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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684543/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-carriage-and-association-of-its-pathogenicity-to-prevalent-toxic-genes
#1
Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
BACKGROUND: There are reports of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains from asymptomatic carriers are increasing source of transmission. Asymptomatic carriage transmission in the hospital or community settings might have changed over the years. Therefore, we initiated a prospective epidemiological study to define the risk factors and pathogenicity of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage. METHODS: Stools sample from 188 subjects with diarrhoea due to C. difficile toxin and colonization without diarrhoea was subjected to routine microbial culture, molecular characterization for identification of toxin genes and mechanisms of resistance in C...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673213/a-review-of-current-research-and-knowledge-gaps-in-the-epidemiology-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-spp-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#2
REVIEW
Anil K Persad, Jeffrey LeJeune
Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643194/quantitative-thresholds-enable-accurate-identification-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-the-luminex-xtag-gi-pathogen-panel
#3
Sixto M Leal, Elena B Popowitch, Kara J Levinson, Teny M John, Bethany Lehman, Maria Bueno Rios, Peter H Gilligan, Melissa B Miller
Clostridium difficile colonizes the gastrointestinal tract resulting in either asymptomatic carriage or a spectrum of diarrheal illness. If clinical suspicion for C. difficile is low, stool samples are often submitted for analysis by multiplex molecular assays capable of detecting multiple GI pathogens and some institutions do not report this organism due to concerns for high false positive rates. Since clinical disease correlates with organism burden and molecular assays yield quantitative data, we hypothesized that numerical cutoffs could be utilized to improve the specificity of the Luminex xTAG GI pathogen panel (GPP) for C...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605189/outbreak-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-investigations-using-agar-settle-plates-detects-perineal-shedding-from-a-healthcare-worker
#4
Nikunj Mahida, Katie Prescott, Carl Yates, Fay Spencer, Vivienne Weston, Tim Boswell
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of group A streptococcus (GAS) infections can occur in healthcare settings. Transmission to patients is sometimes linked to colonised healthcare workers and/or a contaminated environment. AIM: This report describes the investigation and control of an outbreak of healthcare-associated GAS on an elderly care medical ward, over six months. METHODS: Four patients developed septicaemia due to GAS infection without a clinically obvious site of infection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593684/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-molecular-characteristics-and-epidemiology
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588913/dynamics-of-colonization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-in-healthy-peruvian-children
#6
Kristin N Nelson, Carlos G Grijalva, Sopio Chochua, Paulina A Hawkins, Ana I Gil, Claudio F Lanata, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Background: Although asymptomatic carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Spn ) is common, acquisition of the bacteria is the first step in disease pathogenesis. We examined the effect of introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine on Spn carriage patterns in a cohort of Peruvian children. Methods: We used data from a prospective cohort study that collected monthly nasopharyngeal samples from children under 3 years of age. Spn isolates were serotyped using Quellung reactions, and bacterial density was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565712/impact-of-meningococcal-vaccination-on-carriage-and-disease-transmission-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Paul Balmer, Cynthia Burman, Lidia Serra, Laura J York
Colonization of the human nasopharyngeal tract by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is usually asymptomatic, but life-threatening meningococcal disease with a clinical presentation of meningitis, septicemia, or more rarely, gastrointestinal symptoms, can develop. Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) can be fatal within 24 hours, but IMD is vaccine-preventable. Vaccines used to protect against IMD caused by 5 of the 6 most common serogroups (A, B, C, W, and Y) may also influence carriage prevalence in vaccinated individuals...
March 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558985/high-proportions-of-asymptomatic-and-submicroscopic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-a-peri-urban-area-of-low-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#8
Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kuehn, Arthur J M Castro, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Erick F G Figueiredo, Larissa W Brasil, Marcelo A M Brito, Vanderson S Sampaio, Quique Bassat, Ingrid Felger, Wanderli P Tadei, Wuelton M Monteiro, Ivo Mueller, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies conducted in Latin America have shown a high proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic malarial infections. Considering efforts aiming at regional elimination, it is important to investigate the role of this asymptomatic reservoir in malaria transmission in peri-urban areas. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and gametocyte burden on symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in the Brazilian Amazon. RESULTS: Two cross-sectional household surveys (CS) were conducted including all inhabitants in a peri-urban area of Manaus, western Amazonas State, Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555702/genotypic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-the-o-linked-protein-glycosylation-system-reveals-high-glycan-diversity-in-paired-meningococcal-carriage-isolates
#9
Bente Børud, Guro K Bårnes, Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Elisabeth Fritzsønn, Dominique A Caugant
Species within the genus Neisseria display significant glycan diversity associated with the O -linked protein glycosylation ( pgl ) systems due to phase variation, polymorphic genes and gene content. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the pgl genotype and glycosylation phenotype in meningococcal isolates and the changes occurring during short-term asymptomatic carriage. Paired meningococcal isolates derived from 50 asymptomatic meningococcal carriers, taken about two months apart, were analyzed with whole genome sequencing...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554121/group-a-streptococcus-pharyngitis-and-pharyngeal-carriage-a-meta-analysis
#10
Jane Oliver, Erandi Malliya Wadu, Nevil Pierse, Nicole J Moreland, Deborah A Williamson, Michael G Baker
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic treatment of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is important in acute rheumatic fever (ARF) prevention, however clinical guidelines for prescription vary. GAS carriers with acute viral infections may receive antibiotics unnecessarily. This review assessed the prevalence of GAS pharyngitis and carriage in different settings. METHODS: A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Prevalence estimates for GAS+ve pharyngitis, serologically-confirmed GAS pharyngitis and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage were generated...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544966/plasmodium-gametocytes-in-field-studies-do-we-measure-commitment-to-transmission-or-detectability
#11
REVIEW
Cristian Koepfli, Guiyun Yan
The proportion of Plasmodium spp. infections carrying gametocytes, and gametocyte densities, are often reported as surrogate markers for transmission potential. It remains unclear whether parasites under natural conditions adjust commitment to transmission depending on external factors. Population-based surveys comprising mostly asymptomatic low-density infections are always impacted by the sensitivity of the assays used to diagnose infections and detect gametocytes. Asexual parasite density is an important predictor for the probability of detecting gametocytes, and in many cases it can explain patterns in gametocyte carriage without the need for an adjustment of the gametocyte conversion rate...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537367/irf4-haploinsufficiency-in-a-family-with-whipple-s-disease
#12
Antoine Guérin, Gaspard Kerner, Nico Marr, Janet G Markle, Florence Fenollar, Natalie Wong, Sabri Boughorbel, Danielle T Avery, Cindy S Ma, Salim Bougarn, Matthieu Bouaziz, Vivien Beziat, Erika Della Mina, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Tomi Lazarovt, Lisa Worley, Tina Nguyen, Etienne Patin, Caroline Deswarte, Rubén Martinez-Barricarte, Soraya Boucherit, Xavier Ayral, Sophie Edouard, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Vimel Rattina, Benedetta Bigio, Guillaume Vogt, Frédéric Geissmann, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Damien Chaussabel, Stuart G Tangye, Didier Raoult, Laurent Abel, Jacinta Bustamante, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Most humans are exposed to Tropheryma whipplei (Tw). Whipple's disease (WD) strikes only a small minority of individuals infected with Tw (<0.01%), whereas asymptomatic chronic carriage is more common (<25%). We studied a multiplex kindred, containing four WD patients and five healthy Tw chronic carriers. We hypothesized that WD displays autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance. We identified a single very rare non-synonymous mutation in the four patients: the private R98W variant of IRF4, a transcription factor involved in immunity...
March 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515909/implications-of-asymptomatic-carriers-for-infectious-disease-transmission-and-control
#13
Rebecca H Chisholm, Patricia T Campbell, Yue Wu, Steven Y C Tong, Jodie McVernon, Nicholas Geard
For infectious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae , some hosts may carry the pathogen and transmit it to others, yet display no symptoms themselves. These asymptomatic carriers contribute to the spread of disease but go largely undetected and can therefore undermine efforts to control transmission. Understanding the natural history of carriage and its relationship to disease is important for the design of effective interventions to control transmission. Mathematical models of infectious diseases are frequently used to inform decisions about control and should therefore accurately capture the role played by asymptomatic carriers...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501618/candida-innate-immunity-at-the-mucosa
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan P Richardson, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Julian R Naglik
The tremendous diversity in microbial species that colonise the mucosal surfaces of the human body is only now beginning to be fully appreciated. Distinguishing between the behaviour of commensal microbes and harmful pathogens that reside at mucosal sites in the body is a complex, and exquisitely fine-tuned process central to mucosal health. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans is frequently isolated from mucosal surfaces with an asymptomatic carriage rate of approximately 60% in the human population. While normally a benign member of the microbiota, overgrowth of C...
February 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487033/nasal-diphtheria-chronic-carriage-caused-by-nontoxigenic-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#15
Koh Okamoto, Shuji Hatakeyama, Chise Sugita, Kenichi Ogura, Reiko Ueda, Hiroko Kouda, Junko Nakata
Toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae cause the majority of respiratory diphtheria cases. However, nontoxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae can also cause diseases, and have become increasingly common. Infection that is limited to the anterior nares (nasal diphtheria) is a well-described but rare condition, even for toxigenic C. diphtheriae. We report a case involving chronic carriage of nasal diphtheria caused by nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae, as well as a review of other reported nontoxigenic C...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474439/the-zoonotic-potential-of-clostridium-difficile-from-small-companion-animals-and-their-owners
#16
Denise Rabold, Werner Espelage, Muna Abu Sin, Tim Eckmanns, Alexander Schneeberg, Heinrich Neubauer, Nadine Möbius, Katja Hille, Lothar H Wieler, Christian Seyboldt, Antina Lübke-Becker
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. METHODS: In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465341/microbe-profile-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-an-old-foe-always-ready-to-seize-opportunity
#17
Paul A Hoskisson
Diphtheria AB toxin mode of action. The diphtheria AB exotoxin consists of two polypeptide chains - A and B which are linked by a disulfide bridge. The B chain binds to the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor on eukaryotic cells and is endocytosed. Acidification of the endosome results in a conformational change to the A and B chains and breaking of the disulphide bridge. The B chain remains in the endosome, but the A chain is translocated to the cytoplasm where it ADP-ribosylates host eEF-2, blocking protein synthesis which leads to cell death...
February 21, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463288/reactive-community-based-self-administered-treatment-against-residual-malaria-transmission-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Joseph Okebe, Joan Muela Ribera, Julie Balen, Fatou Jaiteh, Yoriko Masunaga, Davis Nwakanma, John Bradley, Shunmay Yeung, Koen Peeters Grietens, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Systematic treatment of all individuals living in the same compound of a clinical malaria case may clear asymptomatic infections and possibly reduce malaria transmission, where this is focal. High and sustained coverage is extremely important and requires active community engagement. This study explores a community-based approach to treating malaria case contacts. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a cluster-randomized trial to determine whether, in low-transmission areas, treating individuals living in the same compound of a clinical malaria case with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine can reduce parasite carriage and thus residual malaria transmission...
February 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439654/prospective-study-on-human-fecal-carriage-of-enterobacteriaceae-possessing-mcr-1-and-mcr-2-genes-in-a-regional-hospital-in-hong-kong
#19
Wai-Sing Chan, Chun-Hang Au, Dona N Ho, Tsun-Leung Chan, Edmond Shiu-Kwan Ma, Bone Siu-Fai Tang
BACKGROUND: Human fecal carriage of Enterobacteriaceae possessing mobilized colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 and mcr-2) remains obscure in Hong Kong. As part of routine surveillance on emerging antibiotic resistance, we conducted a prospective study on this topic in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. METHODS: From October 31 to November 25, 2016, all fecal specimens submitted for routine analysis were included in this surveillance study. These comprised 672 consecutive routine fecal specimens collected from 616 individuals...
February 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397054/the-intestinal-protist-blastocystis-is-not-a-common-member-of-the-healthy-infant-gut-microbiota-in-a-westernized-country-ireland
#20
P D Scanlan, C J Hill, R P Ross, C A Ryan, C Stanton, P D Cotter
Research into the gut microbiota of human infants is necessary in order to better understand how inter-species interactions and ecological succession shape the diversity of the gut microbiota, and in turn, how the specific composition of the gut microbiota impacts on host health both during infancy and in later years. Blastocystis is a ubiquitous intestinal protist that has been linked to a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. However, emerging data show that asymptomatic carriage is common and that Blastocystis is prevalent in the healthy adult gut microbiota...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology
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