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Asymptomatic carriage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#1
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229736/comparison-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-typhimurium-reveals-typhoidal-specific-responses-to-bile
#2
Rebecca Johnson, Matt Ravenhall, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Alexander Byrne, Gad Frankel
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with S Typhi transmission. Despite this, S Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. RNA-Seq of S Typhi Ty2 and a clinical S Typhi isolate belonging to the globally dominant H58 lineage (129-0238), as well as S Typhimurium 14028, revealed that 249, 389 and 453 genes respectively were differentially expressed in the presence of 3% bile compared to control cultures lacking bile...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229656/informing-future-research-for-carriage-of-multiresistant-gram-negative-bacteria-problems-with-recruiting-to-an-english-stool-sample-community-prevalence-study
#3
Donna M Lecky, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Tom Nichols, Peter Hawkey, Kim Turner, Keun-Taik Chung, Mike Thomas, Helen Lucy Thomas, Li Xu McCrae, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Steve Smith, Cliodna McNulty
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight problems with recruiting to an English stool sample community prevalence study. It was part of a larger cross-sectional research to determine the risk factors for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing coliforms in stool samples of the asymptomatic general English population. SETTING: Four National Health Service primary care trusts (PCTs) of England representing a different section of the population of England: Newham PCT; Heart of Birmingham Teaching PCT; Shropshire County PCT; and Southampton City PCT...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217765/zoonotic-potential-of-salmonella-enterica-carried-by-pet-tortoises
#4
Hayley L Bruce, Paul A Barrow, Andrew N Rycroft
The prevalence of Salmonella in chelonians is not known in the UK and it is not clear whether such Salmonella strains would be pathogenic for human beings. Some strains, such as members of the Arizonae subgroup, may be unable to cause anything more than very mild disease. To determine the carriage of Salmonella in pet tortoises, cloacal swabs were taken for culture. Salmonella enterica Group D was isolated from 5 of the 89 samples. All five were from the same household of seven tortoises. Salmonella isolates were shown by PCR to carry the invA and spiC genes associated with pathogenicity islands 1 and 2...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210351/seasonal-dynamics-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-west-africa-evidence-for-carriage-of-infections-acquired-before-pregnancy-until-first-contact-with-antenatal-care
#5
Isha Berry, Patrick Walker, Harry Tagbor, Kalifa Bojang, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Kassoum Kayentao, John Williams, Abraham Oduro, Paul Milligan, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns
In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is often high in young women because of 1) low use of insecticide-treated nets before their first pregnancy and 2) acquired immunity, meaning infections are asymptomatic and thus untreated. Consequently, a common source of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) may be infected women becoming pregnant, rather than pregnant women becoming infected. In this study, prevalence of infection was determined by microscopy at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in primigravidae and secundigravidae in Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, and The Gambia, four countries with strong seasonal variations in transmission...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210349/high-prevalence-of-shigella-or-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli-carriage-among-residents-of-an-internally-displaced-persons-camp-in-south-sudan
#6
Jesse Bliss, Malika Bouhenia, Peter Hale, Brianne A Couturier, Anita S Iyer, John Rumunu, Stephen Martin, Joseph F Wamala, Abdinasir Abubakar, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Marc Roger Couturier, Andrew S Azman, Daniel T Leung
Displaced persons living in camps are at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Subclinical carriage of pathogens may contribute to the spread of disease, especially for microbes that require a low infectious dose. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect a panel of 20 bacterial, viral, and protozoal targets, and we report a high prevalence of enteropathogen carriage, including Shigella spp. or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in 14%, among a sample of 88 asymptomatic individuals in an internally displaced persons camp in South Sudan...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190284/listeria-monocytogenes-switches-from-dissemination-to-persistence-by-adopting-a-vacuolar-lifestyle-in-epithelial-cells
#7
Mounia Kortebi, Eliane Milohanic, Gabriel Mitchell, Christine Péchoux, Marie-Christine Prevost, Pascale Cossart, Hélène Bierne
Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to spread from cell-to-cell and disseminate in the host. Here, we report that during several days of infection in human hepatocytes or trophoblast cells, L. monocytogenes switches from this active motile lifestyle to a stage of persistence in vacuoles...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149279/impact-of-isolating-clostridium-difficile-carriers-on-the-burden-of-isolation-precautions-a-time-series-analysis
#8
Yasi Xiao, Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Christophe Garenc, Philippe Gervais, Sylvie Trottier, Jean-François Roussy, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Yves Longtin
Background: The isolation of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile (CD) carriers may decrease the incidence of hospital-associated C. difficile infections (CDI), but its impact on isolation precaution needs is unknown. Methods: Time series analysis to investigate the impact of isolating CD carriers on the burden of isolation precautions from 2008 to 2016 in a Canadian hospital. To account for the changes in C. difficile infection control policies, the series was divided into three intervention periods...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141722/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-asymptomatic-malaria-bridging-the-gap-between-annual-malaria-resurgences-in-a-sahelian-environment
#9
Drissa Coulibaly, Mark A Travassos, Youssouf Tolo, Matthew B Laurens, Abdoulaye K Kone, Karim Traore, Mody Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Issa Diarra, Modibo Daou, Boureima Guindo, Stanislas Rebaudet, Bourema Kouriba, Nadine Dessay, Renaud Piarroux, Christopher V Plowe, Ogobara K Doumbo, Mahamadou A Thera, Jean Gaudart
In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121963/reassessment-of-asymptomatic-carriers-of-plasmodium-spp-in-an-endemic-area-with-a-very-low-incidence-of-malaria-in-extra-amazonian-brazil
#10
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: Regions with residual transmission are potential obstacles to the elimination of malaria. It is, therefore, essential to understand the factors associated with the maintenance of endemic malaria in these areas. The objective was to investigate whether the status of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. DNA is maintained in the long term in an extra-Amazonian region of Brazil with low incidence, residual malaria transmission. METHODS: Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium DNA detected in a survey carried out between 2001 and 2004 were reassessed between 2010 and 2011 using questionnaires, PCR and thick and thin blood smear tests three times at 3-month intervals...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104169/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-carriage-rate-post-fecal-microbiota-transplant-is-low-a-prospective-clinical-and-stool-assessment
#11
Jessica R Allegretti, Andrew Allegretti, Emmalee Phelps, Huiping Xu, Zain Kassam, Monika Fischer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the asymptomatic C. difficile carriage rates following FMT. METHODS: All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post-FMT at two tertiary care referral centers were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post-FMT to assess for failure...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081992/impact-of-a-malaria-intervention-package-in-schools-on-plasmodium-infection-anaemia-and-cognitive-function-in-schoolchildren-in-mali-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-trial
#12
Siân E Clarke, Saba Rouhani, Seybou Diarra, Renion Saye, Modibo Bamadio, Rebecca Jones, Diahara Traore, Klenon Traore, Matthew Ch Jukes, Josselin Thuilliez, Simon Brooker, Natalie Roschnik, Moussa Sacko
BACKGROUND: School-aged children are rarely targeted by malaria control programmes, yet the prevalence of Plasmodium infection in primary school children often exceeds that seen in younger children and could affect haemoglobin concentration and school performance. METHODS: A cluster-randomised trial was carried out in 80 primary schools in southern Mali to evaluate the impact of a school-based malaria intervention package. Intervention schools received two interventions sequentially: (1) teacher-led participatory malaria prevention education, combined with distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), followed 7 months later at the end of the transmission season by (2) mass delivery of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine administered by teachers, termed intermittent parasite clearance in schools (IPCs)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069917/the-association-between-serological-features-of-chronic-chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-and-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-and-nutrition-in-copd-patients
#13
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Renata Rubinsztajn, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Tadeusz Przybyłowski, Rafał Krenke, Ryszarda Chazan
INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligatory human pathogen involved in lower and upper airway infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis. Asymptomatic C. pneumoniae carriage is also relatively common. The association of C. pneumoniae infections with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) course is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between chronic C. pneumoniae infection and clinical features of COPD, markers of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction...
October 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065910/very-high-carriage-of-gametocytes-in-asymptomatic-low-density-plasmodium-falciparum-and-p-vivax-infections-in-western-thailand
#14
Wang Nguitragool, Ivo Mueller, Chalermpon Kumpitak, Teerawat Saeseu, Sirasate Bantuchai, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Surapon Yimsamran, Wanchai Maneeboonyang, Patiwat Sa-Angchai, Wutthichai Chaimungkun, Prasert Rukmanee, Supalarp Puangsa-Art, Nipon Thanyavanich, Cristian Koepfli, Ingrid Felger, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Pratap Singhasivanon
BACKGROUND: Low-density asymptomatic infections of Plasmodium spp. are common in low endemicity areas worldwide, but outside Africa, their contribution to malaria transmission is poorly understood. Community-based studies with highly sensitive molecular diagnostics are needed to quantify the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in Thai communities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 4309 participants was conducted in three endemic areas in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces of Thailand in 2012...
October 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062913/safety-and-effectiveness-of-mass-drug-administration-to-accelerate-elimination-of-artemisinin-resistant-falciparum-malaria-a-pilot-trial-in-four-villages-of-eastern-myanmar
#15
Jordi Landier, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Daniel M Parker, Victor Chaumeau, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Mallika Imwong, Olivo Miotto, Krittaya Patumrat, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Dominique Cerqueira, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Suphak Nosten, Lorenz von Seidlein, Clare Ling, Stéphane Proux, Vincent Corbel, Julie A Simpson, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, François H Nosten
Background: Artemisinin and partner drug-resistant falciparum malaria is expanding over the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Eliminating falciparum malaria in the GMS while drugs still retain enough efficacy could prevent global spread of antimalarial resistance. Eliminating malaria rapidly requires targeting the reservoir of asymptomatic parasite carriers. This pilot trial aimed to evaluate the acceptability, safety, feasibility and effectiveness of mass-drug administration (MDA) in reducing malaria in four villages in Eastern Myanmar...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016338/a-high-burden-of-asymptomatic-gastrointestinal-infections-in-traditional-communities-in-papua-new-guinea
#16
Paul F Horwood, Kevin W Soli, Tobias Maure, Yuichi I Naito, Ayako Morita, Kazumi Natsuhara, Kiyoshi Tadokoro, Jun Baba, Shingo Odani, Eriko Tomitsuka, Katsura Igai, Jo-Ann Larkins, Peter M Siba, William Pomat, Emma McBryde, Masahiro Umezaki, Andrew R Greenhill
Stool samples were collected from 148 healthy adults living a traditional subsistence lifestyle in Papua New Guinea and screened for enteric pathogens using real-time RT-PCR/PCR assays. Enteric pathogens were detected in a high proportion (41%) of individuals. Clear differences were observed in the detection of pathogens between highland and lowland communities. In particular, there was a marked difference in detection rates of norovirus GII (20% and 0%, respectively) and Shigella sp. (15% and 0%, respectively)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987549/potential-impact-of-the-4cmenb-vaccine-on-oropharyngeal-carriage-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#17
Raquel Abad, Verónica Medina, Maria Del Carmen Fariñas, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Stefania Bambini, A Dari, Duccio Medini, Mariagrazia Pizza, Julio A Vázquez
The analysis of the potential impact of the meningococcal vaccines in asymptomatic carriers has become one of the key aspects in the evaluation of new vaccines and of their impact on disease control. An important step in this direction is provided by the analysis of the sequence variability and surface-exposure of the 4CMenB (Bexsero®) vaccine antigens, as well as the cross-reactivity of vaccine induced antibodies, in isolates from healthy carriers. The Spanish Reference Laboratory, in collaboration with the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla in Santander (Spain), carried out a meningococcal carrier survey between May 2010 and April 2012 (population aged 4 to 19 years)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966498/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonizing-the-anterior-nares-of-health-care-workers-and-outpatients-attending-the-remotely-located-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#18
Seema Singh, Rubina Malhotra, Pragati Grover, Renu Bansal, Shipra Galhotra, Rupinderjit Kaur, Neerja Jindal
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major concern worldwide and is exemplified by the global spread of the Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Health care workers (HCWs) and asymptomatically colonized patients are important sources of nosocomial MRSA infections. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of MRSA colonisation, two hundred HCWs and 200 consecutive outpatients attending our tertiary care hospital were studied...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963555/development-of-persistent-gastrointestinal-s-aureus-carriage-in-mice
#19
Amy Flaxman, Pauline M van Diemen, Yuko Yamaguchi, Elizabeth Allen, Claudia Lindemann, Christine S Rollier, Anita Milicic, David H Wyllie
One fifth to one quarter of the human population is asymptomatically, naturally and persistently colonised by Staphylococcus aureus. Observational human studies indicate that although the whole population is intermittently exposed, some individuals lose S. aureus rapidly. Others become persistent carriers, as assessed by nasal cultures, with many individuals colonised for decades. Current animal models of S. aureus colonisation are expensive and normally require antibiotics. Importantly, these animal models have not yet contributed to our poor understanding of the dichotomy in human colonisation status...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953188/staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-in-a-new-zealand-primary-school-a-cohort-study
#20
Pippa Scott, Patricia C Priest, Stephen T Chambers, Janneke Cm Heijne, David R Murdoch
Asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a source of transmission between healthy individuals. Seventy children at a primary school were swabbed 7 times to identify patterns of S. aureus carriage. S. aureus carriage prevalence was 53-65% at each round, and 45% carried at every round. High carriage prevalence may indicate that school-aged children are important contributors to S. aureus transmission.
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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