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cytomegalovirus in pregnancy

Virginie Chesnais, Alban Ott, Emmanuel Chaplais, Samuel Gabillard, Diego Pallares, Christelle Vauloup-Fellous, Alexandra Benachi, Jean-Marc Costa, Eric Ginoux
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infections of pregnant women can lead to congenital infections of the fetus that could have severe impacts on the health of the newborn. Recent studies have shown that 10-100 billion DNA fragments per milliliter of plasma are circulating cell-free. The study of this DNA has rapidly expanding applications to non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). In this study, we have shown that we can detect viral specific reads in the massively parallel shotgun sequencing (MPSS) NIPT data...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Maria Del Carmen Terrones-Saldivar, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Maria Daniela Enriqueta Munoz-Terrones, Roberto Oswaldo Gallegos-Gonzalez, Luis Francisco Sanchez-Anguiano, Martha Elena Reyes-Robles, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido
Background: Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy may lead to congenital disease. Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of CMV infection in pregnant women in Mexico. We sought to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of CMV infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study design, 289 pregnant women were examined for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
February 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Igor Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcia Regina de Andrade, Janaína de Moraes Silva, Zenira Martins Silva, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Costa, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Guimarães, Marcelo Yoshito Wada, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016. METHODS: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH)...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Loredana Delle Chiaie, Patrick Neuberger, Matthias Vochem, Angela Lihs, Ulrich Karck, Martin Enders
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of obstetrical adverse events and clinical outcome in infants following antenatal hyperimmune globulin (HIG) treatment for primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Data from 50 women including three twin pregnancies were retrospectively evaluated. Primary infection was defined by seroconversion or the presence of CMV-specific IgM and low IgG avidity. All women received two or more infusions of HIG (200 U/kg)...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
D S N'Diaye, O Launay, O Picone, V Tsatsaris, E Azria, F Rozenberg, M Schwarzinger, Y Yazdanpanah
BACKGROUND: CMV infections are the most frequent congenital infections worldwide. AIM: Assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies of adolescent girls vs. current practice (hygiene counseling) to prevent CMV seroconversions during pregnancy in France. METHOD: A Markov decision-tree model simulated overtime the trajectory of a single fictive cohort of 390,000 adolescent women aged 14 years old, living in France. Impact of vaccination was explored until the end of their reproductive live 40 years later...
February 28, 2018: Vaccine
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Nava Yeganeh, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G Morgado, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Yvonne J Bryson, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jack Moye, Jeffrey D Klausner, Claire C Bristow, Ruth Dickover, Mark Mirochnick, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV...
2018: PloS One
Akila Subramaniam, William J Britt
Bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens add significant morbidity and even mortality to pregnancy-with adverse effects extending to both the gravida and the newborn. Three herpesviruses deserve considerable attention given the effects of perinatal infection on obstetric outcomes, specifically maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the following review, we will provide a description of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella zoster virus. For each viral pathogen, we will describe the epidemiology, natural history, screening and diagnosis modalities, treatments, and implications for antepartum care...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rachelle Findley, Victoria M Allen, Jo-Ann K Brock
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the association of adverse perinatal outcomes with pregnancies complicated by fetal echogenic bowel. METHODS: Data for pregnancies complicated with echogenic bowel identified in the second trimester were derived from the tertiary referral IWK Health Centre (Halifax, NS) Viewpoint Ultrasound Database augmented by medical chart review. The study was undertaken between 2003 and 2014. Rates of positive cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis infection were determined using maternal serology and amniocentesis results...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Denise M Levis, Christina L Hillard, Simani M Price, Erika Reed-Gross, Erika Bonilla, Minal Amin, Jennifer D Stowell, Rebekah Clark, Delaney Johnson, Karen Mask, Cynthia Carpentieri, Michael J Cannon
BACKGROUND: An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U...
December 14, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Cora Alexandra Voekt, Therese Rinderknecht, Hans Hellmuth Hirsch, Annette Blaich, Irene Mathilde Hösli
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
S De Carolis, S Tabacco, F Rizzo, G Perrone, C Garufi, A Botta, S Salvi, P Benedetti Panici, A Lanzone
The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. In the presence of IgM positivity, when indicated (CMV, toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex virus), IgG avidity was evaluated and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction was performed on an amniotic fluid sample in order to distinguish between primary infection or false positivity...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
Deborah Levine, Jacques C Jani, Ilse Castro-Aragon, Mieke Cannie
The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. It fits well with other congenital TORCH infections since there is a rash in the mother and there are commonly ocular abnormalities in the newborn...
December 2017: Radiology
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Roee Birnbaum, Liat Ben-Sira, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger
OBJECTIVE: To analyze ultrasound and MRI results and developmental outcome in cases of maternal primary CMV infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of fetal neurosonography and brain MRI of CMV infected fetuses (Group 1). Cases of maternal infection in which the fetal status was unknown, and subsequently had a negative CMV postnatal urine analysis, were independently analyzed (Group 2). Imaging results were classified as: positive, negative or inconclusive...
November 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
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