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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430807/diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis-is-greatly-improved-by-xpert-mtb-rif
#1
Giulia Lombardi, Valentina Di Gregori, Nicolò Girometti, Marina Tadolini, Francesco Bisognin, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS: Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427007/novel-and-revisited-approaches-in-antituberculosis-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer Herrmann, Jan Rybniker, Rolf Müller
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) necessitates the discovery and development of novel drugs against tuberculosis. In this review, we focus on two recent approaches that led to the discovery of promising antitubercular compound classes: (I) Hits derived from large compound library screens are increasingly difficult to translate into clinical application; this in turn fostered the development of innovative screening methods. (II) An alternative strategy towards high-quality hits and leads is to evaluate chemically diverse scaffolds which can be found among natural products...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425873/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-and-sputum-smear-negative-pulmonary-suspects-using-xpert-mtb-rif
#3
Irfan Ullah, Arshad Javaid, Haleema Masud, Mazhar Ali, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Faisal Younis, Rehana Yasmin, Afsar Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Masroor Husain, Zahid Ahmad Butt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425478/data-intensive-genome-level-analysis-for-identifying-novel-non-toxic-drug-targets-for-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Divneet Kaur, Rintu Kutum, Debasis Dash, Samir K Brahmachari
We report the construction of a novel Systems Biology based virtual drug discovery model for the prediction of non-toxic metabolic targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This is based on a data-intensive genome level analysis and the principle of conservation of the evolutionarily important genes. In the 1623 sequenced Mtb strains, 890 metabolic genes identified through a systems approach in Mtb were evaluated for non-synonymous mutations. The 33 genes showed none or one variation in the entire 1623 strains, including 1084 Russian MDR strains...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423599/re-expression-of-mir-200c-suppresses-proliferation-colony-formation-and-in-vivo-tumor-growth-of-murine-claudin-low-mammary-tumor-cells
#5
Robert Jones, Katrina Watson, Anthony Bruce, Sarah Nersesian, Jenna Kitz, Roger Moorehead
Claudin-low breast cancer is a relatively rare breast cancer subtype. These cancers are typically ER-/PR-/HER2- and express high levels of mesenchymal genes as well as genes associated with inflammation, angiogenesis and stem cell function. In addition to alterations in gene expression, it was recently demonstrated that claudin-low breast cancers express very low levels of the miR-200 family of miRNAs. Given that each miRNA can regulate tens, hundreds or even thousands of genes, miRNAs are being evaluated as therapeutic targets...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423019/design-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-wollamide-b-a-new-potential-anti-tb-agent
#6
Henok Asfaw, Katja Laqua, Anna Maria Walkowska, Fraser Cunningham, Maria Santos Martinez-Martinez, Juan Carlos Cuevas-Zurita, Lluís Ballell-Pages, Peter Imming
Wollamide B is a cationic antimycobacterial cyclohexapeptide that exhibits activity against Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) (IC50 of 3.1 μM). Aiming to define its structural activity relationship (SAR), optimizing potency and pharmacokinetic properties, libraries of analogues were synthesized following a standard Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis approach. The antimycobacterial activities of wollamide B and all the synthesized analogues were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv. Parallely, in vitro drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (ADME) profiling was done for the synthesized compounds to evaluate their drug likeness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422463/gingival-health-and-plaque-regrowth-response-following-a-four-week-interdental-hygiene-intervention
#7
Anthony Mwatha, Misty Olson, Sonia Souza, Marilyn Ward, Wendy Jenkins, Pejmon Amini, John Gallob, Theresa Fafard
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of three adjunct interproximal cleaning methods versus a manual toothbrush alone on gingivitis, and demonstrate that the Philips Sonicare AirflossPro™ interproximal (IP) cleaning device provides a similar reduction in gingivitis and plaque compared to string floss. METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-design study was conducted on generally healthy adults exhibiting mild to moderate gingivitis. Eligible subjects were non-smokers, aged 18-65 years, with ≥ 0...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422460/an-evaluation-of-plaque-and-gingivitis-reduction-following-home-use-of-sonicare-flexcare-platinum-with-premium-plaque-control-brush-head-and-a-manual-toothbrush
#8
Wendy Jenkins, Sonia Souza, Marilyn Ward, Jodi Defenbaugh, Kimberly R Milleman, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of the Philips Sonicare FlexCare Platinum with Premium plaque control brush head on gingival inflammation, bleeding, and supragingival plaque reduction following a six-week period of home use compared to a manual toothbrush. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design clinical trial. Subjects included in the study were routine manual toothbrush users who were generally healthy non-smokers, aged 18-65 years, with mild to moderate gingivitis...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422459/the-effect-of-use-of-a-sonic-power-toothbrush-and-a-manual-toothbrush-control-on-plaque-and-gingivitis
#9
Marcia Delaurenti, Marilyn Ward, Sonia Souza, Wendy Jenkins, Mark S Putt, Kimberly R Milleman, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of the Philips Sonicare DiamondClean power toothbrush and the ADA Reference manual toothbrush to reduce plaque and gingival inflammation by routine manual toothbrush users. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design study. Eligible subjects were generally healthy non-smokers who exhibited mild to moderate gingivitis upon study entry. Enrolled subjects were randomly allocated to commence twice-daily home use of either a Philips Sonicare DiamondClean (DiamondClean) power toothbrush or an ADA reference manual toothbrush (MTB) for a period of four weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422240/zwitterionic-pyrrolidene-phosphonates-inhibitors-of-the-glycoside-hydrolase-like-phosphorylase-streptomyces-coelicolor-glgei-v279s
#10
Sri Kumar Veleti, Cecile Petit, Donald R Ronning, Steven J Sucheck
We synthesized and evaluated new zwitterionic inhibitors against glycoside hydrolase-like phosphorylase Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco) GlgEI-V279S which plays a role in α-glucan biosynthesis. Sco GlgEI-V279S serves as a model enzyme for validated anti-tuberculosis (TB) target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) GlgE. Pyrrolidine inhibitors 5 and 6 were designed based on transition state considerations and incorporate a phosphonate on the pyrrolidine moiety to expand the interaction network between the inhibitor and the enzyme active site...
April 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422112/accurate-and-effective-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detection-method-using-gap-filling-ligation-coupled-with-high-resolution-capillary-electrophoresis-based-single-strand-conformation-polymorphism
#11
Woong Choi, Jongseok Lee, Eunjin Cho, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Tuberculosis (TB) has severely threatened public health via emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. For effective TB treatment, rapid, accurate, and multiplex detection of drug resistance is extremely important. However, conventional methods for TB diagnosis are time consuming and have a limited effect on treatment. Nucleic acid-based molecular detection methods have been developed as an effective MDR/XDR-TB diagnosis technology. Among the nucleic acid-based methods, ligation-dependent methods are attractive as MDR/XDR-MTB detection technologies, but multiplex analysis is limited by the detection method...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420836/high-detection-rates-of-urine-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-suspected-miliary-tuberculosis
#12
Toshinobu Yokoyama, Takashi Kinoshita, Masaki Okamoto, Kazuko Matsunaga, Tomoko Kamimura, Masaharu Kinoshita, Toru Rikimaru, Kazuhito Taguchi, Tomoaki Hoshino, Tomotaka Kawayama
Objective The utility of detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculous with diffuse small nodular shadows (suspected miliary tuberculosis (MTB)) is still unclear in Japan. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the detection rates of M. tuberculosis in urine of patients with suspected MTB. Methods Among 687 hospitalized patients with tuberculosis, 45 with culture-confirmed suspected MTB and the data of culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419599/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasomal-atpase-mpa-has-a-%C3%AE-grasp-domain-that-hinders-docking-with-the-proteasome-core-protease
#13
Yujie Wu, Kuan Hu, Defeng Li, Lin Bai, Shaoqing Yang, Jordan B Jastrab, Shuhao Xiao, Yonglin Hu, Susan Zhang, K Heran Darwin, Tao Wang, Huilin Li
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has a proteasome system that is essential for its ability to cause lethal infections in mice. A key component of the system is the proteasomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Mpa, which captures, unfolds, and translocates protein substrates into the Mtb proteasome core particle for degradation. Here, we report the crystal structures of near full-length hexameric Mtb Mpa in apo and ADP-bound forms. Surprisingly, the structures revealed a ubiquitin-like β-grasp domain that precedes the proteasome-activating carboxyl terminus...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419514/activition-of-tlr7-inhibition-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-survival-by-autophagy-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#14
Meng Bao, Zhengjun Yi, Yurong Fu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of regulation of TLR7 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival in macrophages. TLR7 expression in macrophages infected by Mtb was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. Regulation of TLR7 was achieved by single strand RNA (ssRNA) or siRNA. The effects of TLR7 on Mtb survival and cell viability were detected by acid fast staining and cell counting kit-8, respectively. Cell ultrastructure was observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and autophagy related protein LC3 was analyzed by western blotting...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416555/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteome-response-to-anti-tuberculosis-compounds-reveals-metabolic-escape-pathways-that-prolong-bacterial-survival
#15
Lia Danelishvili, Natalia Shulzhenko, Jessica J J Chinison, Lmar Babrak, Jialu Hu, Andriy Morgun, Gregory Burrows, Luiz E Bermudez
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases and the leading cause of death in many parts of the world. A major limitation of TB therapy is slow killing of infecting organism, increasing the risk for the development of tolerance phenotype and drug-resistance. Studies indicate that M. tuberculosis (Mtb) takes several days to be killed upon treatment with lethal concentrations of antibiotics both in vitro and in vivo To investigate how metabolic remodeling can enable transient bacterial survival during exposure with bactericidal concentrations of compounds, Mtb H37Rv strain was exposed to twice of the minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid, rifampicin, moxifloxacin, mefloquine or bedaquiline for 24h, 48h, 4 days, and 6 days, and the bacterial proteomic response was analyzed using the quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415993/moving-to-business-changes-in-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-after-multilevel-intervention-in-small-and-medium-size-workplaces
#16
Minna Aittasalo, Matleena Livson, Sirpa Lusa, Ahti Romo, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Kari Tokola, Harri Sievänen, Ari Mänttäri, Tommi Vasankari
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) promotes and excessive sedentary behavior (SB) deteriorates health. Yet the Finnish working-aged population spends most of the day sitting. A 1-year Moving To Business (MTB) -intervention supported small and medium-size workplaces to combat sedentariness. This paper reports the changes in employees' PA and SB from before MTB (baseline) to 1 year after baseline (follow-up). METHODS: Twelve workplaces with a total of 396 employees participated...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414975/fullerene-doped-polyaniline-as-new-redox-nanoprobe-and-catalyst-in-electrochemical-aptasensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mpt64-antigen-in-human-serum
#17
Lijuan Bai, Yuhan Chen, Yan Bai, Yongjie Chen, Jing Zhou, Ailong Huang
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is still a major threat to global public health. However, the existing methods for MTB detection are usually complicated and time consuming with unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity. In this work, a relatively simple and ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on novel signal generation and amplification was constructed for the determination of MTB antigen MPT64. The coil-like fullerene (C60)-doped polyaniline (C60-PAn) nanohybrids with large surface area, abundant active groups and excellent electric performance were synthesized and used both as new redox nanoprobe and catalyst for the generation and amplification of electrochemical signal for the first time...
April 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412688/clinical-research-of-treating-tuberculous-respiratory-failure-by-sequential-mechanical-ventilation
#18
Chengqun Ge, Tao Zhang, Houcui Fan
Tuberculosis is kind of common chronic infectious disease, of which the pathogenic bacterium is mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). One who is suffering severe tuberculosis may be ended with cardio-pulmonary function damage or cardio-pulmonary failure. This disease is of higher risks of complications or even high death rate, which is seriously challenging people's health and life. When a tuberculosis patient is accompanied with respiratory failure, which means the disease has developed into the late stage, on this occasion the optimal treatment program is to use mechanical ventilation to improve the respiratory failure condition...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412202/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-a-novel-recombinant-lipq-rv2485c-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#19
Anjani Kumar, Manisha, Gurkamaljit Kaur Sangha, Anju Shrivastava, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an intracellular pathogen, still represents a major global health challenge. A number of mycobacterial macromolecules have been shown to target biological processes within host macrophages; however, the exact mechanism for the majority of these host pathogen interactions is still poorly understood. Moreover, the lipid metabolic pathway is one of the most important physiologic pathways that plays a vital role in the survival and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In present study, we investigated the effect of rLipQ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv on macrophage functions in vitro...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410694/pyridines-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Kavita S Chaudhari, Harun M Patel, Sanjay J Surana
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection has become an increasing health threat due to the worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant MTB (MDR-MTB) strain. Isoniazid (pyridine) resistance problem is a complex process and is associated with mutations in several genes. However, the emergence of isoniazid (INH) resistant M. tuberculosis strains dictates the necessity for redesigning this old drug in order to create analogs effective against INH-resistant strains by using rational approach. In light of these findings, the present review discusses the synthesis, structural optimization, and modification in pyridine structure to combat the problem of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
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