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GNB sepsis

Nobuyuki Saito, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Testu Ohnuma, Takashi Kanemura, Michitaka Nasu, Yuya Yoshidomi, Yuta Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Adachi, Hiroyuki Koami, Aito Tochiki, Kota Hori, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Hisashi Matsumoto
Septic shock-associated mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) remains high, with reported rates ranging 30-50%. In particular, Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which induce significant inflammation and consequent multiple organ failure, are the etiological bacterial agent in 40% of severe sepsis cases. Hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX), which adsorbs endotoxin, is expected to reduce the inflammatory sepsis cascade due to GNB. However, the clinical efficacy of this treatment has not yet been demonstrated...
2017: PloS One
Joanna Jammal, Fadia Zaknoon, Galoz Kaneti, Ayelet S Hershkovits, Amram Mor
Towards addressing the need for novel alternatives to antibiotics, we attempted to sensitize Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) to innate antibacterial protagonists. We report a lipopeptide-like sequence (C10OOc12O) that inflicted outer-membrane damages at low micromolar range, whereas measurable bacterial growth inhibition in broth medium required >10-fold higher concentrations. In serum however, C10OOc12O induced antibacterial activity in a manner suppressible by anti-complements antibodies or heat treatment, and acted synergistically with exogenous lysozyme in broth and serum media...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
I-Hsiu Su, Wen-Chien Ko, Chung-Hsin Shih, Fang-Hao Yeh, Yung-Nien Sun, Jung-Chih Chen, Po-Lin Chen, Hsien-Chang Chang
Gram-negative bacteria (GNBs) are common pathogens causing severe sepsis. Rapid evaluation of drug susceptibility would guide effective antibiotic treatment and promote life-saving. A total of 78 clinical isolates of 13 Gram-negative species collected between April 2013 and November 2013 from two medical centers in Tainan were tested. Bacterial morphology changes in different concentrations of antibiotics were observed under the electric field of a quadruple electrode array using light microscopy. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four antimicrobial agents, namely, cefazolin, ceftazidime, cefepime, and doripenem, were determined by the dielectrophoretic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (dAST) and by the conventional broth dilution testing (BDT)...
March 31, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Eren Çağan, Evrim Kıray Baş, Hüseyin Selim Asker
BACKGROUND The emergence of infections related to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) reintroduced the use of colistin, an antibiotic that was previously abandoned due to adverse effects. However, because of its limited use in neonatal intensive care units, there is very little data about the effectiveness and safety of colistin in children and newborns. In this study, which will be the largest case study in the literature, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colistin in full-term and preterm newborns...
January 30, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
C Gudiol, C Royo-Cebrecos, C Tebe, E Abdala, M Akova, R Álvarez, G Maestro-de la Calle, A Cano, C Cervera, W T Clemente, P Martín-Dávila, A Freifeld, L Gómez, T Gottlieb, M Gurguí, F Herrera, A Manzur, G Maschmeyer, Y Meije, M Montejo, M Peghin, J Rodríguez-Baño, I Ruiz-Camps, T C Sukiennik, J Carratalà
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB) is increasing at an alarming pace worldwide. Although β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations have been suggested as an alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of BSI due to these resistant organisms in the general population, their usefulness for the treatment of BSI due to ESBL-GNB in haematological patients with neutropaenia is yet to be elucidated...
January 23, 2017: BMJ Open
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Tariq Mahmud Tariq, Esmatullah Rasool
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of pathogens causing bloodstream infections and evaluate their trends and antibiogram patterns among in-patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan in two phases, from January 2010 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Results of blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis admitted in the FMIC, from January 2010 to December 2012 (Period-1), and from January 2013 to December 2015 (Period-2) were completed...
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Sheng Tao Yan, Li Chao Sun, Hong Bing Jia, Wen Gao, Jian Ping Yang, Guo Qiang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) diagnostic accuracy in discriminating gram-negative (GN) from gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections and determining the relationship between PCT levels, infection sites, and pathogen types. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients with blood culture (BC)-positive sepsis between January 2014 and December 2015. PCT levels at different infection sites were compared, as was the presence of GN and GP bloodstream infection...
April 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ming-Horng Tsai, I-Ta Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yhu-Chering Huang
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62...
2016: PloS One
Claudia-Elena Pleşca, Mihaela Cătălina Luca, A St Luca, Simona Constantinescu, Luminiţa Smaranda Iancu
UNLABELLED: Microbial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health and it is linked to patient's age, immune status, and also antibiotic overuse or misuse and repeated hospitalizations. The high incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria requires rethinking the first-line therapeutic schemes. AIM: Retrospective study of the etiologic and antibiotic resistance profile of the bacterial strains isolated from immunocompromised hosts diagnosed with severe systemic infections, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the potential infectious sources and optimizing the antibiotic therapy...
October 2015: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Ming-Horng Tsai, I Hsyuan Wu, Chiang-Wen Lee, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yhu-Chering Huang
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) bloodstream infections account for 20%-30% of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS). We aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for adverse outcomes in neonates with GNB LOS. METHODS: All patients with GNB LOS admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Taiwan from January 1, 2004-December 31, 2011, were enrolled. A case-control-control study was performed to evaluate risk factors for acquisition of neonatal GNB LOS...
February 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Fu-Chun Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Yun-Ju Ma, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Jiann-Shiuh Chen, Chao-Neng Cheng, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric hematological malignancy. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are severe complications in these patients during chemotherapy. This study aims to explore clinical features, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics of BSIs in acute leukemic children. METHODS: Patients aged < 18 years, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia with BSIs from January 2004 to December 2013 were enrolled...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Maja Surbatovic, Nada Popovic, Danilo Vojvodic, Ivan Milosevic, Gordana Acimovic, Milan Stojicic, Milic Veljovic, Jasna Jevdjic, Dragan Djordjevic, Sonja Radakovic
Sepsis is a principal cause of death in critical care units worldwide and consumes considerable healthcare resources. The aim of our study was to determine whether the early cytokine profile can discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteraemia (GPB and GNB, respectively) and to assess the prognostic value regarding outcome in critically ill patients with severe abdominal sepsis. The outcome measure was hospital mortality. Blood samples were obtained from 165 adult patients with confirmed severe abdominal sepsis...
June 16, 2015: Scientific Reports
Seung-Ji Kang, Hee-Chang Jang, Sook-In Jung, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Chung-Jong Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park
BACKGROUND: There are limited data describing the clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). The aim of this study was to investigate the predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB compared to Gram-positive cocci (GPC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records from patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis at four tertiary teaching hospitals over an 8-year period...
2015: PloS One
Veronica A Buonaiuto, Ignacio Marquez, Inmaculada De Toro, Carolina Joya, Juan D Ruiz-Mesa, Raimundo Seara, Antonio Plata, Beatriz Sobrino, Begoña Palop, Juan D Colmenero
BACKGROUND: Complicated pyelonephritis (cPN), a common cause of hospital admission, is still a poorly-understood entity given the difficulty involved in its correct definition. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of cPN and its prognosis in a large cohort of patients with cPN. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study including 1325 consecutive patients older than 14 years diagnosed with cPN and admitted to a tertiary university hospital between 1997-2013...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
Verónica Seija, Julio César Medina Presentado, Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Noelia Batista, Claudia Gutierrez, Mariana Guirado, Macarena Vidal, Marcelo Nin, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolate of Morganella morganii obtained from a patient with sepsis of urinary origin and to describe the patient's clinical characteristics. We further aimed to perform a literature review of the situation in Latin America regarding Gram-negative bacillus (GNB) carriers of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) and qnr genes and current reports on the treatment of infections caused by XDR enterobacteria, with particular attention to colistin-resistant isolates...
January 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Chorng-Kuang How, Sen-Kuang Hou, Hsin-Chin Shih, Mu-Shun Huang, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chen-Hsen Lee, Chi-Chang Juan
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an effective trigger of the inflammatory response during infection with gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which implicates the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to have a significant role in the fine-tuning of toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory response. We profiled miRNA expression levels in peripheral leukocytes of GNB urosepsis patients and compared them with those of healthy controls. We further explored the regulatory mechanism of endotoxin-responsive miRNAs in TLR and cytokine signaling by using human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) treated with LPS antigen stimulation...
February 2015: Shock
S Basu
Colonization of the neonatal gut takes place immediately after birth. Bacteria that get colonized are considered to be "normal" flora derived principally from the mother and the immediate environment. However, for some neonates, the colonization of the gut, particularly with potential pathogens, may lead to subsequent infections or sepsis. The immune system and the gut barrier in neonates is vulnerable, with decreased acid secretion, low levels of protective mucous, and decreased motility, particularly in those who are premature and of low birth weight...
February 2015: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
M Trifa, M M Ben Yahia, S Saada, S Akrout, A Ghlala, R Fakhfakh, A Fekih Hassen, S Ben Khalifa
BACKGROUND: Thrombopenia is correlated with sepsis and mortality in pediatric intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to find an association between thrombopenia and the microorganism type to guide the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy in infected critically ill children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective descriptive study, including all newborns, infants, and children admitted to a pediatric surgical intensive care unit from 1st January to 31st December 2009...
October 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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