial geographic variations in suicide rates exist, with suicides in rural areas occurring at much higher rates than those occurring in more urban areas. Understanding demographic trends and mechanisms of death among and within urbanization levels is important to developing and targeting future prevention efforts. REPORTING PERIOD: 2001-2015...
October 6, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971349/criminal-use-of-assault-weapons-and-high-capacity-semiautomatic-firearms-an-updated-examination-of-local-and-national-sources
#8
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Jordan L Nichols, Ambrozine Ayers, Natalie Mullins
Policies restricting semiautomatic assault weapons and large-capacity ammunition magazines are intended to reduce gunshot victimizations by limiting the stock of semiautomatic firearms with large ammunition capacities and other military-style features conducive to criminal use. The federal government banned such weaponry from 1994 to 2004, and a few states currently impose similar restrictions. Recent debates concerning these weapons have highlighted their use in mass shootings, but there has been little examination of their use in gun crime more generally since the expiration of the federal ban...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954133/epidemiological-profile-of-care-for-violence-in-public-urgency-and-emergency-services-in-brazilian-capital-viva-2014
#9
Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Lucélia Silva Nico, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
Injuries and deaths resulting from violence constitute a major public health problem in Brazil. The article aims to describe the profile of calls for violence in emergency departments and emergency Brazilian capitals. This is a descriptive study of Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA), carried out in public emergencies Brazilian cities, from September to November 2014, a total of 4406 calls for aggression. We considered the following categories of analysis: 1) sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, race / skin color, education, place of residence, vulnerability, alcohol intake); 2) Event feature (probable author, nature and means of aggression); and characteristics of care (getting to the hospital, prior service, evolution)...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888336/pediatric-firearm-deaths-and-injuries-in-the-united-states
#10
Deborah L McBride
Guns are the third leading cause of death of those aged 1 to 17years, outpaced only by unintentional injuries such as car crashes and drowning, and illnesses like cancer according to a new federal study. The new study, which has been called the most comprehensive examination of current firearms-related deaths and injury among children in the United States used data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System to assess the magnitude and characteristics of firearm-related deaths and injuries among children (age 0-17years) from 2002 to 2014...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888283/in-home-firearm-access-among-us-adolescents-and-the-role-of-religious-subculture-results-from-a-nationally-representative-study
#11
Samuel Stroope, Joshua C Tom
Religious participation is linked to numerous positive safety outcomes for adolescents. Scant attention, however, has been paid to associations between religious participation and safety risks among adolescents. Using data from Add Health (N = 18,449), a nationally representative school-based sample of US adolescents, this study examines the relationship between adolescents' religious affiliation and easy access to firearms at home. Regression analyses adjust for complex sampling design and compare easy firearm access at home among conservative Protestant adolescents to adolescent firearm access in other religious traditions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874943/loaded-questions-internet-commenters-opinions-on-physician-patient-firearm-safety-conversations
#12
Christopher E Knoepke, Amanda Allen, Megan L Ranney, Garen J Wintemute, Daniel D Matlock, Marian E Betz
INTRODUCTION: Medical and public health societies advocate that healthcare providers (HCPs) counsel at-risk patients to reduce firearm injury risk. Anonymous online media comments often contain extreme viewpoints and may therefore help in understanding challenges of firearm safety counseling. To help inform injury prevention efforts, we sought to examine commenters' stated opinions regarding firearm safety counseling HCPs. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive analysis of online comments posted following news items (in May-June, 2016) about a peer-reviewed publication addressing when and how HCPs should counsel patients regarding firearms...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817331/urban-rural-differences-in-suicide-in-the-state-of-maryland-the-role-of-firearms
#13
Paul S Nestadt, Patrick Triplett, David R Fowler, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of firearms explains rural-urban differences in suicide rates. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on all 6196 well-characterized adult suicides in Maryland from 2003 through 2015. We computed rate ratios by using census data and then stratified by sex, with adjustment for age and race. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher in rural compared with urban counties. However, the higher rural suicide rates were limited to firearm suicides (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1...
October 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749728/addressing-the-cultural-challenges-of-firearm-restriction-in-suicide-prevention-a-test-of-public-health-messaging-to-protect-those-at-risk
#14
Elizabeth Marino, Christopher Wolsko, Susan Keys, Holly Wilcox
OBJECTIVES: Reducing access to firearms as a suicide prevention strategy is limited in the US today because of divergent cultural attitudes and political contentiousness surrounding gun restrictions. This research examined the effects of culturally-specific suicide prevention messages on the likelihood of restricting firearm access during periods of suicide risk. METHODS: Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with rural gun owners in order to develop a suicide prevention message that highlighted the importance of restricting access to firearms during periods of risk without threatening second amendment concerns...
July 27, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724500/a-20-year-review-of-pediatric-pregnant-trauma-from-a-level-i-trauma-center
#15
Tanya L Zakrison, Xiomara Ruiz, Nicholas Namias, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Trauma in pregnancy remains an important but understudied public health issue. We aimed to determine the prevalence of interpersonal violence in our pregnant trauma population (including pediatric) over the last 20 years, from our Level I trauma center. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective chart review to identify all pregnant trauma patients between Jan 1993 and Sept 2013. Pediatric was ≤18 years of age. We evaluated demographics, mechanism of injury, injury location, disposition, and outcome data...
October 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697020/good-news-bad-news-an-analysis-of-11-294-gunshot-wounds-gsws-over-two-decades-in-a-single-center
#16
Nathan R Manley, Timothy C Fabian, John P Sharpe, Louis J Magnotti, Martin A Croce
INTRODUCTION: Gun violence is a substantial public health problem accounting for significant physical, psychological and financial costs. While aggregate data sources demonstrate decreasing rates of firearm violence, analyses from individual trauma centers have shown that mortality and injury severity from GSWs are increasing. To evaluate the evolving characteristics of gun violence in our region, we studied all GSWs admitted to our trauma center over a twenty-year period. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all newly admitted patients with GSWs was performed from 1996 to 2016...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672134/facial-fractures-in-patients-with-firearm-injuries-profile-and-outcomes
#17
Shelly Abramowicz, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Sankeerth Rampa, Min Kyeong Lee, Romesh P Nalliah, Veerajalandhar Allareddy
PURPOSE: Firearm injuries (FAIs) are a major public health issue in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with facial fractures attributed to FAIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for the years 2008 to 2013 was used. All patients who visited EDs with FAIs and facial fractures were selected. The study focused on the following variables: 1) demographic characteristics, 2) types of facial fractures, 3) disposition status after ED visit or subsequent hospitalization, 4) charges (ED and hospitalization), and 5) patient outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657907/a-forensic-epidemiological-study-of-homicide-in-isfahan-province-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Jalal Karimi, Steven A Koehler, Roya Karimi, Ali Soleymanpour, Kazem Mohammad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
The epidemic of deaths by homicide affects every society around the world and represents a major public health crisis. Detailed information on the characteristics of homicides victims from Islamic countries is limited. This article presents forensic epidemiological data on homicides in Isfahan, Iran, during 2013-2015. Isfahan has a population of more than 5 million and 69,387 deaths with 246 homicides between 2013 and 2015. Most victims were male (73%), between the ages of 15 to 29 years (39.5%), married (54%), and employed (54%)...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647722/developing-implementation-strategies-for-firearm-safety-promotion-in-paediatric-primary-care-for-suicide-prevention-in-two-large-us-health-systems-a-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-implementation-study
#19
Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Shari Jager-Hyman, Steven C Marcus, Brian K Ahmedani, John E Zeber, Joel A Fein, Gregory K Brown, Adina Lieberman, Rinad S Beidas
INTRODUCTION: The promotion of safe firearm practices, or firearms means restriction, is a promising but infrequently used suicide prevention strategy in the USA. Safety Check is an evidence-based practice for improving parental firearm safety behaviour in paediatric primary care. However, providers rarely discuss firearm safety during visits, suggesting the need to better understand barriers and facilitators to promoting this approach. This study, Adolescent Suicide Prevention In Routine clinical Encounters, aims to engender a better understanding of how to implement the three firearm components of Safety Check as a suicide prevention strategy in paediatric primary care...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#20
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
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