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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676703/effect-of-intraoperative-single-shot-application-of-vancomycin-in-liver-transplant-recipients-on-postoperative-infections-with-enterococcus-faecium-and-enterococcus-faecalis
#1
Christian Siebers, Johannes Kinzinger, Ludwig C Hinske, Andreas Bauer, Patrick Scheiermann, Michael Zoller, Markus Guba, Martin Angele, Sebastian Pratschke, Thomas Weig
OBJECTIVES: Infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the early postoperative period after liver transplant. We observed a high rate of enterococcal infections at our center. Therefore, we added an intraoperative single shot of vancomycin to the standard regimen of meropenem given over 5 days. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis infections during the first 28 days after surgery depending on the type of antibiotic prophylaxis and their implications on mortality and morbidity...
April 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674657/emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-at-an-australian-hospital-a-whole-genome-sequencing-analysis
#2
Kelvin W C Leong, Louise A Cooley, Tara L Anderson, Sanjay S Gautam, Belinda McEwan, Anne Wells, Fiona Wilson, Lucy Hughson, Ronan F O'Toole
In 2015, a marked increase in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolation was detected at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. The primary objective of this work was to examine the dynamics of VREfm transmission using whole genome data mapped to public health surveillance information. Screening and clinical isolates of VREfm from patients were typed for the specific vancomycin-resistance locus present. Of total isolates collected from 2014-2016 (n = 222), 15.3% and 84.7% harboured either the vanA or the vanB vancomycin-resistance locus, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669304/safety-assessment-and-functional-properties-of-four-enterococci-strains-isolated-from-regional-argentinean-cheese
#3
Gabriela P Martino, Martín Espariz, Gabriel Gallina Nizo, Luis Esteban, Víctor S Blancato, Christian Magni
The members of the Enterococcus genus are widely distributed in nature. Its strains have been extensively reported to be present in plant surfaces, soil, water and food. In an attempt to assess their potential application in food industry, four Enterococcus faecium group-strains recently isolated from Argentinean regional cheese products were evaluated using a combination of whole genome analyses and in vivo assays. In order to identify these microorganisms at species level, in silico analyses using their newly reported sequences were conducted...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669265/modification-of-ige-binding-to-%C3%AE-s1-casein-by-proteolytic-activity-of-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-iranian-camel-milk-samples
#4
Reihane Kordesedehi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Mohammad Rabbani-Khorasgani, Rezvan Kazemi, Daniel Mutangadura, Thomas Haertle
Milk is a perfect source of nutrients for neonates. When breast feeding cannot be done, an infant's alimentation is usually initiated to cow's milk, among the primary foods. It has been reported that about 2.5% of juveniles under the age of 3 years manifest allergic reactions to cow's milk proteins. Among the cow's milk proteins, casein fractions are considered as the strongest allergenic proteins. The proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), during fermentation of dairy products, can break down milk proteins especially caseins and subsequently reduce the immune reactivity of allergenic proteins...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667183/effect-of-enterococcus-faecium-sf68-on-serum-cobalamin-and-folate-concentrations-in-healthy-dogs
#5
R Lucena, A B Olmedilla, B Blanco, M Novales, P J Ginel
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a 14-day administration of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on serum concentrations of cobalamin and folate in healthy dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six healthy dogs were randomly allocated between probiotic and control groups. Enterococcus faecium SF68 was administered to the probiotic group for 14 days whereas the control group did not receive any product. A blood sample was taken from all dogs when starting the administration (day 1), when the administration ended (day 14) and 14 days later (day 28)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664245/analysis-of-the-world-epidemiological-situation-among-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-and-the-current-situation-in-poland
#6
Katarzyna Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Małgorzata Bulanda
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659858/zaaps-programme-results-for-2016-an-activity-and-spectrum-analysis-of-linezolid-using-clinical-isolates-from-medical-centres-in-42-countries
#7
Rodrigo E Mendes, Lalitagauri Deshpande, Jennifer M Streit, Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
Objectives: To report the linezolid activity, resistance mechanisms and epidemiological typing of selected isolates observed during the 2016 Zyvox® Annual Appraisal of Potency and Spectrum (ZAAPS) programme. Methods: A total of 8325 organisms were consecutively collected from 76 centres in 42 countries (excluding the USA). Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed and isolates displaying linezolid MICs of ≥4 mg/L were molecularly characterized...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659377/anorectal-complications-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#8
Rafaela V Loureiro, Verónica P Borges, Ana L Tomé, Carlos F Bernardes, Mário J Silva, Maria J Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Anorectal complications are common in patients with haematological malignancies. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are to characterize anorectal complications in these patients, identify risk factors and shed light on treatment, morbidity and mortality rates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational study that included 83 inpatients with haematological malignancies and proctological symptoms from January 2010 to September 2015 was conducted...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655557/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-chemical-additive-based-on-sodium-benzoate-potassium-sorbate-and-sodium-nitrite-on-the-fermentation-and-aerobic-stability-of-corn-silage
#9
Limin Kung, Megan L Smith, Erica Benjamim da Silva, Michelle C Windle, Thiago C da Silva, Stephanie A Polukis
We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651835/use-of-a-probiotic-mixture-containing-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-bb12-and-enterococcus-faecium-l3-in-atopic-children
#10
Francesco Di Pierro, Isabella Basile, Maria L Danza, Leo Venturelli, Raffaele Contini, Paolo Risso, Maria Colombo
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in childhood, mainly due to low gut biodiversity and a low bifidobacterial load, has been suggested as a risk factor for atopy. Administration of Enterococcus faecium L3 in infants has been shown to increase the gut bifidobacterial count. The aim was to verify if a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and E. faecium L3 could reduce the signs, symptoms and need for drugs in atopic children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed, and compared with controls, clinical outcomes following use of BB12 and L3 strains when administered 3 months before or during the development of signs and symptoms of atopy...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643807/antimicrobial-peptides-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-bacterial-skin-infections-and-wounds
#11
REVIEW
Anja Pfalzgraff, Klaus Brandenburg, Günther Weindl
Alarming data about increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics are reported, while at the same time the development of new antibiotics is stagnating. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are mainly caused by the so called ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) which belong to the most recalcitrant bacteria and are resistant to almost all common antibiotics. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most frequent pathogens isolated from chronic wounds and increasing resistance to topical antibiotics has become a major issue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642680/effect-of-probiotics-and-xylo-oligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-intestinal-health-and-noxious-gas-emission-in-weanling-pigs
#12
Jingbo Liu, S C Cao, J Liu, Y N Xie, H F Zhang
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, intestinal health, fecal microbiota and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs. Methods: A total of 240 weanling pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc)] with an average BW of 6.3 ± 0.15 kg were used in this 28-day trial. Pigs were randomly allocated in 1 of the following 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of probiotics (0 and 500 mg/kg probiotics) and XOS (0 and 200 mg/kg XOS) based on the BW and sex...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622613/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-faecium-strain-j19-isolated-from-cabbage
#13
Diana I Ayala, Peter W Cook, David L Campos, Jorge G Franco, Mindy M Brashears, Henk den Bakker, Kendra K Nightingale
Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of a newly discovered probiotic strain, Enterococcus faecium J19, which was isolated from cabbage. Strain J19 has shown antagonistic effects against the human foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in coculture and in different food matrices.
April 5, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621990/risk-factors-for-long-term-mortality-in-patients-admitted-with-severe-infection
#14
J Francisco, I Aragão, T Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Severe infection is a main cause of mortality. We aim to describe risk factors for long-term mortality among inpatients with severe infection. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in a 600-bed university hospital in Portugal including all patients with severe infection admitted into intensive care, medical, surgical, hematology and nephrology wards over one-year period. The outcome of interest was 5-year mortality following infection. Variables of patient background and infectious episode were studied in association with the main outcome through multiple logistic regression...
April 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621590/vancomycin-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-danish-chicken-meat-is-located-on-a-pvef4-like-plasmid-persisting-in-poultry-for-18-years
#15
Helena Leinweber, Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Frank Hansen, Henrik Hasman, Valeria Bortolaia, Anette M Hammerum, Hanne Ingmer
The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) in food has public health relevance since foodborne VREfm may colonize the gut of consumers and transfer vancomycin resistance genes to the indigenous gut microbiota. Therefore, we determined occurrence and elucidated genetic traits of VREfm in Danish retail chicken meat. Three out of 40 samples (7.5%) from two slaughterhouses yielded VREfm (vancomycin MIC > 32mg/L). This is the first report of VREfm in Danish retail poultry meat since 2010 (DANMAP)...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619911/early-use-of-etanercept-for-graft-versus-host-disease-after-liver-transplant-the-importance-of-broad-spectrum-infective-prophylaxis
#16
Annalisa Boscolo, Eugenia Menin, Beatrice Zelaschi, Laura Albertoni, Giacomo Zanus, Fabio Baratto
Graft-versus-host-disease after orthotopic liver transplant is a rare and life-threatening complication. The diagnosis is challenging and usually confirmed by chimerism and skin biopsies. The most common cause of death is sepsis (60%), and broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal prophylaxis are strongly recommended. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma and a previous history of metabolic and alcoholic cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. The immunosuppression regimen consisted of corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitor, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor...
April 4, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617860/whole-genome-sequencing-based-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterococcus
#17
Gregory H Tyson, Jonathan L Sabo, Crystal Rice-Trujillo, Jacqueline Hernandez, Patrick F McDermott
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has transformed our understanding of antimicrobial resistance, yielding new insights into the genetics underlying resistance. To date, most studies using WGS to study antimicrobial resistance have focused on gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, which have well-defined resistance mechanisms. In contrast, relatively few studies have been performed on gram-positive organisms. We sequenced 197 strains of Enterococcus from various animal and food sources, including 100 Enterococcus faecium and 97 E...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608754/t2-magnetic-resonance-for-the-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections-charting-a-path-forward
#18
Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
We discuss four studies in this issue of the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy that describe experience with T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) nanodiagnostics for Candida and bacterial bloodstream infections, in the context of the T2MR literature. T2Candida and T2Bacteria panels use a dedicated instrument to detect amplified DNA from microbial cells directly in whole blood. T2Candida gives positive or negative results for C. albicans/C. tropicalis, C. glabrata/C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis. T2Bacteria detects Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608753/t2bacteria-magnetic-resonance-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-eskapec-pathogens-directly-in-whole-blood
#19
Giulia De Angelis, Brunella Posteraro, Elena De Carolis, Giulia Menchinelli, Francesco Franceschi, Mario Tumbarello, Gennaro De Pascale, Teresa Spanu, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Objectives: To evaluate the magnetic resonance-based T2Bacteria Panel assay for direct detection of ESKAPEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) pathogens in blood samples of patients with suspected bloodstream infection (BSI). Patients and methods: Adult patients admitted to the Emergency Medicine Department, Infectious Diseases Unit and ICU of a large tertiary-care hospital were included if they had a blood culture (BC) ordered concomitantly with a whole-blood sample for T2Bacteria testing...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588851/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-796-rapid-international-dissemination-of-a-new-epidemic-clone
#20
Andrew A Mahony, Andrew H Buultjens, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Shirley Xie, Torsten Seemann, Rhonda L Stuart, Despina Kotsanas, Allen Cheng, Helen Heffernan, Sally A Roberts, Geoffrey W Coombs, Narin Bak, John K Ferguson, Glen C Carter, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Paul D R Johnson
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. New, presumably better-adapted strains of VRE appear unpredictably; it is uncertain how they spread despite improved infection control. We aimed to investigate the relatedness of a novel sequence type (ST) of vanB E. faecium - ST796 - very near its time of origin from hospitals in three Australian states and New Zealand. Methods: Following near-simultaneous outbreaks of ST796 in multiple institutions, we gathered then tested colonization and bloodstream infection isolates' antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes, and phylogenomic relationships using whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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