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Asymptomatic carriage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439654/prospective-study-on-human-fecal-carriage-of-enterobacteriaceae-possessing-mcr-1-and-mcr-2-genes-in-a-regional-hospital-in-hong-kong
#1
Wai-Sing Chan, Chun-Hang Au, Dona N Ho, Tsun-Leung Chan, Edmond Shiu-Kwan Ma, Bone Siu-Fai Tang
BACKGROUND: Human fecal carriage of Enterobacteriaceae possessing mobilized colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 and mcr-2) remains obscure in Hong Kong. As part of routine surveillance on emerging antibiotic resistance, we conducted a prospective study on this topic in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. METHODS: From October 31 to November 25, 2016, all fecal specimens submitted for routine analysis were included in this surveillance study. These comprised 672 consecutive routine fecal specimens collected from 616 individuals...
February 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397054/the-intestinal-protist-blastocystis-is-not-a-common-member-of-the-healthy-infant-gut-microbiota-in-a-westernized-country-ireland
#2
P D Scanlan, C J Hill, R P Ross, C A Ryan, C Stanton, P D Cotter
Research into the gut microbiota of human infants is necessary in order to better understand how inter-species interactions and ecological succession shape the diversity of the gut microbiota, and in turn, how the specific composition of the gut microbiota impacts on host health both during infancy and in later years. Blastocystis is a ubiquitous intestinal protist that has been linked to a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. However, emerging data show that asymptomatic carriage is common and that Blastocystis is prevalent in the healthy adult gut microbiota...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389671/a-controlled-human-malaria-infection-model-enabling-evaluation-of-transmission-blocking-interventions
#3
Katharine A Collins, Claire Yt Wang, Matthew Adams, Hayley Mitchell, Melanie Rampton, Suzanne Elliott, Isaie J Reuling, Teun Bousema, Robert Sauerwein, Stephan Chalon, Jörg J Möhrle, James S McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Drugs and vaccines that can interrupt the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum will be important for malaria control and elimination. However, models for early clinical evaluation of candidate transmission-blocking interventions are currently unavailable. Here we describe a new model for evaluating malaria transmission from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes using controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: Seventeen healthy malaria-naïve volunteers underwent CHMI by intravenous inoculation of P...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378791/pneumococcal-phenotype-and-interaction-with-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-as-determinants-of-otitis-media-progression
#4
Joseph A Lewnard, Noga Givon-Lavi, Paula A Tähtinen, Ron Dagan
Background: All-cause otitis media (OM) incidence has declined in numerous settings following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) despite increases in carriage of non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes escaping immune pressure. To understand the basis for declining incidence, we assessed the intrinsic capacity of pneumococcal serotypes to cause OM independently and in polymicrobial infections involving nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) using samples obtained from middle ear fluid and nasopharyngeal cultures before PCV7/13 rollout...
January 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373578/diagnostic-metabolite-biomarkers-of-chronic-typhoid-carriage
#5
Elin Näsström, Pär Jonsson, Anders Johansson, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Buddha Basnyat, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Guy E Thwaites, Henrik Antti, Stephen Baker
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A are the agents of enteric (typhoid) fever; both can establish chronic carriage in the gallbladder. Chronic Salmonella carriers are typically asymptomatic, intermittently shedding bacteria in the feces, and contributing to disease transmission. Detecting chronic carriers is of public health relevance in areas where enteric fever is endemic, but there are no routinely used methods for prospectively identifying those carrying Salmonella in their gallbladder...
January 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361021/closing-in-on-the-reservoir-proactive-case-detection-in-high-risk-groups-as-a-strategy-to-detect-plasmodium-falciparum-asymptomatic-carriers-in-cambodia
#6
Gabriele Rossi, Lieven Vernaeve, Rafael Van den Bergh, Chea Nguon, Mark Debackere, Carme Abello Peiri, Vuthea Van, Nimol Khim, Saorin Kim, Rotha Eam, Malen Ken, Chanra Khean, Martin De Smet, Didier Menard, Jean-Marie Kindermans
Background: In the frame of elimination strategies of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), active case detection has been recommended as complementary approach to the existing passive case detection programs. We trialed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based active detection strategy targeting asymptomatic individuals, named proactive case detection (PACD), with the aim of assessing its feasibility, the extra yield of Pf infections, and the at-risk population for Pf carriage status. Methods: A pilot of PACD was conducted in 3 villages in Chey Saen district (Preah Vihear province, Cambodia), from December 2015 to March 2016...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353504/clostridium-difficile-control-measures-current-and-future-methods-for-prevention
#7
Erik R Dubberke, Carlos Mejia-Chew
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare associated infection, and C. difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. One obstacle to preventing CDI is lack of high quality data on interventions to prevent CDI. This has led some to focus on areas, such as method of hand hygiene, unlikely to impact CDI incidence as much as others, such as contact precautions. In addition, existing strategies, although effective, do have limitations. Another challenge is the ability to rapidly, and accurately, diagnose CDI...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324864/safety-of-single-low-dose-primaquine-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-falciparum-infected-african-males-two-open-label-randomized-safety-trials
#8
Guido J H Bastiaens, Alfred B Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Helmi E Pett, Sam A Coulibaly, Bronner P Gonçalves, Muna Affara, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Edith C Bougouma, Guillaume S Sanou, Issa Nébié, John Bradley, Kjerstin H W Lanke, Mikko Niemi, Sodiomon B Sirima, Umberto d'Alessandro, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322463/selection-of-esbl-producing-e-coli-in-a-mouse-intestinal-colonization-model
#9
Frederik Boëtius Hertz, Karen Leth Nielsen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
Asymptomatic human carriage of antimicrobially drug-resistant pathogens prior to infection is increasing worldwide. Further investigation into the role of this fecal reservoir is important for combatting the increasing antimicrobial resistance problems. Additionally, the damage on the intestinal microflora due to antimicrobial treatment is still not fully understood. Animal models are powerful tools to investigate bacterial colonization subsequent to antibiotic treatment. In this chapter we present a mouse-intestinal colonization model designed to investigate how antibiotics select for an ESBL-producing E...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310662/assessment-of-the-quality-and-quantity-of-naturally-induced-antibody-responses-to-eba175riii-v-in-ghanaian-children-living-in-two-communities-with-varying-malaria-transmission-patterns
#10
Hamza B Abagna, Festus K Acquah, Ruth Okonu, Nii A Aryee, Michael Theisen, Linda E Amoah
BACKGROUND: Recent global reports on malaria suggest significant decrease in disease severity and an increase in control interventions in many malaria endemic countries, including Ghana. However, a major driving force sustaining malaria transmission in recent times is the asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites, which can enhance immune responses against parasite antigens. This study determined the prevalence and relative avidities of naturally induced antibodies to EBA175RIII-VLl in asymptomatic children living in two communities with varying malaria transmission patterns...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274002/a-periodic-disease-transmission-model-with-asymptomatic-carriage-and-latency-periods
#11
Isam Al-Darabsah, Yuan Yuan
In this paper, the global dynamics of a periodic disease transmission model with two delays in incubation and asymptomatic carriage periods is investigated. We first derive the model system with a general nonlinear incidence rate function by stage-structure. Then, we identify the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text] for the model and present numerical algorithm to calculate it. We obtain the global attractivity of the disease-free state when [Formula: see text] and discuss the disease persistence when [Formula: see text]...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258622/nasal-colonization-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-pre-school-children-in-ethiopia
#12
Alemayehu Reta, Moges Wubie, Getnet Mekuria
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the bacterium that can asymptomatically colonize the human upper respiratory tract (i.e. nose and throat). Carriage of S. aureus, including methicillin resistant S. aureus, is common to children. The aim at this study was to determine the nasal colonization, associated factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolates among pre-school children in Debre Markos town. METHODS: Institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted...
December 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#13
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229736/comparison-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-typhimurium-reveals-typhoidal-specific-responses-to-bile
#14
Rebecca Johnson, Matt Ravenhall, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Alexander Byrne, Gad Frankel
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with S Typhi transmission. Despite this, S Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. RNA-Seq of S Typhi Ty2 and a clinical S Typhi isolate belonging to the globally dominant H58 lineage (129-0238), as well as S Typhimurium 14028, revealed that 249, 389 and 453 genes respectively were differentially expressed in the presence of 3% bile compared to control cultures lacking bile...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229656/informing-future-research-for-carriage-of-multiresistant-gram-negative-bacteria-problems-with-recruiting-to-an-english-stool-sample-community-prevalence-study
#15
Donna M Lecky, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Tom Nichols, Peter Hawkey, Kim Turner, Keun-Taik Chung, Mike Thomas, Helen Lucy Thomas, Li Xu McCrae, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Steve Smith, Cliodna McNulty
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight problems with recruiting to an English stool sample community prevalence study. It was part of a larger cross-sectional research to determine the risk factors for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing coliforms in stool samples of the asymptomatic general English population. SETTING: Four National Health Service primary care trusts (PCTs) of England representing a different section of the population of England: Newham PCT; Heart of Birmingham Teaching PCT; Shropshire County PCT; and Southampton City PCT...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217765/zoonotic-potential-of-salmonella-enterica-carried-by-pet-tortoises
#16
Hayley L Bruce, Paul A Barrow, Andrew N Rycroft
The prevalence of Salmonella in chelonians is not known in the UK and it is not clear whether such Salmonella strains would be pathogenic for human beings. Some strains, such as members of the Arizonae subgroup, may be unable to cause anything more than very mild disease. To determine the carriage of Salmonella in pet tortoises, cloacal swabs were taken for culture. Salmonella enterica Group D was isolated from 5 of the 89 samples. All five were from the same household of seven tortoises. Salmonella isolates were shown by PCR to carry the invA and spiC genes associated with pathogenicity islands 1 and 2...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210351/seasonal-dynamics-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-west-africa-evidence-for-carriage-of-infections-acquired-before-pregnancy-until-first-contact-with-antenatal-care
#17
Isha Berry, Patrick Walker, Harry Tagbor, Kalifa Bojang, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Kassoum Kayentao, John Williams, Abraham Oduro, Paul Milligan, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns
In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is often high in young women because of 1) low use of insecticide-treated nets before their first pregnancy and 2) acquired immunity, meaning infections are asymptomatic and thus untreated. Consequently, a common source of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) may be infected women becoming pregnant, rather than pregnant women becoming infected. In this study, prevalence of infection was determined by microscopy at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in primigravidae and secundigravidae in Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, and The Gambia, four countries with strong seasonal variations in transmission...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210349/high-prevalence-of-shigella-or-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli-carriage-among-residents-of-an-internally-displaced-persons-camp-in-south-sudan
#18
Jesse Bliss, Malika Bouhenia, Peter Hale, Brianne A Couturier, Anita S Iyer, John Rumunu, Stephen Martin, Joseph F Wamala, Abdinasir Abubakar, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Marc Roger Couturier, Andrew S Azman, Daniel T Leung
Displaced persons living in camps are at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Subclinical carriage of pathogens may contribute to the spread of disease, especially for microbes that require a low infectious dose. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect a panel of 20 bacterial, viral, and protozoal targets, and we report a high prevalence of enteropathogen carriage, including Shigella spp. or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in 14%, among a sample of 88 asymptomatic individuals in an internally displaced persons camp in South Sudan...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190284/listeria-monocytogenes-switches-from-dissemination-to-persistence-by-adopting-a-vacuolar-lifestyle-in-epithelial-cells
#19
Mounia Kortebi, Eliane Milohanic, Gabriel Mitchell, Christine Péchoux, Marie-Christine Prevost, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne
Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to spread from cell-to-cell and disseminate in the host. Here, we report that during several days of infection in human hepatocytes or trophoblast cells, L. monocytogenes switches from this active motile lifestyle to a stage of persistence in vacuoles...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149279/impact-of-isolating-clostridium-difficile-carriers-on-the-burden-of-isolation-precautions-a-time-series-analysis
#20
Yasi Xiao, Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Christophe Garenc, Philippe Gervais, Sylvie Trottier, Jean-François Roussy, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Yves Longtin
Background: The isolation of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile (CD) carriers may decrease the incidence of hospital-associated C. difficile infections (CDI), but its impact on isolation precaution needs is unknown. Methods: Time series analysis to investigate the impact of isolating CD carriers on the burden of isolation precautions from 2008 to 2016 in a Canadian hospital. To account for the changes in C. difficile infection control policies, the series was divided into three intervention periods...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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