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CKD, Pediatric

Smitha R Vidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is an independent risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children with early CKD develop hypertension secondary to renal disease. This review aims to highlight recent advances that help us better understand the current role of hypertension in progression of CKD in children. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence that children with CKD who have hypertension develop early atherosclerosis and cardiac adaptive changes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jason H Greenberg, Prasad Devarajan, Heather R Thiessen-Philbrook, Catherine Krawczeski, Chirag R Parikh, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that children undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk for long-term chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension, although postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not a risk factor for worse long-term kidney outcomes. We report here our evaluation of renal injury biomarkers 5 years after cardiac surgery to determine whether they are associated with postoperative AKI or long-term CKD and hypertension. METHODS: Children aged 1 month to 18 years old undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were recruited to this prospective cohort study...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
M S Ansari, Sandeep Kumar Nunia, Ankur Bansal, Prempal Singh, Virender Sekhon, Dharmveer Singh, Rahul Soni, Priyank Yadav
INTRODUCTION: Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is the most common cause of pediatric end stage renal disease (ESRD), imposing a major health burden on medical community caregivers and adversely affecting the quality of life of patients. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III or estimated GFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 is known to be associated with more adverse renal, cardiovascular, and clinical outcomes. Thus, it is desirable to identify factors predicting the rapid and early progression of disease...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Zhen Wang, Eduardo A Oliveira, Robert H Mak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Kamal Kumar Goyal, Abhijeet Saha, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Manpreet Kaur, Nand Kishore Dubey, Parul Goyal, Ashish Dutt Upadhayay
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is the main regulator of hepcidin-ferroportin axis and is elevated in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia of CKD and its relation to hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in iron- and erythropoietin (EPO)-naïve, non-dialyzed children with CKD is under-studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study aimed to study the levels of hepcidin and other proinflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP) and their relation with anemia in iron- and erythropoietin-naïve, non-dialysis CKD (stage 3 - 5) patients...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Jonathan N Johnson, Guido Filler
Cardiovascular disease is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients following solid organ transplant. CKD is also common in pediatric patients after a solid organ transplant, and the link between CKD and cardiovascular morbidity is strong. In this review, we examine potential etiologies to explain the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in pediatric solid organ recipients and identify targets for improving outcomes.
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
David T Selewski, Dylan M Hyatt, Kevin M Bennett, Jennifer R Charlton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite abundant evidence in adults, the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unanswered in pediatrics. Obstacles to overcome include the challenges defining these entities and the lack of long-term follow-up studies. This review focuses on pediatric populations at high-risk for AKI, the evidence of the long-term effect of AKI on renal health, and biomarkers to detect renal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: AKI in critically ill children and neonates is common and independently associated with adverse outcomes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Vaka K Sigurjonsdottir, Swasti Chaturvedi, Cherry Mammen, Scott M Sutherland
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized clinically as an abrupt decline in renal function marked by reduced excretion of waste products, disordered electrolytes, and disrupted fluid homeostasis. The recent development of a standardized AKI definition has transformed our understanding of AKI epidemiology and outcomes. We now know that in the short term, children with AKI experience greater morbidity and mortality; additionally, observational studies have established that chronic renal sequelae are far more common after AKI events than previously realized...
January 26, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yoshimitsu Gotoh, Osamu Uemura, Kenji Ishikura, Tomoyuki Sakai, Yuko Hamasaki, Yoshinori Araki, Riku Hamda, Masataka Honda
BACKGROUND: The gold standard for evaluation of kidney function is renal inulin clearance (Cin). However, the methodology for Cin is complicated and difficult, especially for younger children and/or patients with bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we developed a simple and easier method for obtaining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using equations and values for several biomarkers, i.e., serum creatinine (Cr), serum cystatin C (cystC), serum beta-2 microglobulin (β2MG), and creatinine clearance (Ccr)...
January 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Akira Ashida, Hideki Matsumura, Toshihiro Sawai, Rika Fujimaru, Yuko Fujii, Akihiko Shirasu, Hyogo Nakakura, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) includes hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This study examined the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with TMA classified according to etiology. METHODS: The survey evaluated 258 Japanese pediatric patients diagnosed with TMA between 2012 and 2015. RESULTS: The primary diseases responsible for TMA were categorized as TTP (15 cases), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-associated HUS (STEC-HUS) (166 cases), atypical HUS (aHUS) (40 cases), and secondary TMA (27 cases)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Shannon B Donnola, Connie M Piccone, Lan Lu, Joshua Batesole, Jane Little, Katherine M Dell, Chris A Flask
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in over one-third of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and can progress to end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, current clinical assessments of kidney function are insensitive to early-stage CKD. Previous studies have shown that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can sensitively detect regional renal microstructural changes associated with early-stage CKD. However, previous MRI studies in patients with SCD have been largely limited to the detection of renal iron deposition assessed by T2 * relaxometry...
January 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Júlia Dauernheimer Machado, Eduardo Guimarães Camargo, Roberta Boff, Laís da Silva Rodrigues, Joíza Lins Camargo, Ariana Aguiar Soares, Sandra Pinho Silveiro
AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of creatinine and cystatin C (cysC) equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and healthy adults. METHODS: Case-control study including 84 patients with type 2 DM and 100 healthy adults with measured GFR (mGFR)≥60mL/min/1.73m2. GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA and estimated (eGFR) by the following equations using creatinine, cysC or both markers: Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Caucasian Asian Pediatrics and Adults (CAPA), CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C (CKDEPI-CC), and CKD-EPI cystatin C (CKDEPIcysC)...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Eman A Elghoroury, Fatina I Fadel, Manal F Elshamaa, Dina Kandil, Doaa M Salah, Marwa M El-Sonbaty, Hebatallah Farouk, Mona Raafat, Soha Nasr
BACKGROUND: Klotho G-395-A gene polymorphism may impact children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated the relevance of Klotho G-395-A on ESRD development and progression, and its relationship with evolution of cardiovascular complications in pediatric dialysis patients. METHODS: Fifty-five children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and seventy healthy children were genotyped for Klotho G-395A. RESULTS: Incidence of GA/AA genotypes and A allele were higher in ESRD patients compared with controls (54...
January 8, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Moumouni Garba, Zeinabou Maiga Moussa Tondi, Hassan Diongoule, Samaila Aboubacar, Abdou Ide, Nadège Ruddy Biyao-Nelson, Illiassou Soumaila, Soumana Alido
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia is the most common hereditary hemopathy in the world. It is a disease that attacks all the systems of the organism. The kidneys are among the most sensitive organs of this disease. The main objective of this study is to detect sickle cell nephropathy in patients followed at the National Reference Center for Sickle Cell Disease in Niamey. METHODS: It is a prospective study carried out over a period of one year (January to December 2016)...
January 5, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
C Williams, K Borges, T Banh, J Vasilevska-Ristovska, R Chanchlani, V L Ng, A I Dipchand, M Solomon, D Hebert, S J Kim, B C Astor, R S Parekh
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its impact on chronic kidney disease (CKD) following pediatric non-kidney solid organ transplantation is unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence of AKI and CKD and examine their relationship among children who received a heart, lung, liver or multi-organ transplant at the Hospital for Sick Children between 2002 and 2011. AKI was assessed in the first year post-transplant. Among 303 children, perioperative AKI (within the first week) occurred in 67% of children, and AKI after the first week occurred in 36%, with the highest incidence among lung and multi-organ recipients...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Felipe Lozano-Kasten, Erick Sierra-Diaz, Alfredo de Jesus Celis-de la Rosa, María Margarita Soto Gutiérrez, Alejandro Aarón Peregrina Lucano
The occurrence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) of unknown etiology in autochthonous child populations residing along the Lake Chapala lakeshore is endemic (Jalisco, México). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population and to measure the glomerular filtration rate in children with two positive albuminuria tests. Urinary albumin was measured in 394 children. Subjects with two or more positive albuminuria test donated blood samples for the determination of serum biomarkers...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
2018: Nephron
Ellen R Brooks, Shannon Haymond, Alfred Rademaker, Christopher Pierce, Irene Helenowski, Rod Passman, Faye Vicente, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Craig B Langman
BACKGROUND: In pediatric chronic kidney disease (pCKD), traditional factors (proteinuria, etiology, and race) do not fully explain disease progression. The levels of methylated arginine derivatives (MADs: asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, respectively) rise in CKD and increase with CKD progression. The impact of MADs on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline has not been examined in pCKD. The aim of this study was to examine the additive impact of baseline (BL) levels of MADs on directly measured GFR (mGFR) decline per year (ml/min/1...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marie Patrice Halle, Carine Tsou Lapsap, Esther Barla, Hermine Fouda, Hilaire Djantio, Beatrice Kaptue Moudze, Christophe Adjahoung Akazong, Eugene Belley Priso
BACKGROUND: Pediatric nephrology is challenging in developing countries and data on the burden of kidney disease in children is difficult to estimate due to absence of renal registries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in Cameroon. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 103 medical records of children from 0 to 17 years with renal failure admitted in the Pediatric ward of the Douala General Hospital from 2004 to 2013...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Jing Tian, Ling Niu, Xinjiang An
One of the common factors for the premature death in children is advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most often cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the reason for mortality. The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. The present review is focused on the current views of the cardiovascular risks during CKD in pediatric patients. Variable data sources for the latest literature collection were explored which mainly included PubMed and Google Scholar...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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