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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#2
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876910/low-sensitivity-of-the-immunocardstat-%C3%A2-crypto-giardia-rapid-assay-test-for-the-detection-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-in-fecal-samples-from-children-living-in-libreville-central-africa
#3
M K Bouyou-Akotet, M Owono-Medang, M N Moussavou-Boussougou, M Mabika Mamfoumbi, R Mintsa-Nguema, D P Mawili-Mboumba, M Kombila
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are now recognized as neglected tropical parasitic diseases. The risk of their dissemination  in developing countries, such as Gabon, is increasing, due to urban crowding and poor sanitation. Accurate, simple and rapid diagnosis tools are thus necessary for the estimation of their real burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of the ImmunocardSTAT(®)Crypto/Giardia Rapid Assay test for the detection of Cryptosporidium (C.) spp. and Giardia (G.) duodenalis in children living in Libreville, Gabon...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873028/mcr-modern-colistin-resistance
#4
REVIEW
I Caniaux, A van Belkum, G Zambardi, L Poirel, M F Gros
Recently, plasmid-mediated and, therefore, transferable bacterial polymyxin resistance was discovered in strains from both humans and animals. Such a trait may widely spread geographically, while simultaneously crossing microbial species barriers. This may ultimately render the "last resort" polymyxin antibiotics therapeutically useless. Colistin is currently used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative carbapenemase producers and colistin resistance may lead to practical pan-antibiotic resistance. We here analyzed the medical and diagnostic consequences of (emerging) colistin resistance and propose pathways toward adequate diagnostics for timely detection of both asymptomatic carriage and infection...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868255/regulatory-gene-mutation-a-driving-force-behind-group-a-streptococcus-strain-and-serotype-specific-variation
#5
Poulomee Sarkar, Paul Sumby
Data from multiple bacterial pathogens are consistent with regulator-encoding genes having higher mutation frequencies than the genome average. Such mutations drive both strain- and type- (e.g. serotype, haplotype) specific phenotypic heterogeneity, and may challenge public health due to the potential of variants to circumvent established treatment and/or preventative regimes. Here, using the human bacterial pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS; S. pyogenes) as a model organism, we review the types and regulatory-, phenotypic-, and disease-specific consequences of naturally occurring regulatory gene mutations...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865765/assessing-gametocyte-carriage-in-treated-asymptomatic-falciparum-carriers-in-africa
#6
Walter R J Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856272/comparative-evaluation-of-aggressiveness-traits-in-staphylococcal-strains-from-severe-infections-versus-nasopharyngeal-carriage
#7
Oana Săndulescu, Coralia Bleotu, Lilia Matei, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Alexandru Rafila, Daniel Pirici, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Mihaela Dorobăţ, Alina Cristina Neguţ, Dan Oţelea, Ioana Berciu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Irina Codiţă, Petre Iacob Calistru, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
Despite their commensal status, staphylococci can become problematic pathogens expressing multiple and redundant virulence factors. This study aimed to evaluate aggressiveness markers comparatively in staphylococcal strains isolated from severe infections versus asymptomatic carriage in order to identify clinically relevant bacterial traits that could easily be detected in clinical practice and could be suggestive for particular host-pathogen interactions such as cyto-adhesion or biofilm formation, ultimately orienting the clinical decision-making process...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847374/multiplex-urinary-antigen-detection-for-13-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-improves-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-south-african-hiv-infected-adults
#8
Werner C Albrich, Michael W Pride, Shabir A Madhi, Jan Callahan, Peter V Adrian, Roger French, Nadia van Niekerk, Shite Sebastian, Victor Souza, Jean-Noel Telles, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Kathrin U Jansen, Keith P Klugman
BACKGROUND: A serotype-specific urinary antigen detection assay (UAD) for 13 serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently reported as a useful diagnostic tool for pneumococcal pneumonia. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the UAD in HIV-infected South African adults. METHODS: Urine specimens from a well-defined cohort of HIV-infected South African adults with pneumonia were evaluated retrospectively in the UAD assay. Pneumonia was considered pneumococcal if either sputum Gram stain, sputum culture, blood culture or immunochromatographic (ICT) BinaxNow® S...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846818/asymptomatic-and-yet-c-difficile-toxin-positive-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-among-geriatric-in-patients
#9
Klaus Nissle, Daniel Kopf, Alexander Rösler
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the most frequent cause of diarrhoea in hospitals. Geriatric patients are more often affected by the condition, by a relapse and complications. Therefore, a crucial question is how often colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs in elderly patients without diarrhoea and whether there is a "risk pattern" of colonized patients that can be defined by geriatric assessment. Furthermore, the probability for those asymptomatic carriers to develop a symptomatic infection over time has not been sufficiently explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825738/the-gametocytocidal-efficacy-of-different-single-doses-of-primaquine-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers-in-the-gambia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Joseph Okebe, Teun Bousema, Muna Affara, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Edgard Dabira, Abdoulaye Gaye, Frank Sanya-Isijola, Henry Badji, Simon Correa, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Chris Drakeley, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic low-density gametocyte carriers represent the majority of malaria-infected individuals. However, the impact of recommended treatment with single low dose of primaquine and an artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce transmission in this group is unknown. METHODS: This was a four-arm, open label, randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) alone or combined with single dose of primaquine (PQ) at 0...
October 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814682/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-meningococcal-carriage-in-southern-ethiopia-prior-to-implementation-of-menafrivac-a-conjugate-vaccine
#11
Guro K Bårnes, Paul A Kristiansen, Demissew Beyene, Bereket Workalemahu, Paulos Fissiha, Behailu Merdekios, Jon Bohlin, Marie-Pierre Préziosi, Abraham Aseffa, Dominique A Caugant
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis colonizes humans and transmits mainly by asymptomatic carriage. We sought to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in Ethiopia prior to the introduction of MenAfriVac, a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional meningococcal carriage study was conducted in Arba Minch, southern Ethiopia. A total of 7479 oropharyngeal samples were collected from 1 to 29 year old volunteers, between March and October, 2014...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809907/high-prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocyte-infections-in-school-age-children-using-molecular-detection-patterns-and-predictors-of-risk-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-southern-malawi
#12
Jenna E Coalson, Jenny A Walldorf, Lauren M Cohee, Miriam D Ismail, Don Mathanga, Regina Joice Cordy, Matthias Marti, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Miriam K Laufer, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: In endemic areas, many people experience asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, particularly older children and adults, but their transmission contribution is unknown. Though not the exclusive determinant of infectiousness, transmission from humans to mosquitoes requires blood meals containing gametocytes. Gametocytes often occur at submicroscopic densities, challenging measurement in human populations. More sensitive molecular techniques allow better characterization of gametocyte epidemiologic patterns...
November 4, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768015/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-children
#13
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767004/household-transmission-of-clostridium-difficile-to-family-members-and-domestic-pets
#14
Vivian G Loo, Paul Brassard, Mark A Miller
OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of Clostridium difficile transmission from index cases with C. difficile infection (CDI) to their household contacts and domestic pets. DESIGN A prospective study from April 2011 to June 2013. SETTING Patients with CDI from Canadian tertiary care centers. PARTICIPANTS Patients with CDI, their household human contacts, and pets. METHODS Epidemiologic information and stool or rectal swabs were collected from participants at enrollment and monthly for up to 4 months. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on C...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755271/the-use-and-efficacy-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-clostridium-difficile-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Clostridium difficile (CD) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness ranging from asymptomatic carriage to toxic megacolon and death. The prevalence of CD infection is increasing in both hospitalized and community-based inflammatory bowel disease populations. Standard antibiotic therapy fails to cure or prevent recurrence in more than 50% of patients, thus increasing the need for alternative therapies. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has received renewed attention as a therapy for refractory or recurrent CD infection...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753065/chronic-norovirus-infection-and-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#16
Jeremy Woodward, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Dinakantha Kumararatne
Chronic infection with Norovirus is emerging as a significant risk for patients with immunodeficiency - either primary or secondary to therapeutic immunosuppression. Patients with primary immunodeficiency present a range of pathological responses to Norovirus infection. Asymptomatic infections occur and differentiating viral carriage or prolonged viral shedding after self-limiting infection from infection causing protracted diarrhoea can be challenging due to relatively mild pathological changes that may mimic other causes of diarrhoea in such patients (for instance pathogenic bacteria or parasites or graft-versus-host disease)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724855/dna-based-culture-independent-analysis-detects-the-presence-of-group-a-streptococcus-in-throat-samples-from-healthy-adults-in-japan
#17
Tejaswini Kulkarni, Chihiro Aikawa, Takashi Nozawa, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Ichiro Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes a range of mild to severe infections in humans. It can also colonize healthy persons asymptomatically. Therefore, it is important to study GAS carriage in healthy populations, as carriage of it might lead to subsequent disease manifestation, clonal spread in the community, and/or diversification of the organism. Throat swab culture is the gold standard method for GAS detection. Advanced culture-independent methods provide rapid and efficient detection of microorganisms directly from clinical samples...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693000/high-prevalence-of-nontoxigenic-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-hospitalized-and-non-hospitalized-individuals-in-rural-ghana
#18
Iryna Janssen, Paul Cooper, Katrin Gunka, Maja Rupnik, Daniela Wetzel, Ortrud Zimmermann, Uwe Groß
Since data about Clostridium difficile infection in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, we determined its epidemiology and risk factors in a cross-sectional study in Eikwe, a rural community in Ghana. We tested stool samples from 176 hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and from 131 asymptomatic non-hospitalized individuals for C. difficile and some other enteric pathogens. The overall prevalence rate of C. difficile was 4.9% with ribotype 084 being predominant. With 75% of the isolates, a high rate of nontoxigenic strains was present in symptomatic patients, most of whom had no other identified enteric pathogens...
December 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682611/molecular-evidence-of-high-rates-of-asymptomatic-p-vivax-infection-and-very-low-p-falciparum-malaria-in-botswana
#19
Thato Motshoge, Grace K Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, John Read, Elias Peloewetse, Mazhani Loeto, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies S Ntebele, Simon Chihanga, Mpho Motlaleng, Anderson Chinorumba, Moses Vurayai, Jeffrey M Pernica, Giacomo M Paganotti, Isaac K Quaye
BACKGROUND: Botswana is one of eight SADC countries targeting malaria elimination by 2018. Through spirited upscaling of control activities and passive surveillance, significant reductions in case incidence of Plasmodium falciparum (0.96 - 0.01) was achieved between 2008 and 2012. As part of the elimination campaign, active detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium species by a highly sensitive method was deemed necessary. This study was carried out to determine asymptomatic Plasmodium species carriage by nested PCR in the country, in 2012...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658666/point-of-care-universal-screening-for-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cluster-randomized-cross-over-trial
#20
P J Wu, D Jeyaratnam, O Tosas, B S Cooper, G L French
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is frequently endemic in healthcare settings and may be transmitted by person-to-person spread. Asymptomatic MRSA carriers are potential, unsuspected sources for transmission and some of them may be identified by admission screening. AIM: To assess whether rapid point-of-care screening (POCS) for MRSA at hospital admission may be associated with a reduction in MRSA acquisition rates when compared with slower laboratory-based methods...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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