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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229100/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-following-world-health-organization-recommended-criteria-in-severely-malnourished-children-presenting-with-pneumonia
#1
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Tahmeed Ahmed
Evidences on diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are lacking. We sought to evaluate the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of TB in such children. In this prospective study, we enrolled SAM children aged <5 with radiological pneumonia. We collected induced sputum and gastric lavage for smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Using the last 2 methods as the gold standard, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of WHO criteria (n = 388)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228760/perturbed-microrna-expression-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-promotes-macrophage-polarization-leading-to-pro-survival-foam-cell
#2
Pankaj Kumar Ahluwalia, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Prabodh Kumar Sehajpal, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the prevalent causes of death worldwide, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries, like India. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) has the tenacious ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its own advantage. Macrophages are one of the phagocytic cells that are central to immunity against MTb. These are highly plastic cells dependent on the milieu and can showcase M1/M2 polarization. M1 macrophages are bactericidal in action, but M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory in their immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225345/results-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-implementation-in-kyrgyzstan
#3
G Kurbaniyazova, M Joncevska, S Kalon, G Kalmambetova, T Mohr, A Toktogonova, K Takieva, K M Monirul Islam, F Luelmo
INTRODUCTION: In July 2012, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Quality Health Care Project introduced the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay at the facility level of the primary health care system in Kyrgyzstan. This study analysed the results of the implementation of Xpert. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results from 2734 patients from July 2012 to December 2014 were analysed. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert in routine programme conditions were evaluated using culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) as gold standard...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225333/why-do-clinical-trials-of-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-fail-to-show-an-effect-on-patient-relevant-outcomes
#4
T H Boyles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225105/elucidating-the-biosynthetic-pathways-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-a-computational-approach
#5
Purva Bhatter, Karthik Raman, Vani Janakiraman
Microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have gained prominence in the recent past for their potential use as disease markers. The discovery of microbial VOCs has benefited 'difficult to detect' diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). Few of the identified VOCs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are currently being explored for their diagnostic potential. However, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these small lipophilic molecules. Here, we propose putative biosynthetic pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for three VOCs, namely methyl nicotinate, methyl phenylacetate and methyl p-anisate, using computational approaches...
February 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224118/heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-an-inhibitor-of-autophagy
#6
Qing Zheng, Zhi Li, Shan Zhou, Qian Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xiaorui Fu, Liu Yang, Yueyun Ma, Xiaoke Hao
Airway epithelial cell is often the initial site of attack by pathogens, and cell death is commonly caused by internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the mechanism of interaction between epithelial cells and Mtb is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) protein of Mtb in the function of epithelial cells. In particular, the autophagy of A549 cells was determined based on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223349/identification-of-antibody-targets-for-tuberculosis-serology-using-high-density-nucleic-acid-programmable-protein-arrays
#7
Lusheng Song, Garrick Wallstrom, Xiaobo Yu, Marika Hopper, Jennifer Van Duine, Jason Steel, Jin Park, Peter Wiktor, Peter Khan, Al Brunner, Douglas Wilson, Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer, D Mitchell Magee, Jacqueline M Achkar
Better and more diverse biomarkers for the development of simple point-of-care tests for active tuberculosis (TB), a clinically heterogeneous disease, are urgently needed. We generated a proteomic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) High-Density Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (HD-NAPPA) that used a novel multiplexed strategy for expedited high-throughput screening for antibody responses to the Mtb proteome. We screened sera from HIV uninfected and co-infected TB patients and controls (n = 120) from the US and South Africa (SA) using the multiplex HD-NAPPA for discovery, followed by deconvolution and validation through single protein HD-NAPPA with biologically independent samples (n=124)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222095/delays-and-loss-to-follow-up-before-treatment-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-following-implementation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Helen Cox, Lindy Dickson-Hall, Norbert Ndjeka, Anja Van't Hoog, Alison Grant, Frank Cobelens, Wendy Stevens, Mark Nicol
BACKGROUND: South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large treatment gap (pre-treatment loss to follow-up) between the numbers of patients with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB and those reported to have started second-line treatment...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220253/myd88-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
EDITORIAL
Jorge L Cervantes
MyD88 adaptor protein mediates numerous biologically important signal transduction pathways in innate immunity. MyD88 signaling fosters bacterial containment and is necessary to raise an adequate innate and acquired immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The phagosome is a crucial cellular location not only for Mtb replication, but it is also where components of the Myddosome and inflammasome are recruited. Besides its function as a TLR-adaptor protein, MyD88 may help stabilizing cytosolic receptors that are recruited to the phagosome...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219662/fumarase-deficiency-causes-protein-and-metabolite-succination-and-intoxicates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Nadine Ruecker, Robert Jansen, Carolina Trujillo, Susan Puckett, Pradeepa Jayachandran, Gerardo G Piroli, Norma Frizzell, Henrik Molina, Kyu Y Rhee, Sabine Ehrt
Enzymes of central carbon metabolism are essential mediators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) physiology and pathogenicity, but are often perceived to lack sufficient species selectivity to be pursued as potential drug targets. Fumarase (Fum) is an enzyme of the canonical tricarboxylic acid cycle and is dispensable in many organisms. Transposon mutagenesis studies in Mtb, however, indicate that Fum is required for optimal growth. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a genetically engineered Mtb strain in which Fum expression is conditionally regulated...
February 9, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218958/cd137-is-a-useful-marker-for-identifying-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Zhuo-Hong Yan, Xiao-Fang Zheng, Ling Yi, Jing Wang, Xiao-Jue Wang, Pan-Jian Wei, Hong-Yan Jia, Li-Jun Zhou, Yan-Lin Zhao, Hong-Tao Zhang
Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 25 healthy donors...
February 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214065/-contribution-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-to-the-etiological-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleurisy
#12
N O Touré, M Wayzani, K Thiam, M F Cissé, F B Mbaye
INTRODUCTION: Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural liquid is poorly described. The aim of this study was to determine its usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of a tuberculous pleurisy. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, with analytical design, including all the patients having a unilateral serofibrinous pleurisy, exudative, lymphocytic, and sterile. The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was considered based on epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic arguments...
February 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209712/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxl-inhibit-mhc-ii-expression-by-promoting-hypermethylation-in-class-ii-transactivator-loci-in-macrophages
#13
Srabasti Sengupta, Saba Naz, Ishani Das, Abdul Ahad, Avinash Padhi, Sumanta Naik, Geetanjali Ganguli, Kaliprasad Patnaik, Sunil Kumar Raghav, Vinay Nandicoori, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is known to modulate the host immune responses to facilitate its persistence inside the host cells. One of the key mechanisms includes repression of class-II transactivator (CIITA) and MHC-II expression in infected macrophages. However, the precise mechanism of CIITA and MHC-II down-regulation is not well studied. Mtb 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) is a known potent virulence and antigenic determinant. Mtb genome encodes 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins. We herein report that Mtb and M...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#14
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
February 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206982/biocompatible-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-efficient-delivery-vehicle-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-to-induce-potent-cytokines-and-antibody-response-through-activation-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-mice
#15
Ishani Das, Avinash Padhi, Sitabja Mukherjee, Debi Dash, Santosh Kar, Avinash Sonawane
Activation of cell mediated and humoral immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are critical for protection and that nanoparticles mediated delivery of antigens are more potent in inducing different immune responses. Herein, we show that mice immunized with Mtb lipid bound chitosan nanoparticles(NPs) induce secretion of prominent type 1 T helper (Th1) and type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokines in lymph node and spleen cells, and also induced significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgM in comparison to control mice...
February 16, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206680/an-ssdna-aptamer-against-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-enhances-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-macrophages-through-downregulation-of-lipid-sensing-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression
#16
Qin Pan, Jiamin Yan, Qi Liu, Chunhui Yuan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is an immunomodulatory epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously generated an aptamer (ZXL1) that specifically binds to ManLAM from the virulent Mtb H37Rv strain and reported that ZXL1 functioned as an antagonist, inhibiting the ManLAM-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, we found that ZXL1 inhibited Mtb entry into murine macrophages. ZXL1 enhanced IL-1β and IL-12 mRNA expression and cytokine production in ManLAM-treated macrophages but decreased IL-10 production...
February 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202315/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-chorismate-mutase-a-potential-target-for-tb
#17
REVIEW
Manjulatha Khanapur, Mallika Alvala, Maddela Prabhakar, K Shiva Kumar, R K Edwin, P S V K Sri Saranya, Raj Kumar Patel, Gopalakrishnan Bulusu, P Misra, Manojit Pal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase (MtbCM) catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate in the shikimate biosynthetic pathway to form the essential amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Two genes encoding chorismate mutase have been identified in Mtb. The secretory form,∗MtbCM (encoded by Rv1885c) is assumed to play a key role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Also, the inhibition of MtbCM may hinder the supply of nutrients to the organism. Indeed, the existence of chorismate mutase (CM) in bacteria, fungi and higher plants but not in human and low sequence homology among known CM makes it an interesting target for the discovery of anti-tubercular agents...
February 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199520/implications-of-failure-to-routinely-diagnose-resistance-to-second-line-drugs-in-patients-with-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-on-xpert-mtb-rif-a-multisite-observational-study
#18
Karen R Jacobson, Marinus Barnard, Mary B Kleinman, Elizabeth M Streicher, Elizabeth J Ragan, Laura F White, Ofer Shapira, Tania Dolby, John Simpson, Lesley Scott, Wendy Stevens, Paul D van Helden, Annelies Van Rie, Robin M Warren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199375/has-universal-screening-with-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-increased-the-proportion-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cases-diagnosed-in-a-routine-operational-setting
#19
Pren Naidoo, Rory Dunbar, Judy Caldwell, Carl Lombard, Nulda Beyers
SETTING: Primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa where the introduction of Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) enabled simultaneous screening for tuberculosis (TB) and drug susceptibility in all presumptive cases. STUDY AIM: To compare the proportion of TB cases with drug susceptibility tests undertaken and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosed pre-treatment and during the course of 1st line treatment in the previous smear/culture and the newly introduced Xpert-based algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198348/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#20
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
January 2017: Microbiology
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