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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#1
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087649/identification-of-unique-essential-proteins-from-a-m-tuberculosis-f15-lam4-kzn-phage-secretome-library
#3
Thamsanqa Emmanuel Chiliza, Manormoney Pillay, Balakrishna Pillay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB), the leading cause of death from bacterial infection worldwide. Although treatable, the resurgence of multi- and extensively-drug resistance TB is a major setback for the fight against TB globally. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new Mtb derived biomarkers for use in the design of new drugs and rapid point-of-care diagnostic or prognostic tools for management of TB transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify unique Mtb secreted proteins from the extensively drug resistant Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#4
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076390/il-37-confers-protection-against-mycobacterial-infection-involving-suppressing-inflammation-and-modulating-t-cell-activation
#6
Haipeng Liu, Ruijuan Zheng, Peng Wang, Hua Yang, Xin He, Qun Ji, Wenjuan Bai, Hao Chen, Jianxia Chen, Wenxia Peng, Siyu Liu, Zhonghua Liu, Baoxue Ge
Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a novel member of the IL-1 family, plays fundamental immunosuppressive roles by broadly reducing both innate inflammation and acquired immunity, but whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis demonstrated an association of the genetic variant rs3811047 of IL-37 with TB susceptibility. In line with previous report, a significant elevated IL-37 abundance in the sera and increased expression of IL-37 protein in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were observed in TB patients in comparison to healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071153/novel-chemical-scaffolds-for-inhibition-of-rifamycin-resistant-rna-polymerase-discovered-from-high-throughput-screening
#7
Nathan T Scharf, Vadim Molodtsov, Arrin Kontos, Katsuhiko S Murakami, George A Garcia
Rifampin has been a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) treatment since its introduction. The rise of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB makes the development of novel therapeutics effective against these strains an urgent need. Site-specific mutations in the target enzyme of rifampin, RNA polymerase (RNAP) comprises the majority (~97%) of rifamycin-resistant (Rif(R)) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To identify novel inhibitors of bacterial RNAP, an in vitro plasmid-based transcription assay that uses malachite green (MG) to detect transcribed RNA containing MG aptamers was developed...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069655/mutation-in-an-unannotated-protein-confers-carbapenem-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kaushik, Drew Bell, Varsha Chauhan, Fangfang Xia, Rick L Stevens, Gyanu Lamichhane
β-lactams are the most widely used antibacterials. Among β-lactams, carbapenems are considered the last line of defense against recalcitrant infections. As recent developments have prompted consideration of carbapenems for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis, it is only a matter of time before Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains resistant to these drugs will emerge. Here, we investigated the genetic basis that confers such resistance. To our surprise, instead of mutations in the known β-lactam targets, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Rv2421c-Rv2422 intergenic region was common among Mtb mutants selected with meropenem or biapenem...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068347/microbiologically-confirmed-tuberculosis-factors-associated-with-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-and-time-to-treatment-initiation
#9
Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Andrew Black
BACKGROUND: The impact of new diagnostics on pre-treatment loss to follow up (Pre-treatment LTFU) has not been widely investigated. The reported rate of pre-treatment LTFU is however lower in studies where Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) has been used onsite as opposed to centrally. The use of the Xpert at point of care (POC) could have a role in reducing the pre-treatment LTFU rate among TB patients. We aimed to determine the pre-treatment LTFU rate and the time to treatment initiation as well as to describe associated factors in patients diagnosed with TB using POC Xpert or smear microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066611/performance-of-a-lateral-flow-immunochromatography-test-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-large-multicentre-study-in-areas-with-different-clinical-settings-and-tuberculosis-exposure-levels
#10
Selene Manga, Rocio Perales, Maria Reaño, Lia D'Ambrosio, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Massimo Amicosante
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause an outsized burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, still missing efficient and largely accessible diagnostic tools determining an appropriate control of the disease. Serological tests have the potentially to impact TB diagnosis, in particular in extreme clinical settings. METHODS: The diagnostic performances of the TB-XT HEMA EXPRESS (HEMA-EXPRESS) immunochromatographic rapid test for active TB diagnosis, based on use of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific antigens, have been evaluated in a large study multicentre TB case-finding study, in populations with different exposure level to TB...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063256/dissection-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction-in-human-tuberculosis-using-a-bioengineered-3-dimensional-model
#12
Liku B Tezera, Magdalena K Bielecka, Andrew Chancellor, Michaela T Reichmann, Basim Al Shammari, Patience Brace, Alex Batty, Annie Tocheva, Sanjay Jogai, Ben G Marshall, Marc Tebruegge, Suwan N Jayasinghe, Salah Mansour, Paul T Elkington
Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen-alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction...
January 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062210/hyperthermostable-binding-molecules-on-phage-assay-components-for-point-of-care-diagnostics-for-active-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Ning Zhao, John Spencer, Margaret A Schmitt, John D Fisk
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The low sensitivity, extended processing time, and high expense of current diagnostics are major challenges to the detection and treatment of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine transcarbamylase (Mtb OTC, Rv1656) has been identified in the urine of patients with active TB infection and is a promising target for point-of-care diagnostics. Specific binding proteins with low nanomolar affinities for Mtb OTC were selected from a phage display library built upon a hyperthermostable Sso7d scaffold...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061954/multiple-cytokine-responses-in-discriminating-between-active-tuberculosis-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#14
Jing Wu, Sen Wang, Chanyi Lu, Lingyun Shao, Yan Gao, Zumo Zhou, Heqing Huang, Ying Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cytokines play an important role in cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Cytokine profile specifically associated with active tuberculosis (ATB) patients, subjects with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and non-infected individuals remains to be determined. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 92 subjects including patients with ATB (n = 25), LTBI (n = 36) and healthy controls (HC, n = 31) to investigate the cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after Mtb purified protein derivative (PPD) stimulation which was evaluated by a beads-based multiplex assay system...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061953/advances-in-basic-and-translational-tuberculosis-research-proceedings-of-the-first-meeting-of-report-international
#15
REVIEW
Carolina Geadas, Sonia K Stoszek, David Sherman, Bruno B Andrade, Sudha Srinivasan, Carol D Hamilton, Jerrold Ellner
RePORT International is a collaborative research network of investigators from multiple countries and institutions with the goal of establishing a bio-repository of specimens and clinical data for the study of active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). During the first meeting of RePORT International in Boston, Massachusetts, the results of research pertinent to TB control and eradication were presented, including advances in the research of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) persistence and drug resistance, TB diagnostics, drug and vaccine development...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061885/diagnostic-yield-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-patients-booked-for-endoscopy-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-lusaka
#16
Gershom Chongwe, Charles Michelo, Paul Kelly
BACKGROUND: The intestinal carriage of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is associated with disease, especially in severely immunocompromised individuals. These organisms, although often considered contaminants, have been known to cause various types of illnesses. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and associated factors for NTM among patients booked for colonoscopy at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka. METHODS: We randomly recruited 97 patients attending routine endoscopy procedures between November 2012 and October 2013 and after consent, administered a structured questionnaire...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#17
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057704/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protease-marp-activates-a-peptidoglycan-hydrolase-during-acid%C3%A2-stress
#18
Helene Botella, Julien Vaubourgeix, Myung Hee Lee, Naomi Song, Weizhen Xu, Hideki Makinoshima, Michael S Glickman, Sabine Ehrt
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can persist in the human host in a latent state for decades, in part because it has the ability to withstand numerous stresses imposed by host immunity. Prior studies have established the essentiality of the periplasmic protease MarP for Mtb to survive in acidified phagosomes and establish and maintain infection in mice. However, the proteolytic substrates of MarP that mediate these phenotypes were unknown. Here, we used biochemical methods coupled with supravital chemical probes that facilitate imaging of nascent peptidoglycan to demonstrate that during acid stress MarP cleaves the peptidoglycan hydrolase RipA, a process required for RipA's activation...
January 5, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057604/biological-markers-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#19
Bastien Mollo, Stéphane Jouveshomme, François Philippart, Benoît Pilmis
Tuberculosis is one of the main etiologies to evoke in the context of lymphocyte pleurisy. However, diagnosis is difficult and is based on mycobacteriology that is not enough sensitive and time-consuming, or on histology that requires invasive biopsy gesture. This literature review, carried out from Medline, summarizes the main meta-analyzes, reviews, and originator publications in English on biomarkers, classic and more innovative, studied for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Among the immuno-biochemical markers, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), isoenzyme of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) and total adenosine deaminase (ADA) seem the most relevant with respective sensitivities of 89% (87-91), 97...
January 5, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057041/rifampicin-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-referred-to-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: Prevailing data on rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis is essential for early management of MDR-TB. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive TB cases in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. Detection of M. tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin was performed using Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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