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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730778/antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-the-era-of-gram-negative-resistance
#1
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505270/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-neonatal-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteremia-a-12-year-case-control-control-study-of-a-referral-center-in-taiwan
#2
Ming-Horng Tsai, I-Ta Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yhu-Chering Huang
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26793861/etiology-and-resistance-profile-of-isolated-strains-from-severe-systemic-infections-in-patients-with-immunodepression-experience-of-the-iasi-infectious-diseases-hospital-2011-2014
#3
Claudia-Elena Pleşca, Mihaela Cătălina Luca, A St Luca, Simona Constantinescu, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu
UNLABELLED: Microbial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health and it is linked to patient's age, immune status, and also antibiotic overuse or misuse and repeated hospitalizations. The high incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria requires rethinking the first-line therapeutic schemes. AIM: Retrospective study of the etiologic and antibiotic resistance profile of the bacterial strains isolated from immunocompromised hosts diagnosed with severe systemic infections, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the potential infectious sources and optimizing the antibiotic therapy...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559734/neonatal-gram-negative-bacillary-late-onset-sepsis-a-case-control-control-study-on-a-prospectively-collected-database-of-5-233-admissions
#4
Ming-Horng Tsai, I Hsyuan Wu, Chiang-Wen Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yhu-Chering Huang
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) bloodstream infections account for 20%-30% of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS). We aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for adverse outcomes in neonates with GNB LOS. METHODS: All patients with GNB LOS admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Taiwan from January 1, 2004-December 31, 2011, were enrolled. A case-control-control study was performed to evaluate risk factors for acquisition of neonatal GNB LOS...
February 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26442676/bloodstream-infections-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-emphasis-on-gram-negative-bacteria-infections
#5
Fu-Chun Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Yun-Ju Ma, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Jiann-Shiuh Chen, Chao-Neng Cheng, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric hematological malignancy. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are severe complications in these patients during chemotherapy. This study aims to explore clinical features, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics of BSIs in acute leukemic children. METHODS: Patients aged < 18 years, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia with BSIs from January 2004 to December 2013 were enrolled...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26079127/cytokine-profile-in-severe-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-abdominal-sepsis
#6
Maja Surbatovic, Nada Popovic, Danilo Vojvodic, Ivan Milosevic, Gordana Acimovic, Milan Stojicic, Milic Veljovic, Jasna Jevdjic, Dragan Djordjevic, Sonja Radakovic
Sepsis is a principal cause of death in critical care units worldwide and consumes considerable healthcare resources. The aim of our study was to determine whether the early cytokine profile can discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteraemia (GPB and GNB, respectively) and to assess the prognostic value regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe abdominal sepsis. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained from 165 adult patients with confirmed severe abdominal sepsis...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25978839/clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors-of-pyogenic-spondylitis-caused-by-gram-negative-bacteria
#7
Seung-Ji Kang, Hee-Chang Jang, Sook-In Jung, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Chung-Jong Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park
BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing the clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). The aim of this study was to investigate the predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB compared to Gram-positive cocci (GPC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records from patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis at four tertiary teaching hospitals over an 8-year period...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25492862/clinical-and-epidemiological-features-and-prognosis-of-complicated-pyelonephritis-a-prospective-observational-single-hospital-based-study
#8
Veronica A Buonaiuto, Ignacio Marquez, Inmaculada De Toro, Carolina Joya, Juan D Ruiz-Mesa, Raimundo Seara, Antonio Plata, Beatriz Sobrino, Begoña Palop, Juan D Colmenero
BACKGROUND: Complicated pyelonephritis (cPN), a common cause of hospital admission, is still a poorly-understood entity given the difficulty involved in its correct definition. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of cPN and its prognosis in a large cohort of patients with cPN. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study including 1325 consecutive patients older than 14 years diagnosed with cPN and admitted to a tertiary university hospital between 1997-2013...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25447717/sepsis-caused-by-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-blandm-1-and-qnrd-producing-morganella-morganii-treated-successfully-with-fosfomycin-and-meropenem-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Verónica Seija, Julio César Medina Presentado, Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Noelia Batista, Claudia Gutierrez, Mariana Guirado, Macarena Vidal, Marcelo Nin, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolate of Morganella morganii obtained from a patient with sepsis of urinary origin and to describe the patient's clinical characteristics. We further aimed to perform a literature review of the situation in Latin America regarding Gram-negative bacillus (GNB) carriers of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and qnr genes and current reports on the treatment of infections caused by XDR enterobacteria, with particular attention to colistin-resistant isolates...
January 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25394245/expression-profile-of-micrornas-in-gram-negative-bacterial-sepsis
#10
Chorng-Kuang How, Sen-Kuang Hou, Hsin-Chin Shih, Mu-Shun Huang, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chen-Hsen Lee, Chi-Chang Juan
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an effective trigger of the inflammatory response during infection with gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which implicates the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to have a significant role in the fine-tuning of toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory response. We profiled miRNA expression levels in peripheral leukocytes of GNB urosepsis patients and compared them with those of healthy controls. We further explored the regulatory mechanism of endotoxin-responsive miRNAs in TLR and cytokine signaling by using human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) treated with LPS antigen stimulation...
February 2015: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25213719/neonatal-sepsis-the-gut-connection
#11
REVIEW
S Basu
Colonization of the neonatal gut takes place immediately after birth. Bacteria that get colonized are considered to be "normal" flora derived principally from the mother and the immediate environment. However, for some neonates, the colonization of the gut, particularly with potential pathogens, may lead to subsequent infections or sepsis. The immune system and the gut barrier in neonates is vulnerable, with decreased acid secretion, low levels of protective mucous, and decreased motility, particularly in those who are premature and of low birth weight...
February 2015: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25125030/-thrombopenia-and-the-nature-of-the-microorganism-in-infected-critically-ill-children
#12
M Trifa, M M Ben Yahia, S Saada, S Akrout, A Ghlala, R Fakhfakh, A Fekih Hassen, S Ben Khalifa
BACKGROUND: Thrombopenia is correlated with sepsis and mortality in pediatric intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to find an association between thrombopenia and the microorganism type to guide the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy in infected critically ill children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective descriptive study, including all newborns, infants, and children admitted to a pediatric surgical intensive care unit from 1st January to 31st December 2009...
October 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25120982/isolation-of-mrsa-esbl-and-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-from-neonatal-sepsis-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Amutha Chelliah, Ravinder Thyagarajan, Radhika Katragadda, K V Leela, R Narayana Babu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in neonatal intensive care unit patients is increasing. This study aims to find out the bacteriological profile in neonatal sepsis and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern including detection of MRSA and ESBLs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted for a period of one and a half years from January 2010 to June 2011 in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24871954/differences-in-microorganism-growth-on-various-dressings-used-to-cover-injection-sites-inspection-of-the-risk-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-caused-by-gram-negative-bacilli
#14
Hideki Kawamura, Norihiko Takahashi, Masahiro Takahashi, Akinobu Taketomi
PURPOSES: Sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is the most serious catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, the cause(s) of GNB propagation on the skin around needle or catheter insertion sites remain unclear. This observational study aimed to assess the differences in the microbial growth among various types of dressings used to cover injection sites, with a particular focus on GNB. METHODS: We analyzed the bacterial populations on three types of surgical dressings; Tegaderm I...
December 2014: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24681345/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#15
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Paolo Caraceni, Marco Domenicali, Simone Ambretti, Sara Tedeschi, Gabriella Verucchi, Lorenzo Badia, Russell E Lewis, Mauro Bernardi, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in cirrhotic patients are 10-fold more common than in non-cirrhotic patients and increasingly caused by resistant pathogens. We examined 162 BSI episodes in cirrhotic patients to describe the etiology and risk factors for 30-day mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive BSIs in patients with liver cirrhosis at our 1350-bed teaching hospital (January 2008 to June 2012). Cox-proportional hazard regression was used to analyze the impact of disease and treatment-related variables on the crude 30-day mortality...
July 2014: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24474430/effect-of-cefepime-dose-on-mortality-of-patients-with-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Marcelle D Alves, Vanessa B Ribeiro, Jardel P Tessari, Francine Mattiello, Giordanna De Bacco, Daniela I Luz, Fabiane J Vieira, Tainá F Behle, Alessandro C Pasqualotto, Alexandre P Zavascki
OBJECTIVES: There are controversies regarding the association of cefepime therapy with increased mortality among patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). We evaluated the effect of cefepime on the mortality of patients with GNB bloodstream infections (BSIs). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in adult patients with creatinine ≤1.5 mg/dL who received empirical therapy with cefepime for at least 48 h for BSIs caused by GNB...
June 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24080435/delta-neutrophil-index-discriminates-true-bacteremia-from-blood-culture-contamination
#17
Chang Hoon Lee, Juwon Kim, Yongjung Park, Yon Chul Park, Yoonjung Kim, Kap Jun Yoon, Young Uh, Kyung-A Lee
BACKGROUND: Delta neutrophil index (DNI) has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of sepsis. We evaluated the role of DNI for differentiating true bacteremia from blood contamination and compared the DNI value with previously validated markers such as procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: The blood culture positive group was subdivided into true bacteremia (n=199) and contamination (n=158). The blood cultures were incubated in the BacT/Alert 3D (bioMérieux, Marcyl'Etoile, France) and BACTEC FX (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) systems for 5days...
January 1, 2014: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24070502/activity-of-the-colistin-rifampicin-combination-against-colistin-resistant-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria
#18
Marcela Nastro, Carlos Hernan Rodríguez, Renata Monge, Jonathan Zintgraff, Liliana Neira, Mirta Rebollo, Carlos Vay, Angela Famiglietti
Colistin (COL) is one of the few antimicrobials that retain activity against carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). However, the emergence of COL resistance has renewed the use of combination therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of COL plus rifampicin (RIF) against clinical isolates of COL-resistant, carbapenemase-producing GNB. We employed 36 COL-resistant carbapenemase-producing isolates (27 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 Serratia marcescens, and 4 Acinetobacter baumannii) belonging to 36 patients...
August 2014: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23974910/anti-endotoxin-vaccines-back-to-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Alan S Cross
Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) infections are a leading cause of serious infections both in hospitals and the community. The mortality remains high despite potent antimicrobials and modern supportive care. In the last decade invasive GNB have become increasingly resistant to commonly used antibiotics, and attempts to intervene with novel biological therapies have been unsuccessful. Earlier studies with antibodies directed against a highly conserved core region in the GNB lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin) suggested that this approach may have therapeutic benefit, and led to the development of a subunit vaccine that has progressed to phase 1 clinical testing...
January 1, 2014: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23871732/genetic-variations-in-toll-like-receptor-4-in-mexican-mestizo-patients-with-intra-abdominal-infection-and-or-pneumonia
#20
Carlos A Rodriguez-Osorio, Guadalupe Lima, Jaime O Herrera-Caceres, Beatriz E Villegas-Torres, Joaquin Zuñiga, Sergio Ponce-de-Leon, Luis Llorente, Jose Sifuentes-Osornio
Sepsis is a leading cause of death around the world, and 73-83% of all sepsis cases requiring attention in intensive care units are linked to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) or pneumonia. The activation of innate immunity is central to the manifestation of sepsis, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays an important role in this activation process. The 299G and 399I alleles of TLR4 have been linked with an increased risk of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections and septic shock in some populations. This case-control study evaluated the prevalence of D299G/T399I polymorphisms in Mexican patients with IAI and/or pneumonia and in healthy controls...
June 2013: Immunology Letters
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