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cytomegalovirus in pregnancy

Rosemary Thackeray, Brianna M Magnusson
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Johanna Stranzinger, Jutta Kindel, Melanie Henning, Dana Wendeler, Albert Nienhaus
Background: Staff in children's hospitals may run an increased risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) contact infection leading to a congenital CMV fetopathy during pregnancy. The main risk factor is close contact with inapparent carriers of CMV among infants (<3 years). We therefore examined CMV seroprevalence (SP) and possible risk factors for CMV infection among staff at a children's hospital. Method: In 2014, staff at a metropolitan children's hospital were offered a CMV antibody test in the context of occupational health screening...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Mariya Angelova, Emil Kovachev, Nikolai Todorov
AIM: The aim of this publication is to present a case of CMV infection during pregnancy, with clinical manifestations of the development of microcephaly and simultaneous dilatation of the 3rd and 4th brain ventricle at 23 weeks gestation. This article discusses the role of ultrasound screening in the second trimester of pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with the initials S.K. in her second pregnancy that came to our antenatal Consulting Centre...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Roberta Rizzo, Liliana Gabrielli, Daria Bortolotti, Valentina Gentili, Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Claudia Pavia, Silvia Bolzani, Brunella Guerra, Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesca Cervi, Maria Grazia Capretti, Enrico Fainardi, Dario Di Luca, Maria Paola Landini, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I antigen that is expressed during pregnancy contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance. HLA-G can be expressed as membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G expression increases strongly during viral infections such as congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, with functional consequences in immunoregulation. In this work we investigated the expression of soluble (s)HLA-G and beta-2 microglobulin (component of HLA) molecules in correlation with the risk of transmission and severity of congenital HCMV infection...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
V H Kuret, C Osborne, E Curran, S Cooper, E Castillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Manoel Sarno, Marcelo Aquino, Kleber Pimentel, Renata Cabral, Gisela Costa, Fernanda Bastos, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the pattern and progression of Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions of microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly after a routine primary care ultrasound scan suspect a fetal microcephaly in Salvador, Brazil, from July/2015 to February/2016 and these pregnancies were followed until delivery. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was below two or more standard deviation for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to World Health Organization criteria...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Huan Zhou, Yongping Liu, Lu Liu, Min Zhang, Xingzhi Chen, Yulong Qi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of the pre-pregnancy modifiable risks with miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: We randomly selected 51 communities or villages from January 2013 to December 2014 in Anhui, China. We calculated incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each risk factor for miscarriage. RESULTS: The incidence rate of miscarriage was 7.45%, and pre-embryonic loss account for 12.66%, embryonic loss account for 38%, and fetal losses account for 49...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Gurleen Wander, Francesa Neuberger, Mandish K Dhanjal, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, May Ching Soh
Most published cases of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy relate to congenital abnormalities in neonates infected in early pregnancy, while the mother remains asymptomatic. We describe a diagnostically challenging case of an immunosuppressed woman with scleroderma who developed deranged liver function tests attributed to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome but was ultimately found to have disseminated cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus can present in a myriad of ways...
September 2016: Obstetric Medicine
William D Rawlinson, Stuart T Hamilton, Wendy J van Zuylen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of review is to assess the recent studies of therapy of pregnant women and neonates, aimed at preventing the consequences of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent randomized controlled trial of treatment of CMV during pregnancy with hyperimmune globulin did not show significant efficacy in prevention of foetal infection and morbidity, although there was a trend towards improvement with treatment. Trials of antiviral therapy of the mother during pregnancy have involved small numbers only, confounded by ethical and practical difficulties, and further studies are needed to demonstrate whether or not antivirals are useful and well tolerated in this setting...
September 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Branko Kolaric, Natasa Beader, Izabela Vrtar, Irena Tabain, Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is endemic worldwide, with marked differences in the seroprevalence rates between countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of CMV infections in Croatia. METHODS: During a 3-year period (2013-2015) 2438 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of CMV IgM and IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The IgM/IgG positive samples were further tested for IgG avidity...
September 6, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Carolyn B Coyne, Helen M Lazear
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal microcephaly has led to a renewed interest in the mechanisms by which vertically transmitted microorganisms reach the fetus and cause congenital disease. In this Opinion article, we provide an overview of the structure and cellular composition of the human placenta and of the mechanisms by which traditional 'TORCH' pathogens (Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus) access the fetal compartment...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Ghulam Mujtaba, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Fariha Hasan, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Aamer Ali Shah
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and types of overt congenital infection in neonates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and Federal Government Services Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan, from March 2010 to June 2011, and comprised blood samples of pregnant women. Seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while its deoxyribonucleic acid was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction...
August 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Bodo Plachter
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one leading cause of childhood disabilities. Prevention of congenital HCMV disease by vaccination has consequently been identified as a priority public healthcare goal. Several vaccine candidates have been introduced in the past that aimed at the prevention of primary HCMV infection in pregnancy. None of these has provided complete protection, and no licensed vaccine is thus far available. An additional level of complexity has been reached by recent studies indicating that the burden of HCMV transmission and disease following non-primary infections in pregnancy may be higher than previously anticipated...
August 12, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Maurizio Zavattoni, Milena Furione, Paolo Lanzarini, Alessia Arossa, Mariangela Rustico, Beatrice Tassis, Antonio Piralla, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been reported that maternal DNAemia is detectable in three quarters of pregnant women with acute/recent primary HCMV infections, with a higher median number of HCMV DNA copies/ml blood in transmitter as compared with non-transmitter mothers. STUDY DESIGN: The kinetics of HCMV DNA in blood of transmitter vs non-transmitter pregnant women with primary HCMV infection was retrospectively analyzed from their first blood sampling at referral up to amniocentesis strictly performed at 19-21 weeks' gestation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
S G Cheshik, L B Kisteneva
The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73...
2016: Voprosy Virusologii
Edith Reuschel, Sascha Barabas, Florian Zeman, Hanna Bendfeldt, Anne Rascle, Ludwig Deml, Birgit Seelbach-Goebel
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection. Mother-to-child transmission can cause severe child disability. Intact CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was shown to prevent uncontrolled replication in healthy individuals. This study aimed to determine whether CMV-specific CMI is impaired in pregnant women, thus potentially increasing the overall risk for active CMV replication and transmission. CMV-specific CMI in peripheral blood of 60 pregnant women was determined using T-Track® CMV for detection of IE-1 and pp65-reactive effector cells by IFN-γ ELISpot, and compared to the CMV-IgG and -IgM serostatus...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Ghulam Mujtaba, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Massab Umair, Aamer Ali Shah, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection contributes to considerable long-term sequelae in neonates and children all over the world. The association between viral genotypes and severity of clinical cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is yet to be defined. The objective of this study was to find the impact of active CMV infection during pregnancy and the clinical significance of genotypes in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infections in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 409 blood samples from pregnant women seeking health care services at the two antenatal hospitals of Islamabad during January to December 2012 were tested by ELISA and nested-PCR...
2016: PloS One
K Yeon Choi, Matthew Root, Alistair McGregor
UNLABELLED: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of mental retardation and deafness in newborns. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV infection. A novel CMV vaccine was investigated as an intervention strategy against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) infection. In this disabled infectious single-cycle (DISC) vaccine strategy, a GPCMV mutant virus was used that lacked the ability to express an essential capsid gene (the UL85 homolog GP85) except when grown on a complementing cell line...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Alyssa J Rolfe, Dale B Bosco, Jingying Wang, Richard S Nowakowski, Jianqing Fan, Yi Ren
BACKGROUND: The single-stranded RNA Flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV), has recently re-emerged and spread rapidly across the western hemisphere's equatorial countries, primarily through Aedes mosquito transmission. While symptoms in adult infections appear to be self-limiting and mild, severe birth defects, such as microcephaly, have been linked to infection during early pregnancy. Recently, Tang et al. (Cell Stem Cell 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016) demonstrated that ZIKV efficiently infects induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), resulting in cell cycle abnormalities and apoptosis...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Maria Pia De Carolis, Silvia Salvi, Iliana Bersani, Serafina Lacerenza, Costantino Romagnoli, Sara De Carolis
BACKGROUND: Neonatal blueberry muffin lesions are rare cutaneous eruptions, presenting as transient, non-blanching, red-violaceous papules, mostly localized in the trunk, head and neck, attributable to a marked dermal hematopoietic activity. Congenital infections of the TORCH complex (toxoplasmosis, other, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes) and hematological disorders have been classically associated with this neonatal dermatological manifestation. We report for the first time an unusual presentation of blueberry muffin lesions in a neonate born from a mother affected by severe anemia during pregnancy...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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