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Hirotoshi Sushida, Naoki Ishibashi, Takeshi Zendo, Pongtep Wilaipun, Vichien Leelawatcharamas, Jiro Nakayama, Kenji Sonomoto
EnkT is a novel ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter responsible for secretion of four bacteriocins, enterocins NKR-5-3A, C, D, and Z (Ent53A, C, D, and Z), produced by Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3. It is generally recognized that the secretion of a bacteriocin requires a dedicated ABC transporter, although molecular mechanisms of this secretion are yet to be revealed. In order to characterize the unique ability of EnkT to secrete multiple bacteriocins, the role of N-terminal leader peptides of bacteriocin precursors was evaluated using Ent53C precursor as a model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent bacterial toxins mostly produced by genetically diverse clostridial strains. Recently, BoNT variants have been reported in non-clostridial strains. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zhang et al. (2018) describe a novel BoNT in Entecoccus faecium.
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Maniya Arshadi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Moloud Sadat Motahar, Saber Soltani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Methods: Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Ewa Sadowy, Iwona Gawryszewska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Żabicka, Waleria Hryniewicz
Increasing prevalence of VanB Enterococcus faecium in Polish hospitals reported to National Reference Centre for Susceptibility Testing (NRCST) prompted us to investigate the basis of this phenomenon. Two-hundred seventy-eight E. faecium isolates of VanB phenotype from the period 1999 to 2010 obtained by NRCST were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA). Localization, transferability, and partial structure of the vanB-carrying Tn1549 transposon were studied by hybridization, PCR mapping, sequencing, and conjugation...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Grace J Yuen, Frederick M Ausubel
The innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied and a variety of Toll-independent immune response pathways have been identified. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how pathogens activate the C. elegans immune response. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are closely related enterococcal species that exhibit significantly different levels of virulence in C. elegans infection models. Previous work has shown that activation of the C. elegans immune response by Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves P...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Tamiko Nagao, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Miad Elahi, Ayano Tada, Emika Toyonaga, Hisashi Yamasaki, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Hirokazu Miyoshi, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Tomomi Kuwahara
Excessive damage to DNA and lipid membranes by reactive oxygen species reduces the viability of bacteria. In the present study, the proliferation of recA‑deficient Escherichia coli strains was revealed to be inhibited by 1% L‑histidine under aerobic conditions. This inhibition of proliferation was not observed under anaerobic conditions, indicating that L‑histidine enhances oxidative DNA damage to E. coli cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of recA in E...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Haroon Mohammad, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed N Seleem
Enterococci are commensal microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. Though normally innocuous to the host, strains of Enterococcus exhibiting resistance to vancomycin (VRE) have been associated with high rates of infection and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Decolonization of VRE represents a key strategy to curb infection in highly-susceptible patients. However, there is a dearth of decolonizing agents available clinically that are effective against VRE. The present study confirms that niclosamide, an anthelmintic drug, has potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
María A Correa Deza, Gladys I Martos, Marta Nuñez, Mario Fiori, Carla L Gerez, Graciela Font
In artisanal tanneries, the skins are immersed in cereals fermented by natural microbial flora in order to reduce the pH of the skin, an essential condition for carrying out the final step. The environmental thermal variation alters the fermentation process and affects the quality of the final product. The aim of this work was to isolate lactic acid bacteria from cereals mixture fermented in an artisanal tannery and to evaluate in vitro the acidifying activity of the strains as a first step for the formulation of a starter culture...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Jessica D Lewis, Andrew J Barros, Costi D Sifri
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) infections are common in liver transplant recipients (LTRs). Daptomycin (DAP) is an important treatment for such infections; however, DAP-nonsusceptible VRE (DNS-VRE) are increasingly frequent. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of LTRs with infections due to DNS-VRE and DAP-susceptible VRE (DS-VRE). METHODS: A single center, retrospective review of patients who underwent liver transplantation between 1/1/2010 and 12/31/15 and developed infections due to DS-VRE or DNS-VRE post-transplant was performed...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
A S Vasilchenko, A V Vasilchenko, A V Valyshev, E A Rogozhin
Discovery of a novel bacteriocin is always an event in sciences, since cultivation of most bacterial species is a general problem in microbiology. This statement is reflected by the fact that number of bacteriocins is smaller for tenfold comparing to known antimicrobial peptides. We cultivated Enterococcus faecium on simplified medium to reduce amount of purification steps. This approach allows to purify the novel heavy weight bacteriocin produced by E. faecium ICIS 7. The novelty of this bacteriocin, named enterocin-7, was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by comparing the structural-functional properties with available data...
February 8, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
B P Madoshi, M M A Mtambo, A P Muhairwa, A M Lupindu, J E Olsen
AIM: The study aimed to isolate and characterise Enterococcus species from apparently healthy waste attendants, cattle and cattle waste in Tanzania. Emphasis was given to antimicrobial resistance and in particular occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples were collected from healthy cattle, cattle waste attendants, and cattle house wastes and isolation of Enterococcus species was performed using Slanetz Bartley agar. Isolates were characterized with regard to species, antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of vancomycin resistance genes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bilqeesa Bhat, Bijender Kumar Bajaj
Bioprospecting of novel probiotic strains especially from unexplored eco-niches has been a continuous practice. Enterococcus faecium K1, an isolate from indigenously fermented milk product kalarei possesses numerous desirable functional attributes. In current study, E. faecium K1 has been used for EPS production, and it yielded 355 ± 0.019 mg/L EPS. EPS demonstrates remarkable hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antibiofilm, and emulsification characteristics. EPS is constituted of mannose, glucose and galactose...
January 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Jennifer Streit, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader
Tigecycline and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution method against 33,348 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively in 2016 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (3,443 isolates), Europe (13,530 isolates), Latin America (3,327 isolates), and United States (13,048 isolates). Among 7,098 Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested, >99.9% were inhibited by ≤0.5 mg/L of tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/L), including >99.9% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 100.0% of methicillin-susceptible S...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Snežana Jovanović, Rajica Stošović, Goran Stevanović, Branko Velebit, Marcus John Zervos
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic use and immunocompromised status in haematology patients have been shown to determine the constituents of commensal microbiota with highly increased resistance, including vancomycin resistant enterococci. We compared the carriage of virulence factor genes and the capacity for biofilm formation in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) originating from the oropharyngeal and stool cultures of haematology patients. DESIGN: PCR tests were used to investigate the presence of genes encoding pathogenicity factors (esp and hyl) in VRE isolates...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Armin Rashidi, Maryam Ebadi, Robin R Shields-Cutler, Todd E DeFor, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Patricia Ferrieri, Jo-Anne H Young, Gary M Dunny, Dan Knights, Daniel J Weisdorf
Pre-transplant gut colonization with intrinsically vancomycin-resistant enterococci (iVRE: E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus) is uncommon and with unknown clinical impact. In a matched-pairs analysis of patients with vs. without iVRE colonization (n = 18 in each group), we demonstrated significantly higher two-year overall survival (86 [52-96]% vs. 35 [8-65]%, P<0.01) and lower non-relapse mortality (P<0.01) among colonized patients. Putative metabolomes differentiated iVRE from E. faecalis/faecium and may contribute to a healthier gut microbiome in iVRE-colonized patients...
January 30, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Sung Yeon Cho, Yeon Joon Park, Hanwool Cho, Dong Jin Park, Jin Kyung Yu, Hayeon Caitlyn Oak, Dong Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium, especially vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm), is a major concern for patients with hematologic diseases. Exposure to antibiotics including fluoroquinolone, which is used as a routine prophylaxis for patients with hematologic (MH) diseases, has been reported to be a risk factor for infection with vancomycin-resistant eneterocci. We compared the characteristics of E. faecium isolates according to their vancomycin susceptibility and patient group (MH vs non-MH patients)...
May 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Jacopo Monticelli, Anna Knezevich, Roberto Luzzati, Stefano Di Bella
Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens are enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin belonging to the E. gallinarum group. They are responsible mainly for healthcare-associated infections, in particular bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical wound infections. Diseases due to these bacteria are significantly increasing worldwide, as they are prone to cause infection in patients with concurrent hepatobiliary or oncohematological disorders. Along with their distinguishing vancomycin resistance, due to a chromosomally-encoded VanC operon, their additional intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics other than glycopeptides limits the therapeutic choices...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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