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Asymptomatic carriage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716086/dynamics-in-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-among-children-with-asymptomatic-malaria-in-central-ghana
#1
Akua Kyerewaa Botwe, Kwaku Poku Asante, George Adjei, Samuel Assafuah, David Dosoo, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: The determinants of malaria parasite virulence is not entirely known, but the outcome of malaria infection (asymptomatic or symptomatic) has been associated with carriage of distinct parasite genotypes. Alleles considered important for erythrocyte invasion and selected as candidate targets for malaria vaccine development are increasingly being shown to have distinct characteristics in infection outcomes. Any unique/distinct patterns or alleles linked to infection outcome should be reproducible for a given malaria-cohort regardless of location, time or intervention...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713446/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-serotypes-indentified-among-nursing-home-residents-in-comparison-to-the-elderly-and-patients-younger-than-65-years-living-in-domestic-environment
#2
Maja Kolšek-Šušteršič, Andreja Beg Krasnič, Verica Mioč, Metka Paragi, Janez Rifel
INTRODUCTION: In Slovenia, there is little data available on pneumococcal vaccination rates and no data on asymptomatic NPCR and serotypes in the population of nursing home residents in comparison to the elderly living in domestic environment, therefore the goal was to gain these data. METHODS: A cross sectional epidemiological study was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 151 nursing home residents, 150 elderly living in domestic environment, and 38 adults less than 65 years old were collected twice (in two consecutive years)...
September 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693930/the-prevalence-of-rectal-carriage-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-amongst-diabetic-patients-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-taiwan-a-five-year-prospective-study
#3
Yu-Tsung Huang, Ju-Ying Jiang, Meng-Shiuan Hsu, Hsin-Sui Hsu, Chun-Hsing Liao, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common complication among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of rectal carriage and serotype distribution of K. pneumoniae amongst DM patients and their clinical relevance. METHODS: We prospectively collected rectal swabs for K. pneumoniae culture in asymptomatic DM patients from March 2008 to June 2009. Seven capsular serotypes that were commonly associated with PLA were determined by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genotyping...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693636/acquisition-of-clostridium-difficile-colonization-and-infection-after-transfer-from-a-veterans-affairs-hospital-to-an-affiliated-long-term-care-facility
#4
Suresh Ponnada, Dubert M Guerrero, Lucy A Jury, Michelle M Nerandzic, Jennifer L Cadnum, M Jahangir Alam, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic C. difficile are common in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). However, whether C. difficile is frequently acquired in the LTCF versus during acute-care admissions remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that LTCF residents often acquire C. difficile colonization and infection in the LTCF DESIGN This 5-month cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of acquisition of C. difficile colonization and infection in asymptomatic patients transferred from a Veterans Affairs hospital to an affiliated LTCF...
July 11, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687214/severe-respiratory-viral-infections-new-evidence-and-changing-paradigms
#5
REVIEW
James M Walter, Richard G Wunderink
Lower respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of death in the United States. Advances in diagnostic testing have improved our ability to detect pathogens. Viral pathogens are important causal pathogens in immunocompetent patients. As the number of elderly adults and those with chronic medical conditions increases, the burden of viral respiratory infections will increase. Clinicians must be familiar with the characteristics of rhinovirus, human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus...
July 5, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661019/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-equine-nasopharyngeal-and-guttural-pouch-wash-samples
#6
A G Boyle, S C Rankin, L A Duffee, D Morris
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horses...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646969/things-that-could-be-mycoplasma-pneumoniae
#7
Ruben C A de Groot, Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Wendy W J Unger, Annemarie M C van Rossum
M. pneumoniae infection gives rise to a wide variety of manifestations. The pathogenesis of secondary manifestations is not always known. Some depend on the direct invasion of M. pneumoniae and others on the indirect effect of M. pneumoniae through pathological immune responses, for instance autoreactive antibodies in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Diagnosis remains challenging with currently available diagnostic tests, because they do not demonstrate a causal relation due to M. pneumoniae asymptomatic carriage or previous infection...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607461/geographic-variation-in-pneumococcal-vaccine-efficacy-estimated-from-dynamic-modeling-of-epidemiological-data-post-pcv7
#8
Erida Gjini
Although mean efficacy of multivalent pneumococcus vaccines has been intensively studied, variance in vaccine efficacy (VE) has been overlooked. Different net individual protection across settings can be driven by environmental conditions, local serotype and clonal composition, as well as by socio-demographic and genetic host factors. Understanding efficacy variation has implications for population-level effectiveness and other eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Here I show that realized VE can vary across epidemiological settings, by applying a multi-site-one-model approach to data post-vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607116/elimination-of-babesia-microti-is-dependent-on-intraerythrocytic-killing-and-cd4-t-cells
#9
Sini Skariah, Paul Arnaboldi, Raymond J Dattwyler, Ali A Sultan, Corey Gaylets, Odaelys Walwyn, Hannah Mulhall, Xia Wu, Soha R Dargham, Dana G Mordue
Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Babesia, apicomplexan parasites that replicate within erythrocytes. However, unlike related Plasmodium species, the pathogenesis of Babesia infection remains poorly understood. The primary etiological agent of babesiosis in the United States is B. microti. In healthy individuals, tick-transmitted infection with Babesia causes no specific clinical manifestations, with many having no symptoms at all. However, even in asymptomatic people, a Babesia carriage state can be established that can last up to a year or more...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600561/the-moda2-phasevarion-of-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-regulates-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-and-killing-by-human-neutrophils
#10
Kenneth L Brockman, M Taylor Branstool, John M Atack, Frank Robledo-Avila, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Michael P Jennings, Lauren O Bakaletz
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the causative agent of multiple respiratory tract infections. Several human pathogens, including NTHI, possess a novel genetic system, termed the phasevarion, which mediates a rapid and reversible change in the expression of many genes throughout the chromosome. This occurs by phase variation of a single gene (modA) that encodes a DNA methyltransferase and results in two phenotypically distinct subpopulations, ON and OFF. NTHI encounters many pressures within the various microenvironments of its human host as the disease course evolves from one of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage to overt disease...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591257/oral-candida-spp-carriage-and-periodontal-diseases-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-ribeir%C3%A3-o-preto-brazil
#11
Alan Grupioni Lourenço, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves Ribeiro, Cristiano Nakao, Ana Carolina Fragoso Motta, Luana Grupioni Lourenço Antonio, Alcyone Artioli Machado, Marilena Chinali Komesu
The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590237/evaluation-of-self-collected-rectal-swabs-for-the-detection-of-bacteria-responsible-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-1-infected-patients
#12
Sophie Edouard, Catherine Tamalet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Philippe Colson, Amélie Ménard, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Christelle Tomei, Andreas Stein, Didier Raoult
PURPOSE: The standard approach to screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has often been restricted to urogenital specimens. Most current guidelines, however, also recommend testing extra-genital sites, including rectal locations, because asymptomatic rectal carriage of pathogens has often been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate self-collected rectal swabs to screen bacterial STIs in HIV-infected patients in Marseille, France. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2014 and December 2015, 118 HIV-infected patients (93 males and 25 females) agreed to self-sample anal swabs for detection of bacterial STI...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579627/carriage-of-sub-microscopic-sexual-and-asexual-plasmodium-falciparum-stages-in-the-dry-season-at-navrongo-ghana
#13
Geoffrey R Atelu, Nancy O Duah, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic individuals in Navrongo in northern Ghana, an area of seasonal malaria transmission. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of 209 randomly selected participants of all age-groups was conducted in February and March, 2015. METHODS: Capillary blood samples collected from these individuals were used for the detection of both asexual and gametocyte stage parasites by microscopy, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional nested PCR methods...
December 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575372/addressing-the-analytic-challenges-of-cross-sectional-pediatric-pneumonia-etiology-data
#14
Laura L Hammitt, Daniel R Feikin, J Anthony G Scott, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Maria Deloria Knoll
Despite tremendous advances in diagnostic laboratory technology, identifying the pathogen(s) causing pneumonia remains challenging because the infected lung tissue cannot usually be sampled for testing. Consequently, to obtain information about pneumonia etiology, clinicians and researchers test specimens distant to the site of infection. These tests may lack sensitivity (eg, blood culture, which is only positive in a small proportion of children with pneumonia) and/or specificity (eg, detection of pathogens in upper respiratory tract specimens, which may indicate asymptomatic carriage or a less severe syndrome, such as upper respiratory infection)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549779/investigation-of-community-carriage-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-and-hungatella-hathewayi-in-healthy-volunteers-from-four-regions-of-england
#15
S E Manzoor, C A M McNulty, D Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, D M Lecky, K J Hardy, P M Hawkey
Faecal samples from 1365 healthy asymptomatic volunteers from four regions in England were screened for the presence of Clostridium difficile between December 2013 and July 2014. The carriage rate of C. difficile in healthy patients was 0.5%, which is lower than previously reported. This study demonstrates that the true community reservoir of C. difficile in the healthy UK population is very low and is, therefore, unlikely to be a reservoir for infections diagnosed in the hospital setting.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545446/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-paired-meningococcal-carriage-isolates-from-ethiopia
#16
Guro K Bårnes, Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Bente Børud, Bereket Workalemahu, Paul A Kristiansen, Demissew Beyene, Abraham Aseffa, Dominique A Caugant
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal colonization is a prerequisite for transmission and disease, but the bacterium only very infrequently causes disease while asymptomatic carriage is common. Carriage is highly dynamic, showing a great variety across time and space within and across populations, but also within individuals. The understanding of genetic changes in the meningococcus during carriage, when the bacteria resides in its natural niche, is important for understanding not only the carriage state, but the dynamics of the entire meningococcal population...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#17
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537557/apol1-renal-risk-variants-have-contrasting-resistance-and-susceptibility-associations-with-african-trypanosomiasis
#18
Anneli Cooper, Hamidou Ilboudo, V Pius Alibu, Sophie Ravel, John Enyaru, William Weir, Harry Noyes, Paul Capewell, Mamadou Camara, Jacqueline Milet, Vincent Jamonneau, Oumou Camara, Enock Matovu, Bruno Bucheton, Annette MacLeod
Reduced susceptibility to infectious disease can increase the frequency of otherwise deleterious alleles. In populations of African ancestry, two apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) variants with a recessive kidney disease risk, named G1 and G2, occur at high frequency. APOL1 is a trypanolytic protein that confers innate resistance to most African trypanosomes, but not Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T.b. gambiense, which cause human African trypanosomiasis. In this case-control study, we test the prevailing hypothesis that these APOL1 variants reduce trypanosomiasis susceptibility, resulting in their positive selection in sub-Saharan Africa...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532434/hierarchical-genomic-analysis-of-carried-and-invasive-serogroup-a-neisseria-meningitidis-during-the-2011-epidemic-in-chad
#19
Kanny Diallo, Kadija Gamougam, Doumagoum M Daugla, Odile B Harrison, James E Bray, Dominique A Caugant, Jay Lucidarme, Caroline L Trotter, Musa Hassan-King, James M Stuart, Olivier Manigart, Brian M Greenwood, Martin C J Maiden
BACKGROUND: Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) was the cause of the 2011 meningitis epidemics in Chad. This bacterium, often carried asymptomatically, is considered to be an "accidental pathogen"; however, the transition from carriage to disease phenotype remains poorly understood. This study examined the role genetic diversity might play in this transition by comparing genomes from geographically and temporally matched invasive and carried NmA isolates. RESULTS: All 23 NmA isolates belonged to the ST-5 clonal complex (cc5)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525623/the-survey-of-tinea-capitis-and-scalp-dermatophyte-carriage-in-nursing-home-residents
#20
Chien-Yio Lin, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Ming-Gene Tu, Yu-Ming Ju, Yun-Chen Fan, Chih-Chao Lin, Ya-Ting Chiang, Yun-Liang Yang, Kai-Ting Chen, Pei-Lun Sun
Tinea capitis is a contagious dermatophyte infection of scalp and associated hairs. On the other hand, asymptomatic carriage is a status of positive dermatophyte scalp culture, but without signs or symptoms of tinea capitis, and no evidence of hair shaft invasion confirmed by direct microscopy. Tinea capitis and asymptomatic carriage mostly occur in children, but adult females are becoming another population in recent decades. In this study, we focused on the prevalence and related fungi of tinea capitis and asymptomatic carriage in elderly by the shampoo brush method, as well as the source of transmission, in 10 nursing home residents...
May 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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