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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691318/control-of-motor-coordination-by-astrocytic-tonic-gaba-release-through-modulation-of-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-cerebellum
#1
Junsung Woo, Joo Ok Min, Dae-Si Kang, Yoo Sung Kim, Guk Hwa Jung, Hyun Jung Park, Sunpil Kim, Heeyoung An, Jea Known, Jeongyeon Kim, Insop Shim, Hyung-Gun Kim, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
Tonic inhibition in the brain is mediated through an activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by the tonically released GABA, resulting in a persistent GABAergic inhibitory action. It is one of the key regulators for neuronal excitability, exerting a powerful action on excitation/inhibition balance. We have previously reported that astrocytic GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), mediates tonic inhibition via GABA-permeable bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel in the cerebellum. However, the role of astrocytic GABA in regulating neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and cerebellar brain function has remained elusive...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683729/is-tinnitus-an-early-voice-of-masked-hypertension-high-masked-hypertension-rate-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#2
Taylan Gun, Selçuk Özkan, Bunyamin Yavuz
OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus is hearing a sound without any external acoustic stimulus. There are some clues of hypertension can cause tinnitus in different ways. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and masked hypertension including echocardiographic parameters and severity of tinnitus. METHODS: This study included 88 patients with tinnitus of at least 3 months duration and 85 age and gender-matched control subjects. Tinnitus severity index was used to classify the patients with tinnitus...
April 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680676/loaded-gun-involvement-among-opioid-users
#3
Michael D Stein, Shannon R Kenney, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Despite ample research examining how alcohol use relates to gun involvement, little is known about the relationship between opioids and gun involvement. In the current study, we examined correlates of gun possession, accessibility, and related behaviors in an opioid dependent sample. METHODS: Between October 2016 and April 2017, we surveyed persons entering a brief, inpatient opioid detoxification (n = 386) and 51 contemporaneous persons seeking alcohol detoxification at the same facility in Massachusetts and recorded their lifetime experiences with gun involvement...
April 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680549/nitrogen-removal-through-n-cycling-from-sediments-in-a-constructed-coastal-marsh-as-assessed-by-15-n-isotope-dilution
#4
Hee-Myong Ro, Pan-Gun Kim, Ji-Suk Park, Seok-In Yun, Junho Han
Constructed coastal marsh regulates land-born nitrogen (N) loadings through salinity-dependent microbial N transformation processes. A hypothesis that salinity predominantly controls N removal in marsh was tested through incubation in a closed system with added-15 NH4 + using sediments collected from five sub-marshes in Shihwa marsh, Korea. Time-course patterns of concentrations and 15 N-atom% of soil-N pools were analyzed. Sediments having higher salinity and lower soil organic-C and acid-extractable organic-N exhibited slower rates of N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, and denitrification...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658378/improvement-of-depressive-symptoms-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-treated-with-ustekinumab-an-open-label-trial-validated-using-beck-depression-inventory-hamilton-depression-rating-scale-measures-and-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-fdg-positron-emission
#5
Seong-Jang Kim, Min-Young Park, Kyoungjune Pak, Junhee Han, Gun-Wook Kim, Hoon-Soo Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Byung-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially depression. Early detection of psychological vulnerability in patients with psoriasis seems to be of great clinical importance and significantly impacts the quality of life of the patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify the association between psoriasis and depressive symptoms in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, and to determine the risk factors for depressive symptoms and analyse the effect of ustekinumab on the symptoms...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655395/firearm-related-injuries-among-canadian-children-and-youth-from-2006-to-2013-a-chirpp-study
#6
Catherine M J Cox, Samuel A Stewart, Katrina F Hurley
CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? Injuries from non-powder firearms are common and potentially life-altering. The Canadian Pediatric Society urges stricter controls on non-powder guns. What did this study ask? What are the Canadian contextual trends in paediatric firearm injuries? What did this study find? In this study, the rate of paediatric firearm injuries was stable from 2006 to 2013. Eye injuries inflicted by non-powder firearms were most common. Most firearm injuries occurred through recreation and sport...
April 15, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653184/estrogen-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-induced-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-microglia-and-astrocyte-activation
#7
Jee Youn Lee, Hae Young Choi, Bong Gun Ju, Tae Young Yune
Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is developed in about 80% of SCI patients and there is no efficient therapeutic drug to alleviate SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Here we examined the effect of estrogen on SCI-induced neuropathic pain at below-level and its effect on neuroinflammation as underlying mechanisms. Neuropathic pain is developed at late phase after SCI and a single dose of 17β-estradiol (100, 300 μg/kg) were administered to rats with neuropathic pain after SCI through intravenous injection...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624581/efficacy-of-aedes-aegypti-control-by-indoor-ultra-low-volume-ulv-insecticide-spraying-in-iquitos-peru
#8
Christian E Gunning, Kenichi Okamoto, Helvio Astete, Gissella M Vasquez, Erik Erhardt, Clara Del Aguila, Raul Pinedo, Roldan Cardenas, Carlos Pacheco, Enrique Chalco, Hugo Rodriguez-Ferruci, Thomas W Scott, Alun L Lloyd, Fred Gould, Amy C Morrison
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and urban yellow fever viruses. Indoor, ultra low volume (ULV) space spraying with pyrethroid insecticides is the main approach used for Ae. aegypti emergency control in many countries. Given the widespread use of this method, the lack of large-scale experiments or detailed evaluations of municipal spray programs is problematic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two experimental evaluations of non-residual, indoor ULV pyrethroid spraying were conducted in Iquitos, Peru...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613872/repeal-of-comprehensive-background-check-policies-and-firearm-homicide-and-suicide
#9
Rose M C Kagawa, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jon S Vernick, Daniel Webster, Cassandra Crifasi, Kara E Rudolph, Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron Shev, Garen J Wintemute
BACKGROUND: In 2016, firearms killed 38,658 people in the United States. Federal law requires licensed gun dealers, but not private parties, to conduct background checks on prospective firearm purchasers with the goal of preventing prohibited persons from obtaining firearms. Our objective was to estimate the effect of the repeal of comprehensive background check laws - requiring a background check for all handgun sales, not just sales by licensed dealers - on firearm homicide and suicide rates in Indiana and Tennessee...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590520/mass-shootings-mental-illness-and-gun-control
#10
Sean Philpott-Jones
In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575452/bioactivity-of-novel-functionally-structured-titanium-ceramic-composites-in-contact-with-human-osteoblasts
#11
G M Peñarrieta-Juanito, M Costa, M Cruz, G Miranda, B Henriques, J Marques, R S Magini, A Mata, J Caramês, Fs F Silva, Jcm Souza
The aim of this study was to analyze the osteogenic cell behavior on the surface of novel functionally graded titanium-based composites containing bioactive ceramics. Titanium grade V discs (8 x 3 mm) embedding gradual content of hydroxyapatite (TiAlV-HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (TiAlV-βTCP) were produced by hot-pressing technique. Titanium-ceramic composite discs and Ti grade V (control group) were placed in contact with human osteoblast culture assays. The morphology and adhesion of osteoblasts were inspected by field emission guns scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) while cell viability was assessed by fluorometric method...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559399/ustekinumab-treatment-is-associated-with-decreased-systemic-and-vascular-inflammation-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-feasibility-study-using-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#12
Byung-Soo Kim, Won-Ku Lee, Kyoungjune Pak, Junhee Han, Gun-Wook Kim, Hoon-Soo Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Moon-Bum Kim, Seong-Jang Kim
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that psoriasis may be associated with metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ustekinumab reduces systemic and vascular inflammation associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, measured using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT). METHODS: Patients with psoriasis and healthy controls underwent baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530018/prevalence-and-stability-of-mental-disorders-among-young-adults-findings-from-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Kristin Gustavson, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Ragnar Nesvåg, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. METHODS: DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63...
March 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517132/initial-clinical-experience-with-azd5718-a-novel-once-daily-oral-5-lipoxygenase-activating-protein-inhibitor
#14
Hans Ericsson, Karin Nelander, Maria Lagerstrom-Fermer, Clare Balendran, Maria Bhat, Ligia Chialda, Li-Ming Gan, Maria Heijer, Magnus Kjaer, John Lambert, Eva-Lotte Lindstedt, Gun-Britt Forsberg, Carl Whatling, Stanko Skrtic
We evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of AZD5718, a novel 5-lipooxygenase activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor, in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, first-in-human (FIH) study consisting of single and multiple ascending dosing (SAD and MAD) for 10 days in healthy subjects. Target engagement was measured by ex vivo calcium ionophore stimulated leukotriene B (LTB4 ) production in whole blood and endogenous leukotriene E (LTE4 ) in urine. No clinically relevant safety and tolerability findings were observed...
March 8, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502634/evaluation-of-pediatric-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-provider-counseling-written-materials-a-health-literacy-perspective
#15
Rosy Chhabra, Deena J Chisolm, Barbara Bayldon, Maheen Quadri, Iman Sharif, Jessica J Velazquez, Karen Encalada, Angelic Rivera, Millie Harris, Elana Levites-Agababa, H Shonna Yin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite recommendations supporting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, pediatric vaccination rates remain suboptimal in the United States; lack of tools to support provider counseling is one barrier. We sought to evaluate HPV-related counseling materials for readability, suitability, and content, and assess parent perceptions of materials, using a health literacy perspective. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for written materials developed for HPV vaccination counseling by examining state Department of Health Web sites and associated links to local and national organizations...
March 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486535/phenotypic-and-genotypic-analyses-of-an-attenuated-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-strain-after-serial-passages-in-cultured-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#16
Seung-Chul Lee, Sunhee Lee, Gun-Woo Yoo, Hwan-Won Choi, Yun-Hee Noh, Chang Eon Park, Jae-Ho Shin, In-Joong Yoon, Shien-Young Kang, Changhee Lee
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine viral pathogen that causes major economic losses worldwide. We previously reported an over-attenuated phenotype of a cell-adapted PRRSV strain CA-2-P100 in vivo . In the present study, CA-2-P100 was serially propagated in cultured porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells for up to 20 passages to obtain the derivative strain CA-2-MP120. Animal inoculation studies revealed that both CA-2-P100 and CA-2-MP120 had decreased virulence, eliciting similar weight gain, body temperatures, and histopathologic lesions as in the negative control group...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483246/citywide-cluster-randomized-trial-to-restore-blighted-vacant-land-and-its-effects-on-violence-crime-and-fear
#17
Charles C Branas, Eugenia South, Michelle C Kondo, Bernadette C Hohl, Philippe Bourgois, Douglas J Wiebe, John M MacDonald
Vacant and blighted urban land is a widespread and potentially risky environmental condition encountered by millions of people on a daily basis. About 15% of the land in US cities is deemed vacant or abandoned, an area roughly the size of Switzerland. In a citywide cluster randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of standardized, reproducible interventions that restore vacant land on the commission of violence, crime, and the perceptions of fear and safety. Quantitative and ethnographic analyses were included in a mixed-methods approach to more fully test and explicate our findings...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479278/the-prevention-of-firearm-injuries-in-canadian-youth
#18
Katherine Austin, Margo Lane
Firearm injuries are a significant and preventable cause of death in Canadian youth. Adolescent and young adult males are disproportionately affected; however, firearm-related deaths occur in youth of all ages. Canada's rate of firearm ownership is lower than that of the USA, but high compared with other upper-income countries. The availability of firearms to youth is an important factor in adolescent suicide, unintentional firearm deaths, gang homicide and school shootings. Guns should not be kept in homes or environments where children and adolescents live or play...
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478178/modified-finney-enteroplasty-a-bowel-sparing-damage-control-stapled-technique-for-penetrating-jejunal-and-ileal-injuries
#19
EDITORIAL
Eduardo Smith-Singares
The rise in gun violence and other penetrating trauma constitutes one of the main challenges in the modern practice of Acute Care Surgery. Expertise in the emergency management of this type of injuries is needed if one is to avoid preventable complications, such as short bowel syndrome. Revisiting and sometimes repurposing old surgical techniques may facilitate this task. The use of a modified Finney enteroplasty as a bowel sparing damage control technique for penetrating jejunal and ileal injuries was studied on 87 gunshot wound victims...
February 24, 2018: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474678/society-of-behavioral-medicine-sbm-position-statement-restore-cdc-funding-for-firearms-and-gun-violence-prevention-research
#20
Pamela Behrman, Colleen A Redding, Sheela Raja, Tamara Newton, Nisha Beharie, Destiny Printz
The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership...
February 21, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
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