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Asymptomatic carriage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429151/corynebacterium-species-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-asymptomatic-individuals-aged%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years-in-germany
#1
Barbara Teutsch, Anja Berger, Durdica Marosevic, Katharina Schönberger, Thiên-Trí Lâm, Kerstin Hubert, Steffi Beer, Peter Wienert, Nikolaus Ackermann, Heike Claus, Maria Drayß, Kathrin Thiel, Mark van der Linden, Ulrich Vogel, Andreas Sing
PURPOSE: The prevalence of protective anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies decreases with age. Therefore, the elderly might serve as reservoir for potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium (C.) species (C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, and C. pseudotuberculosis). This study aimed to examine the colonization rate of the nasopharynx with corynebacteria of individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS: In the period from October 2012 to June 2013, nasal and throat swabs were taken from 714 asymptomatic subjects aged 65-106 years (average age 77...
April 20, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384550/molecular-detection-and-isolation-of-pathogenic-leptospira-from-asymptomatic-humans-domestic-animals-and-water-sources-in-nan-province-a-rural-area-of-thailand
#2
Alongkorn Kurilung, Pattrarat Chanchaithong, Kittitat Lugsomya, Waree Niyomtham, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media...
March 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381239/prevalence-of-group-a-streptococcus-pharyngeal-carriage-and-clinical-manifestations-in-school-children-aged-5-15%C3%A2-yrs-in-wakiso-district-uganda
#3
Irene Nayiga, Emmy Okello, Peter Lwabi, Grace Ndeezi
BACKGROUND: Beta-hemolytic streptococci carrier rates in children living in low-income countries are high ranging from 10 to 50%. Although most of these children are asymptomatic, they are a reservoir and pose a risk of transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of group a streptococcus pharyngeal carriage and clinical manifestations in school going children in Wakiso district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross sectional study targeting children age 5-15 years in primary schools in one sub-county of Wakiso district was carried out...
April 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372355/throat-carriage-rate-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-rural-children-in-argentina
#4
Gastón Delpech, Mónica Sparo, Beatriz Baldaccini, Gisela Pourcel, Sabina Lissarrague, Leonardo García Allende
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370517/the-prodromal-phase-of-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-associated-parkinson-disease-clinical-and-imaging-studies
#5
Claustre Pont-Sunyer, Eduardo Tolosa, Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Christopher Coffey, Roy N Alcalay, Piu Chan, John E Duda, Maurizio Facheris, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Kenneth Marek, Francisco Lomeña, Connie Marras, Elisabet Mondragon, Rachel Saunders-Pullman, Bjorg Waro
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic, nonmanifesting carriers of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations are at increased risk of developing PD. Clinical and neuroimaging features may be associated with gene carriage and/or may demarcate individuals at greater risk for phenoconversion to PD. OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical and dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography imaging characteristics of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 asymptomatic carriers. METHODS: A total of 342 carriers' and 259 noncarriers' relatives of G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2/PD patients and 39 carriers' and 31 noncarriers' relatives of R1441G leucine-rich repeat kinase 2/PD patients were evaluated...
March 28, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368526/licensed-meningococcal-serogroup-b-vaccine-induced-immunity-against-invasive-disease-does-not-reflect-protection-against-nasal-colonization-in-a-humanized-mouse-model
#6
Carolyn M Buckwalter, Elissa G Currie, Raymond S W Tsang, Scott D Gray-Owen
Background: The 4CMenB vaccine is an outer membrane vesicle and recombinant protein-based vaccine recently licensed to protect against serogroup B meningococcal disease. It remains unknown whether this vaccine will prevent carriage or transmission, key aspects in long-term vaccine success and disease eradication. Methods: Employing a 'humanized' transgenic mouse model of nasal colonization, a systematic approach was taken to estimate the potential for carriage prevention against antigenically-diverse Neisseria meningitidis strains, and to compare this protection to an invasive meningococcal disease challenge model...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367739/towards-understanding-clinical-campylobacter-infection-and-its-transmission-time-for-a-different-approach
#7
E Casey, E Fitzgerald, B Lucey
Campylobacter spp. are among the most commonly diagnosed causes of human infection. Methods for detection of the 29 campylobacter species have mainly focused on cultivation of the thermophilic species. More than 99% of clinical campylobacter isolates notified in the UK in the recent past have been from faecal samples and associated with gastroenteritis. Campylobacter enteritis notifications in temperate zones show a seasonal increase during the summer months with a sharp decrease in the winter months, a pattern which remains incompletely understood...
April 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367343/meningococcal-neonatal-purulent-conjunctivitis-sepsis-and-asymptomatic-carriage-of-n-meningitidis-in-mother-s-vagina-and-both-parents-nasopharynx
#8
Enrique Chacon-Cruz, Jorge Arturo Alvelais-Palacios, Jaime Alfonso Rodriguez-Valencia, Erika Zoe Lopatynsky-Reyes, Maria Luisa Volker-Soberanes, Rosa Maria Rivas-Landeros
Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually associated with vagina's infection by Chlamydia sp., N. gonorrhoeae, and/or other bacteria during delivery. Meningococcal neonatal conjunctivitis is an extremely rare disease. We report a case of neonatal meningococcal sepsis/conjunctivitis and asymptomatic carriage of N. meningitidis from both parents (vagina and nasopharynx). As part of our active surveillance for meningococcal disease at the Tijuana General Hospital (TGH), Mexico, we identified a 3-day-old newborn with meningococcal conjunctivitis and sepsis...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360379/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-gastrointestinal-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-diagnosed-with-rectal-chlamydia-infection-in-the-uk-an-unlinked-anonymous-cross-sectional-study
#9
Gwenda Hughes, Panida Silalang, John Were, Hemanti Patel, Tristan Childs, Sarah Alexander, Stephen Duffell, Cara Saxon, Cathy Ison, Holly Mitchell, Nigel Field, Claire Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal infections (GII) can cause serious ill health and morbidity. Although primarily transmitted through faecal contamination of food or water, transmission through sexual activity is well described, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of GIIs among a convenience sample of MSM who were consecutively diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) at 12 UK genitourinary medicine clinics during 10 weeks in 2012...
March 30, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358900/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-oral-wash-from-immunosuppressed-patients-as-a-diagnostic-tool
#10
Cecilie Juul Hviid, Marianne Lund, Allan Sørensen, Svend Ellermann-Eriksen, Bente Jespersen, Mette Yde Dam, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Thomas Benfield, Sanne Jespersen, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Alex Lund Laursen
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) pneumonia ordinarily requires invasive procedures that could be avoided by PCR methodologies, if these could be designed with adequate cut-off values for confounding background carriage. METHODS: We designed a novel quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene of PJ in oral washes. To benchmark levels of PJ carriage versus infection, we tested asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients including Danish (n = 88) and West African HIV-infected (n = 142) patients, renal transplant recipients (n = 51), rheumatologic patients (n = 102), patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 98), and healthy blood donors (controls, n = 50)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344116/asymptomatic-group-a-streptococcal-throat-carriage-in-royal-marines-recruits-and-young-officers
#11
M Pearson, J L Fallowfield, T Davey, N Thorpe, A Allsopp, A Shaw, D Wilson, S Sriskandan, L Lamb
AIMS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Royal Marines (RM) recruits to investigate throat carriage of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and incidence of soft tissue infections. METHODS: 1012 RM recruits were followed through a 32-week training programme, with throat swabs being obtained in weeks 1, 6, 15, and 32. Alongside a separate cohort of 46 RM Young Officers (YO) undergoing training were sampled in parallel. RESULTS: Carriage of group A Streptococcus was detected in only 5/1012 (0...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341014/live-pertussis-vaccines-will-they-protect-against-carriage-and-spread-of-pertussis
#12
REVIEW
C Locht
Pertussis is a severe respiratory disease that can be fatal in young infants. Its main aetiological agent is the Gram-negative micro-organism Bordetella pertussis. Vaccines against the disease have been in use since the 1950s, and global vaccination coverage has now reached more than 85%. Nevertheless, the disease has not been controlled in any country, and has even made a spectacular come-back in the industrialized world, where the first-generation whole-cell vaccines have been replaced by the more recent, less reactogenic, acellular vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275072/strategies-for-optimizing-the-diagnostic-predictive-value-of-clostridium-difficile-molecular-diagnostics
#13
Larry K Kociolek
Because nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) do not distinguish Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic C. difficile carriage, the diagnostic predictive value of NAATs is limited when used in patients with low probability of CDI. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Truong et al. report significant reductions in hospital-onset CDI and oral vancomycin utilization at their institution following implementation of a novel intervention that leveraged their clinical bioinformatics resources to prevent C...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264733/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-among-children-in-brazil-prior-to-the-introduction-of-the-10-valent-conjugate-vaccine-a-culture-and-pcr-based-survey
#14
H G Rodrigues, T C A Pinto, R R Barros, L M Teixeira, F P G Neves
We performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium...
March 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124958/-atypical-serological-profiles-in-hepatitis-b-infections-investigation-of-s-gene-mutations-in-cases-with-concurrently-positive-for-hbsag-and-anti-hbs
#15
Neriman Aydın, Sevin Kırdar, Nilgül Uzun, Mete Eyigör, Murat Sayan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes different clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to fulminant or chronic hepatitis. Serological tests are widely used for the diagnosis of HBV infections to detect viral markers. However, facing with atypical serological profiles in some patients leads to problems in interpreting of the results and management of the patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the atypical serologic profiles seen in patients screened for HBV infection and the S gene mutations in patients with concurrent positivity of HBsAg and anti-HBs...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112338/-strategies-to-protect-the-newborn-and-infants-under-6-months-of-age-against-pertussis-statement-of-the-advisory-committee-for-immunizations-of-the-chilean-infectious-diseases-society
#16
Marcela Potin, Alberto Fica, Liliana Véliz, Gabriela Moreno, Jan Wilhelm, Jaime Cerda
In recent years there have been Pertussis outbreaks not seen in the last 50 years affecting adults, adolescents and children and causing deaths in young unvaccinated infants. In Chile an outbreak of Pertussis started in year 2011, leaving 16 infants less than 3 months dead during this year, twice the number seen in a non epidemic year. These children were infected before receiving the programmatic vaccines indicated at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, usually from close contacts, especially their mothers. Pertussis control has not been possible for several reasons, such as limited immunity duration of available vaccines and their poor impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, situation that keeps the agent's circulation and transmission, condition often asymptomatic or unrecognized...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099884/characterization-of-human-and-staphylococcus-aureus-proteins-in-respiratory-mucosa-by-in-vivo-and-immunoproteomics
#17
Frank Schmidt, Tanja Meyer, Nandakumar Sundaramoorthy, Stephan Michalik, Kristin Surmann, Maren Depke, Vishnu Dhople, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Gabriele Holtappels, Nan Zhang, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Uwe Völker
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic bacterium which can be found as a commensal in the nares of about 50% of the human population. Besides asymptomatic carriage, S. aureus has also been found to colonize nasal polyps, a subform of chronic rhinosinusitis, in 60 to 100% of cases, and even reside intracellularly in nasal polyp tissue. The aim of this study was to shed light on the behavior of S. aureus in the human airways by analyzing S. aureus-specific proteins in nasal polyp tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and to characterize the immunogenic potential of the identified (mainly secreted) proteins...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096418/multi-institute-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistance-reveals-remarkable-diversity-unexplained-mechanisms-and-limited-clonal-outbreaks
#18
Gustavo C Cerqueira, Ashlee M Earl, Christoph M Ernst, Yonatan H Grad, John P Dekker, Michael Feldgarden, Sinéad B Chapman, João L Reis-Cunha, Terrance P Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Mary L Delaney, Diane Kim, Ellena M Peterson, Thomas F O'Brien, Mary Jane Ferraro, David C Hooper, Susan S Huang, James E Kirby, Andrew B Onderdonk, Bruce W Birren, Deborah T Hung, Lisa A Cosimi, Jennifer R Wortman, Cheryl I Murphy, William P Hanage
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087170/clostridium-difficile-rates-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-hospitalized-patients-using-nucleic-acid-testing
#19
Cynthia Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Rajiv Gaur, Victoria Emma Anikst, Ikuko Komo, Colleen Watters, Erin McCalley, Carole Kulik, David Pickham, Nancy J Lee, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: The Clostridium difficile rate in symptomatic patients represents both those with C. difficile infection (CDI) and those with colonization. To predict the extent of CDI overdiagnosis, we compared the asymptomatic colonization rate to the symptomatic positivity rate in hospitalized patients using nucleic acid testing. METHODS: Between July 2014 and April 2015, formed stool samples were collected from asymptomatic patients after admission to 3 hospital wards at the Stanford Hospital...
April 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078087/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-uncommon-but-life-threatening-complication
#20
Francesco Piccolo, Anna Sze Tai, Hooi Ee, Siobhain Mulrennan, Scott Bell, Gerard Ryan
Adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have significant rates of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage and are frequently exposed to risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite this, the rate of reported CDI in CF is low. We describe three cases of near fatal CDI in adults with CF and review the literature regarding presentation, management, and recurrence prevention. Early recognition is important as the clinical presentation may be atypical and the illness can be severe and even life-threatening...
January 2017: Respirology Case Reports
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