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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275072/strategies-for-optimizing-the-diagnostic-predictive-value-of-clostridium-difficile-molecular-diagnostics
#1
Larry K Kociolek
Because nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) do not distinguish Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic C. difficile carriage, the diagnostic predictive value of NAATs is limited when used in patients with low probability of CDI. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Truong et al. report significant reductions in hospital-onset CDI and oral vancomycin utilization at their institution following implementation of a novel intervention that leveraged their clinical bioinformatics resources to prevent C...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264733/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-among-children-in-brazil-prior-to-the-introduction-of-the-10-valent-conjugate-vaccine-a-culture-and-pcr-based-survey
#2
H G Rodrigues, T C A Pinto, R R Barros, L M Teixeira, F P G Neves
We performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium...
March 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124958/-atypical-serological-profiles-in-hepatitis-b-infections-investigation-of-s-gene-mutations-in-cases-with-concurrently-positive-for-hbsag-and-anti-hbs
#3
Neriman Aydın, Sevin Kırdar, Nilgül Uzun, Mete Eyigör, Murat Sayan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes different clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to fulminant or chronic hepatitis. Serological tests are widely used for the diagnosis of HBV infections to detect viral markers. However, facing with atypical serological profiles in some patients leads to problems in interpreting of the results and management of the patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the atypical serologic profiles seen in patients screened for HBV infection and the S gene mutations in patients with concurrent positivity of HBsAg and anti-HBs...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112338/-strategies-to-protect-the-newborn-and-infants-under-6-months-of-age-against-pertussis-statement-of-the-advisory-committee-for-immunizations-of-the-chilean-infectious-diseases-society
#4
Marcela Potin, Alberto Fica, Liliana Véliz, Gabriela Moreno, Jan Wilhelm, Jaime Cerda
In recent years there have been Pertussis outbreaks not seen in the last 50 years affecting adults, adolescents and children and causing deaths in young unvaccinated infants. In Chile an outbreak of Pertussis started in year 2011, leaving 16 infants less than 3 months dead during this year, twice the number seen in a non epidemic year. These children were infected before receiving the programmatic vaccines indicated at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, usually from close contacts, especially their mothers. Pertussis control has not been possible for several reasons, such as limited immunity duration of available vaccines and their poor impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, situation that keeps the agent's circulation and transmission, condition often asymptomatic or unrecognized...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099884/characterization-of-human-and-staphylococcus-aureus-proteins-in-respiratory-mucosa-by-in-vivo-and-immunoproteomics
#5
Frank Schmidt, Tanja Meyer, Nandakumar Sundaramoorthy, Stephan Michalik, Kristin Surmann, Maren Depke, Vishnu Dhople, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Gabriele Holtappels, Nan Zhang, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Uwe Völker
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic bacterium which can be found as a commensal in the nares of about 50% of the human population. Besides asymptomatic carriage, S. aureus has also been found to colonize nasal polyps, a subform of chronic rhinosinusitis, in 60 to 100% of cases, and even reside intracellularly in nasal polyp tissue. The aim of this study was to shed light on the behavior of S. aureus in the human airways by analyzing S. aureus-specific proteins in nasal polyp tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and to characterize the immunogenic potential of the identified (mainly secreted) proteins...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096418/multi-institute-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistance-reveals-remarkable-diversity-unexplained-mechanisms-and-limited-clonal-outbreaks
#6
Gustavo C Cerqueira, Ashlee M Earl, Christoph M Ernst, Yonatan H Grad, John P Dekker, Michael Feldgarden, Sinéad B Chapman, João L Reis-Cunha, Terrance P Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Mary L Delaney, Diane Kim, Ellena M Peterson, Thomas F O'Brien, Mary Jane Ferraro, David C Hooper, Susan S Huang, James E Kirby, Andrew B Onderdonk, Bruce W Birren, Deborah T Hung, Lisa A Cosimi, Jennifer R Wortman, Cheryl I Murphy, William P Hanage
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087170/clostridium-difficile-rates-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-hospitalized-patients-using-nucleic-acid-testing
#7
Cynthia Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Rajiv Gaur, Victoria Emma Anikst, Ikuko Komo, Colleen Watters, Erin McCalley, Carole Kulik, David Pickham, Nancy J Lee, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: The Clostridium difficile rate in symptomatic patients represents both those with C. difficile infection (CDI) and those with colonization. To predict the extent of CDI overdiagnosis, we compared the asymptomatic colonization rate to the symptomatic positivity rate in hospitalized patients using nucleic acid testing. METHODS: Between July 2014 and April 2015, formed stool samples were collected from asymptomatic patients after admission to 3 hospital wards at the Stanford Hospital...
April 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078087/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-uncommon-but-life-threatening-complication
#8
Francesco Piccolo, Anna Sze Tai, Hooi Ee, Siobhain Mulrennan, Scott Bell, Gerard Ryan
Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have significant rates of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage and are frequently exposed to risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite this, the rate of reported CDI in CF is low. We describe three cases of near fatal CDI in adults with CF and review the literature regarding presentation, management, and recurrence prevention. Early recognition is important as the clinical presentation may be atypical and the illness can be severe and even life-threatening...
January 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062125/propensity-of-pneumococcal-carriage-serotypes-to-infect-the-lower-airways-of-children-with-chronic-endobronchial-infections
#9
Kim M Hare, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Susan Pizzutto, Helen L Petsky, Gabrielle B McCallum, Amanda J Leach
BACKGROUND: Chronic endobronchial infections in children are responsible for a high disease burden. Streptococcus pneumoniae is frequently isolated; however, few publications have described serotypes associated with non-invasive lower airway infection. METHODS: Paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected from children undergoing bronchoscopy for chronic cough. NP swabs were also collected from asymptomatic children in otitis media surveillance studies (controls)...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043222/public-health-action-following-an-outbreak-of-toxigenic-cutaneous-diphtheria-in-an-auckland-refugee-resettlement-centre
#10
Gary E Reynolds, Helen Saunders, Angela Matson, Fiona O'Kane, Sally A Roberts, Salvin K Singh, Lesley M Voss, Tomasz Kiedrzynski
Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018582/carriage-of-esbl-ampc-producing-or-ciprofloxacin-non-susceptible-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-in-healthy-people-in-norway
#11
Charlotte R Ulstad, Margrete Solheim, Sophie Berg, Morten Lindbæk, Ulf R Dahle, Astrid L Wester
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic carriage has been recognised as an important risk factor for infection caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. A 14% global prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) carriage was recently reported, but large intra-and interregional variations were observed. We investigated the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-, AmpC-producing and ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in healthy Norwegians. METHODS: Rectal samples were obtained from 284 volunteers, together with demographic data and information on recent travel history...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003547/detection-of-prions-in-the-plasma-of-presymptomatic-and-symptomatic-patients-with-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#12
Daisy Bougard, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Maxime Bélondrade, Vincent Béringue, Christiane Segarra, Hervé Fleury, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Charly Mayran, Simon Nicot, Alison Green, Arlette Welaratne, David Narbey, Chantal Fournier-Wirth, Richard Knight, Robert Will, Pierre Tiberghien, Stéphane Haïk, Joliette Coste
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a human prion disease resulting from the consumption of meat products contaminated by the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Evidence supporting the presence of a population of silent carriers that can potentially transmit the disease through blood transfusion is increasing. The development of a blood-screening assay for both symptomatic vCJD patients and asymptomatic carriers is urgently required. We show that a diagnostic assay combining plasminogen-bead capture and protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technologies consistently detected minute amounts of abnormal prion protein from French and British vCJD cases in the required femtomolar range...
December 21, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003042/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-infection-in-finland-implications-for-immunisation-policy
#13
Tanja Karvonen, Kari Auranen, Markku Kuusi, Tuija Leino
OBJECTIVES: We describe the current epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections in Finland. We estimate the total incidence of chronic hepatitis B following from the current incidence of acute infections and the influx of chronic carriers of hepatitis B associated with net immigration. We evaluate the incidence of hepatitis B infections preventable by a universal vaccination programme among infants. METHODS: We analysed hepatitis B cases reported to the National Infectious Disease Register during 2004-2012 and used pre-developed methods to adjust for acute asymptomatic infections...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
March 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#15
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
March 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876910/low-sensitivity-of-the-immunocardstat-%C3%A2-crypto-giardia-rapid-assay-test-for-the-detection-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-in-fecal-samples-from-children-living-in-libreville-central-africa
#16
M K Bouyou-Akotet, M Owono-Medang, M N Moussavou-Boussougou, M Mabika Mamfoumbi, R Mintsa-Nguema, D P Mawili-Mboumba, M Kombila
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are now recognized as neglected tropical parasitic diseases. The risk of their dissemination  in developing countries, such as Gabon, is increasing, due to urban crowding and poor sanitation. Accurate, simple and rapid diagnosis tools are thus necessary for the estimation of their real burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of the ImmunocardSTAT(®)Crypto/Giardia Rapid Assay test for the detection of Cryptosporidium (C.) spp. and Giardia (G.) duodenalis in children living in Libreville, Gabon...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873028/mcr-modern-colistin-resistance
#17
REVIEW
I Caniaux, A van Belkum, G Zambardi, L Poirel, M F Gros
Recently, plasmid-mediated and, therefore, transferable bacterial polymyxin resistance was discovered in strains from both humans and animals. Such a trait may widely spread geographically, while simultaneously crossing microbial species barriers. This may ultimately render the "last resort" polymyxin antibiotics therapeutically useless. Colistin is currently used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative carbapenemase producers and colistin resistance may lead to practical pan-antibiotic resistance. We here analyzed the medical and diagnostic consequences of (emerging) colistin resistance and propose pathways toward adequate diagnostics for timely detection of both asymptomatic carriage and infection...
March 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868255/regulatory-gene-mutation-a-driving-force-behind-group-a-streptococcus-strain-and-serotype-specific-variation
#18
REVIEW
Poulomee Sarkar, Paul Sumby
Data from multiple bacterial pathogens are consistent with regulator-encoding genes having higher mutation frequencies than the genome average. Such mutations drive both strain- and type- (e.g., serotype, haplotype) specific phenotypic heterogeneity, and may challenge public health due to the potential of variants to circumvent established treatment and/or preventative regimes. Here, using the human bacterial pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS; S. pyogenes) as a model organism, we review the types and regulatory-, phenotypic-, and disease-specific consequences of naturally occurring regulatory gene mutations...
February 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865765/assessing-gametocyte-carriage-in-treated-asymptomatic-falciparum-carriers-in-africa
#19
LETTER
Walter R J Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856272/comparative-evaluation-of-aggressiveness-traits-in-staphylococcal-strains-from-severe-infections-versus-nasopharyngeal-carriage
#20
Oana Săndulescu, Coralia Bleotu, Lilia Matei, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Alexandru Rafila, Daniel Pirici, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Mihaela Dorobăţ, Alina Cristina Neguţ, Dan Oţelea, Ioana Berciu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Irina Codiţă, Petre Iacob Calistru, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
Despite their commensal status, staphylococci can become problematic pathogens expressing multiple and redundant virulence factors. This study aimed to evaluate aggressiveness markers comparatively in staphylococcal strains isolated from severe infections versus asymptomatic carriage in order to identify clinically relevant bacterial traits that could easily be detected in clinical practice and could be suggestive for particular host-pathogen interactions such as cyto-adhesion or biofilm formation, ultimately orienting the clinical decision-making process...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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