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Gun control

Jeremy Pollack, Colin Holbrook, Daniel M T Fessler, Adam Maxwell Sparks, James G Zerbe
The perceived support of supernatural agents has been historically, ethnographically, and theoretically linked with confidence in engaging in violent intergroup conflict. However, scant experimental investigations of such links have been reported to date, and the extant evidence derives largely from indirect laboratory methods of limited ecological validity. Here, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that perceived supernatural aid would heighten inclinations toward coalitional aggression using a realistic simulated coalitional combat paradigm: competitive team paintball...
June 18, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Byoung Yong Yoo, Byung Hwi Kim, Jae Sang Lee, Byung Ho Shin, Heeyeon Kwon, Won-Gun Koh, Chan Yeong Heo
In this study, we report a new physicochemical surface on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based silicone implants in an effort to minimize capsular contracture. Two different surface modification strategies, namely, microtexturing as a physical cue and multilayer coating as a chemical cue, were combined to achieve synergistic effects. The deposition of uniformly sized microparticles onto uncured PDMS surfaces and the subsequent removal after curing generated microtextured surfaces with concave hemisphere micropatterns...
June 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Darby Saxbe, Hannah Khoddam, Larissa Del Piero, Sarah A Stoycos, Sarah I Gimbel, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan
Community violence exposure is a common stressor, known to compromise youth cognitive and emotional development. In a diverse, urban sample of 22 adolescents, participants reported on community violence exposure (witnessing a beating or illegal drug use, hearing gun shots, or other forms of community violence) in early adolescence (average age 12.99), and underwent a neuroimaging scan 3-5 years later (average age 16.92). Community violence exposure in early adolescence predicted smaller manually traced left and right hippocampal and amygdala volumes in a model controlling for age, gender, and concurrent community violence exposure, measured in late adolescence...
June 11, 2018: Developmental Science
Chelsea M Spencer, Sandra M Stith
Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a serious problem throughout the world. Research has identified the continued need to examine risk factors for IPH to identify individuals who may be at a greater risk of IPH perpetration or victimization. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis on risk factors for male IPH perpetration and female IPH victimization. This meta-analysis examined results from 17 studies, which included 148 effect sizes used in the analysis. Primary findings from this research suggest the strongest risk factors for IPH were the perpetrator having direct access to a gun, perpetrator's previous nonfatal strangulation, perpetrator's previous rape of the victim, perpetrator's previous threat with a weapon, the perpetrator's demonstration of controlling behaviors, and the perpetrator's previous threats to harm the victim...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Gustav J W Lundberg, Rebecca Neel, Bethany Lassetter, Andrew R Todd
Across two experiments, we examined whether implicit stereotypes linking younger (~28-year-old) Black versus White men with violence and criminality extend to older (~68-year-old) Black versus White men. In Experiment 1, participants completed a sequential priming task wherein they categorized objects as guns or tools after seeing briefly-presented facial images of men who varied in age (younger versus older) and race (Black versus White). In Experiment 2, we used different face primes of younger and older Black and White men, and participants categorized words as 'threatening' or 'safe...
2018: PloS One
Jae Ryun Kim, Young-Gun Park, Young Jung Roh
PURPOSE: To evaluate oxygen consumption by photoreceptors, we estimated changes in pre-retinal oxygen pressure (PO2 ) after selective retina therapy (SRT) compared with conventional photocoagulation (PC) in rabbits. METHODS: One eye of each of 10 Chinchilla Bastard rabbits received both 144 laser SRT spots and 144 laser PC spots. Color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography were used to evaluate the lesions after treatment...
June 2, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Ruan Vlok, Gun Hee An, Matthew Binks, Thomas Melhuish, Leigh White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Young-Gun Kim, Seirhan Kim, Seung Jin Han, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee, Hae Jin Kim
Background: Information on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) is limited and controversial. One study suggested that the differences in findings between these meta-analyses were attributed to whether they included large randomized control trials with cardiovascular outcomes or not. The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of DPP-4i increases the risk of acute pancreatitis compared with sulfonylurea (SU) and whether the risk is higher in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Abhishek Jaywant, Joan Toglia, Faith M Gunning, Michael W O'Dell
Cognitive assessment is an important component of inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Few studies have empirically evaluated the clinical utility of specific neuropsychological measures in this setting. We investigated the psychometric properties and clinical utility of a 30-minute neuropsychological battery developed by the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Canadian Stroke Network (CSN). Clinical data were analyzed from 100 individuals with mild-moderate stroke severity on an acute inpatient rehabilitation unit who completed the NINDS-CSN battery at admission...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Thuy-Tien Nguyen, A P Pearce, D Carpanen, D Sory, G Grigoriadis, N Newell, J Clasper, A Bull, W G Proud, S D Masouros
Injuries sustained due to attacks from explosive weapons are multiple in number, complex in nature, and not well characterised. Blast may cause damage to the human body by the direct effect of overpressure, penetration by highly energised fragments, and blunt trauma by violent displacements of the body. The ability to reproduce the injuries of such insults in a well-controlled fashion is essential in order to understand fully the unique mechanism by which they occur, and design better treatment and protection strategies to alleviate the resulting poor long-term outcomes...
May 24, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Il Ok Lee, Young Sung Kim, Hae Wone Chang, Heezoo Kim, Byung Gun Lim, Mido Lee
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that sugammadex resulted in the prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of exogenous sugammadex on the coagulation variables of whole blood in healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. METHODS: The effects of sugammadex on coagulations were assessed using thromboelastography (TEG) in kaolin-activated citrated blood samples taken from 14 healthy patients who underwent orthopedic surgery...
May 24, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Stephanie M Engel, Gro D Villanger, Rachel C Nethery, Cathrine Thomsen, Amrit K Sakhi, Samantha S M Drover, Jane A Hoppin, Pal Zeiner, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Amy H Herring, Heidi Aase
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that phthalate exposures may have an impact on child neurodevelopment. Prenatal exposure to phthalates has been linked with externalizing behaviors and executive functioning defects suggestive of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype. OBJECTIVES: We undertook an investigation into whether prenatal exposure to phthalates was associated with clinically confirmed ADHD in a population-based nested case-control study of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) between the years 2003 and 2008...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Bo Liu, Chaojun Tang, Jing Chen, Ningyan Xie, Huang Tang, Xiaoqin Zhu, Gun-Sik Park
It is well known that a suspended monolayer graphene has a weak light absorption efficiency of about 2.3% at normal incidence, which is disadvantageous to some applications in optoelectronic devices. In this work, we will numerically study multiband and broadband absorption enhancement of monolayer graphene over the whole visible spectrum, due to multiple magnetic dipole resonances in metamaterials. The unit cell of the metamaterials is composed of a graphene monolayer sandwiched between four Ag nanodisks with different diameters and a SiO2 spacer on an Ag substrate...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Mohamed Ben-Eltriki, Subrata Deb, Mohamed Hassona, Gray Meckling, Ladan Fazli, Mei Yieng Chin, Nada Lallous, Takeshi Yamazaki, William Jia, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov, Emma S Tomlinson Guns
We have explored the effects of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (aPPD), a naturally derived ginsenoside, against androgen receptor (AR) positive castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) xenograft tumors and have examined its interactions with AR. In silico docking studies for aPPD binding to AR, alongside transactivation bioassays and in vivo efficacy studies were carried out in the castration-resistant C4-2 xenograft model. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blot analyses followed by evaluation of AR, apoptotic, cell cycle and proliferative markers in excised tumors was performed...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Koki Nishihara, Daichi Kato, Yutaka Suzuki, Dahye Kim, Misato Nakano, Yu Yajima, Satoshi Haga, Miwa Nakano, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Tomohiro Kono, Kazuo Katoh, Sang-Gun Roh
The length and density of rumen papillae starts to increase during weaning and growth of ruminants. This significant development increases the intraruminal surface area and the efficiency of VFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, etc.) uptake. Thus, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the growth and development of rumen papillae during weaning. This study aimed to compare the transcriptomes of rumen papillae in suckling and weaned calves. Total RNA was extracted from the rumen papillae of 10 male Japanese Black calves (5 suckling calves, 5 wk old; 5 weaned calves, 15 wk old) and used in RNA-sequencing...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kelechi R Okoroha, Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Christopher S Ahmad, Vasilios Moutzouros, Eric C Makhni
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing incidence of overuse elbow injuries among youth and adolescent pitchers. Pitch type has been implicated as a risk factor for excess torque at the medial elbow; however, this has not been definitively demonstrated. PURPOSE: To assess predictors of torque across the medial elbow in youth and adolescent pitchers with a mobile sensor. In addition, the authors aimed to determine the differences in elbow torque produced according to pitch type (fastball, curveball, changeup) and pitcher demographics...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Cheryl Holly, Sallie Porter, Mary Kamienski, Aubrianne Lim
BACKGROUND: Nearly 1,300 children in the United States die because of firearm-related injury each year and another 5,790 survive gunshot wounds, making the prevention of firearm-related unintentional injury to children of vital importance to families, health professionals, and policy makers. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on school-based and community-based gun safety programs for children aged 3 to 18 years. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review...
May 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Sonam Vijay, Ritu Rawal, Kavita Kadian, Jagbir Singh, Tridibesh Adak, Arun Sharma
BACKGROUND: Midgut invasion, a major bottleneck for malaria parasites transmission is considered as a potential target for vector-parasite interaction studies. New intervention strategies are required to explore the midgut proteins and their potential role in refractoriness for malaria control in Anopheles mosquitoes. To better understand the midgut functional proteins of An. culicifacies susceptible and refractory species, proteomic approaches coupled with bioinformatics analysis is an effective means in order to understand the mechanism of refractoriness...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Corinne A Riddell, Sam Harper, Magdalena Cerdá, Jay S Kaufman
Background: The extent to which differences in homicide and suicide rates in black versus white men vary by U.S. state is unknown. Objective: To compare the rates of firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white non-Hispanic men by U.S. state and to examine whether these deaths are associated with state prevalence of gun ownership. Design: Surveillance study. Setting: 50 states and the District of Columbia, 2008 to 2016...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Seda Erbilgin Gün, Ayse Kilincaslan
OBJECTIVE: To examine (a) the quality of life (QOL) in children with Tourette's disorder (TD) and ADHD (TD + ADHD) compared with ADHD without tics (ADHD alone) and (b) the effects of the severity of tics, ADHD symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, and family functioning on QOL. METHOD: The assessments included the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, ADHD Rating Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Family Assessment Device...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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