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Asymptomatic carriage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016338/a-high-burden-of-asymptomatic-gastrointestinal-infections-in-traditional-communities-in-papua-new-guinea
#1
Paul F Horwood, Kevin W Soli, Tobias Maure, Yuichi I Naito, Ayako Morita, Kazumi Natsuhara, Kiyoshi Tadokoro, Jun Baba, Shingo Odani, Eriko Tomitsuka, Katsura Igai, Jo-Ann Larkins, Peter M Siba, William Pomat, Emma McBryde, Masahiro Umezaki, Andrew R Greenhill
Stool samples were collected from 148 healthy adults living a traditional subsistence lifestyle in Papua New Guinea and screened for enteric pathogens using real-time RT-PCR/PCR assays. Enteric pathogens were detected in a high proportion (41%) of individuals. Clear differences were observed in the detection of pathogens between highland and lowland communities. In particular, there was a marked difference in detection rates of norovirus GII (20% and 0%, respectively) and Shigella sp. (15% and 0%, respectively)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987549/potential-impact-of-the-4cmenb-vaccine-on-oropharyngeal-carriage-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#2
Raquel Abad, Verónica Medina, Maria Del Carmen Fariñas, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Stefania Bambini, A Dari, Duccio Medini, Mariagrazia Pizza, Julio A Vázquez
The analysis of the potential impact of the meningococcal vaccines in asymptomatic carriers has become one of the key aspects in the evaluation of new vaccines and of their impact on disease control. An important step in this direction is provided by the analysis of the sequence variability and surface-exposure of the 4CMenB (Bexsero®) vaccine antigens, as well as the cross-reactivity of vaccine induced antibodies, in isolates from healthy carriers. The Spanish Reference Laboratory, in collaboration with the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla in Santander (Spain), carried out a meningococcal carrier survey between May 2010 and April 2012 (population aged 4 to 19 years)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966498/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonizing-the-anterior-nares-of-health-care-workers-and-outpatients-attending-the-remotely-located-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#3
Seema Singh, Rubina Malhotra, Pragati Grover, Renu Bansal, Shipra Galhotra, Rupinderjit Kaur, Neerja Jindal
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major concern worldwide and is exemplified by the global spread of the Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Health care workers (HCWs) and asymptomatically colonized patients are important sources of nosocomial MRSA infections. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of MRSA colonisation, two hundred HCWs and 200 consecutive outpatients attending our tertiary care hospital were studied...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963555/development-of-persistent-gastrointestinal-s-aureus-carriage-in-mice
#4
Amy Flaxman, Pauline M van Diemen, Yuko Yamaguchi, Elizabeth Allen, Claudia Lindemann, Christine S Rollier, Anita Milicic, David H Wyllie
One fifth to one quarter of the human population is asymptomatically, naturally and persistently colonised by Staphylococcus aureus. Observational human studies indicate that although the whole population is intermittently exposed, some individuals lose S. aureus rapidly. Others become persistent carriers, as assessed by nasal cultures, with many individuals colonised for decades. Current animal models of S. aureus colonisation are expensive and normally require antibiotics. Importantly, these animal models have not yet contributed to our poor understanding of the dichotomy in human colonisation status...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953188/staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-in-a-new-zealand-primary-school-a-cohort-study
#5
Pippa Scott, Patricia C Priest, Stephen T Chambers, Janneke Cm Heijne, David R Murdoch
Asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a source of transmission between healthy individuals. Seventy children at a primary school were swabbed 7 times to identify patterns of S. aureus carriage. S. aureus carriage prevalence was 53-65% at each round, and 45% carried at every round. High carriage prevalence may indicate that school-aged children are important contributors to S. aureus transmission.
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947404/asymptomatic-intestinal-carriage-of-microsporidia-in-hiv-positive-patients-in-tunisia-prevalence-species-and-pathogenesis
#6
S Aissa, N Chabchoub, R Abdelmalek, F Kanoun, A Goubantini, L Ammari, B Kilani, A Bouratbine, H Tiouiri-Ben Aissa, K Aoun
Asymptomatic carriage of microsporidia (ACM) has not been described in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in Tunisia. To determine the prevalence of ACM in PLHIV followed at Tunis la Rabta hospital, describe its clinical features and course, and identify the species involved. This prospective study (2005-2009) included 71 asymptomatic PLHIV compared with 37 PLHIV with diarrhea. One stool sample per patient was examined by microscopy after Weber staining and by PCR. Species identification was confirmed by specific PCR and sequencing...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931649/sequencing-of-the-variable-region-of-rpsb-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-streptococcal-species
#7
Anne L Wyllie, Yvonne Pannekoek, Sandra Bovenkerk, Jody van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Bart Ferwerda, Diederik van de Beek, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński, Arie van der Ende
The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929958/-screening-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-corynebacterium-ulcerans-and-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-in-throat-swab-specimens-of-children-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#8
Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın, Gönül Tanır, Selin Nar Ötgün, Meral Turan, Türkan Aydın Teke, Ayşe Kaman, Selçuk Kılıç
Although a significant decrease has been reported in the incidence of diphteria in many regions of the world following the routine diphtheria immunization programs, the emergence of new cases indicated that toxigenic strains are still circulating in the community. Diphtheria vaccine does not provide protection against asymptomatic carriage and colonization of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is a known fact that invasive infections may arise from non-toxigenic C.diphtheriae strains that the non-toxigenic strains can become toxigenic strains leading to diphteria...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929395/asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-vivax-infection-in-the-neighborhood-of-blondin-saint-georges-de-l-oyapock-district-french-guiana
#9
E Mosnier, M Douine, L Epelboin, S Pelleau, V Pommier de Santi, Y Dangel, M Demar, R Mutricy, B Guarmit, M Nacher, P Brousse, D Davy, F Djossou, L Musset
Optimized elimination strategies are needed to control transmission of malaria. As part of an elimination campaign, active detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers by highly sensitive methods is deemed necessary. Asymptomatic carriage leads to complex scientific, ethical, and operational issues regarding individual or collective detection and treatment. To address this issue, a crosssectional study was carried out in French Guiana to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage during an inter-epidemic season in the whole population of a neighborhood of Saint-Georges-de-l'Oyapock, along the Brazilian border...
October 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928960/the-relationship-between-mucosal-immunity-nasopharyngeal-carriage-asymptomatic-transmission-and-the-resurgence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#10
REVIEW
Christopher Gill, Pejman Rohani, Donald M Thea
The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910402/nasopharyngeal-bacterial-load-as-a-marker-for-rapid-and-easy-diagnosis-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-mozambique
#11
Pedro Brotons, Quique Bassat, Miguel Lanaspa, Desiree Henares, Amaresh Perez-Arguello, Lola Madrid, Reyes Balcells, Sozinho Acacio, Maria Andres-Franch, Maria Angeles Marcos, Ana Valero-Rello, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease have limitations of accuracy, timeliness, and patient convenience. This study aimed to determine the performance of pneumococcal load quantified with a real-time polymerase-chain reaction in nasopharyngeal samples to diagnose invasive pneumococcal disease in children. METHODS: Matched case-control study of patients <5 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital (Mozambique) and asymptomatic controls recruited in different periods between 2006 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893369/virulence-determinants-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-distribution-and-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#12
Luke V Blakeway, Aimee Tan, Ian R A Peak, Kate L Seib
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862189/typical-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-diarrhoea-their-role-as-carrier-in-children-under-five
#13
Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V G Ramachandran, Dheeraj Shah, Rumpa Saha, Sajad Ahmad Dar, Arvind Rai
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is responsible for a large number of cases of infantile diarrhoea in developing countries, causing failure in treatment with consequent health burden and resulting in a large number of deaths every year. This study was undertaken to determine the proportion of typical and atypical EPEC in under five children with diarrhoea and controls, their function as a carriage and to identify virulent genes associated with them...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818084/do-the-venous-blood-samples-replicate-malaria-parasite-densities-found-in-capillary-blood-a-field-study-performed-in-naturally-infected-asymptomatic-children-in-cameroon
#14
Maurice M Sandeu, Albert N Bayibéki, Majoline T Tchioffo, Luc Abate, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Sandrine E Nsango, Diadier Diallo, Antoine Berry, Gaétan Texier, Isabelle Morlais
BACKGROUND: The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796794/factors-associated-with-stunting-in-healthy-children-aged-5-years-and-less-living-in-bangui-rca
#15
Pascale Vonaesch, Laura Tondeur, Sébastien Breurec, Petula Bata, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Clotaire Rafaï, Tamara Giles-Vernick, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Philippe Sansonetti, Muriel Vray
Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794176/molecular-tests-that-target-the-rtx-locus-do-not-distinguish-between-kingella-kingae-and-the-recently-described-kingella-negevensis-species
#16
Nawal El Houmami, Janek Bzdrenga, Guillaume André Durand, Philippe Minodier, Hervé Seligmann, Elsa Prudent, Sofiane Bakour, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Didier Raoult, Pablo Yagupsky, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Kingella kingae is an important invasive pathogen in early childhood. The organism elaborates an RTX toxin presumably restricted to this species. Consequently, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the RTX locus have been developed in recent years and are gaining increasing use for the molecular diagnosis of K. kingae infections. However, the present study shows that Kingella negevensis, a Kingella species newly identified in young children, harbors an identical Kingella RTX locus, raising the question of whether K...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790208/pathogenicity-locus-core-genome-and-accessory-gene-contributions-to-clostridium-difficile-virulence
#17
Brittany B Lewis, Rebecca A Carter, Lilan Ling, Ingrid Leiner, Ying Taur, Mini Kamboj, Erik R Dubberke, Joao Xavier, Eric G Pamer
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes colitis in patients with disrupted colonic microbiota. While some individuals are asymptomatic C. difficile carriers, symptomatic disease ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially lethal toxic megacolon. The wide disease spectrum has been attributed to the infected host's age, underlying diseases, immune status, and microbiome composition. However, strain-specific differences in C. difficile virulence have also been implicated in determining colitis severity...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777321/prevalence-and-genetic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-argenteus-isolates-harboring-panton-valentine-leukocidin-enterotoxins-and-tsst-1-genes-from-food-handlers-in-myanmar
#18
Meiji Soe Aung, Thida San, Mya Mya Aye, San Mya, Win Win Maw, Khin Nyein Zan, Wut Hmone Win Htut, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar...
August 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771615/substantial-asymptomatic-submicroscopic-plasmodium-carriage-during-dry-season-in-low-transmission-areas-in-senegal-implications-for-malaria-control-and-elimination
#19
Makhtar Niang, Laty Gaye Thiam, Rokhaya Sane, Nafissatou Diagne, Cheikh Talla, Souleymane Doucoure, Joseph Faye, Fode Diop, Abdoulaye Badiane, Babacar Diouf, Diogop Camara, Fatoumata Diene-Sarr, Cheikh Sokhna, Vincent Richard, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: In the progress towards malaria elimination, the accurate diagnosis of low-density asymptomatic infections is critical. Low-density asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria infections may act as silent reservoirs that maintain low-level residual malaria transmission in the community. Light microscopy, the gold standard in malaria diagnosis lacks the sensitivity to detect low-level parasitaemia. In this study, the presence and prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage were investigated to estimate the parasites reservoir among asymptomatic individuals living in low transmission areas in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal during the dry season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755833/serum-antibody-response-to-moraxella-catarrhalis-proteins-in-stringently-defined-otitis-prone-children
#20
Dabin Ren, Anthony L Almudevar, Timothy F Murphy, Eric R Lafontaine, Anthony A Campagnari, Nicole Luke-Marshall, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) is a frequent pathogen of acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. Here we prospectively assessed naturally-induced serum antibodies to four Mcat vaccine candidate proteins in stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) and non-otitis prone (NOP) children age 6-36months old following nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, at onset of AOM and convalescence from AOM. METHODS: Serum IgG and IgM antibody against recombinant Mcat proteins, oligopeptide permease A (OppA), outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, hemagglutinin (Hag), and PilA clade 2 (PilA2), were quantitated by ELISA...
July 26, 2017: Vaccine
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