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D X Vega-Manriquez, R P Dávila-Arrellano, C A Eslava-Campos, E Salazar Jiménez, A C Negrete-Philippe, R Raigoza-Figueras, F A Muñoz-Tenería
Anthropogenic activities, predation, and diseases have contributed to a decrease in the sea turtle population in recent years. Ulcerative stomatitis is a condition that occurs in both wild and captive populations. The etiology of this condition is associated with bacteria such as E. coli, Citrobacter diversus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Flavobacter calcoaceticus, Staphylococcus spp., and Flavobacterium spp. Some of these microorganisms are part of the oral microbiota of turtles, but alterations in the immune response can disturb the homeostatic relationship and cause an increase in the population of microorganisms, which in turn can cause disease...
June 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yizhi Zhang, Guofeng Dong, Jiahui Li, Lijiang Chen, Haiyang Liu, Wenzi Bi, Hong Lu, Tieli Zhou
Linezolid is considered as a last-resort antimicrobial agent, the resistance of which is of great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and transferability of linezolid resistance and molecular epidemiology of linezolid-resistant enterococcal isolates in Wenzhou, China. A collection of 1623 enterococcal strains, including 789 Enterococcus faecalis and 834 Enterococcus faecium, were isolated from our hospital during 2011-2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and clinical data analysis were performed...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard
Development of new antibiotics is costly and time-consuming and therefore it is highly attractive if the efficacy of conventional antibiotics can be expanded. For the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, we recently demonstrated that inactivation of the ATP synthase increases the susceptibility of the pathogen 16-fold to the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. Aminoglycosides are rarely used as monotherapy against S. aureus due to the risk of resistance development and toxic effects. Here we have explored the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of aminoglycosides against S...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Paul A Granato, Melissa M Unz, Raymond H Widen, Suzane Silbert, Stephen Young, Kathryn L Heflin, Matt S Conover, Blake W Buchan, Nathan A Ledeboer
The iC-GPC Assay™ (iCubate®, Huntsville, AL) is a qualitative, multiplex test for the detection of five of the most common gram-positive bacteria ( S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, and E. faecium ) responsible for bacterial bloodstream infections directly from positive blood cultures. The assay also detects the presence of the mec A, van A, and van B resistance determinants. This study comparatively evaluated the performance of the iC-GPC Assay against the Verigene® gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) assay (Luminex Corp®, Austin, TX) for 1,134 patient blood culture specimens positive for gram-positive cocci...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
B Lipový, J Holoubek, M Hanslianová, M Cvanová, L Klein, I Grossová, R Zajíček, P Bukovčan, J Koller, M Baran, P Lengyel, L Eimer, M Jandová, M Košťál, P Brychta
INTRODUCTION: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, life-threatening autoimmune disease predominantly manifested in the skin and mucous membranes. Today, infectious complications have the dominant share in mortality of TEN patients. Due to the nature of the therapy and administration of immunosuppressive medications, a wide range of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, which cause infectious complications in different compartments in these patients, is not surprising. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: This is a multicentric study, which included all patients with TEN hospitalized between 2000-2015 in specialized centres in the Czech Republic and Slovakia...
June 6, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Taskeen Raza, Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Khalid Mehmood, Saadia Andleeb
Enterococci are known as opportunistic pathogens and today are accepted as leading cause of nosocomial infections. Various enterococcal species have been identified, but the major two which cause human diseases are enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. Most common and important infections caused by them are bacteraemia, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, intra-abdominal and intra-pelvic infections. Over the last two decades the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci is alarming because of high mortality rate...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
L M Deshpande, M Castanheira, R K Flamm, R E Mendes
Objectives: This study evaluated the oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms among a global collection of enterococcal clinical isolates. The epidemiology of optrA-carrying isolates and the optrA genetic context were determined. Methods: Enterococcal isolates (26 648) from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2008-16) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Isolates with linezolid MICs of ≥4 mg/L were screened for resistance mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Veronika Oravcová, Luísa Peixe, Teresa M Coque, Carla Novais, Maria V Francia, Ivan Literák, Ana R Freitas
The most prevalent type of acquired vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546, mainly located on transferable plasmids. vanA plasmids have been characterized in VREfm from a variety of sources but not wild birds. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic context of VREfm strains recovered from wild corvid birds and to compare their plasmid and strain characteristics with human strains. To achieve that, 75 VREfm isolates, including strains from wild birds recovered during wide surveillance studies performed in Europe, Canada and the United States (2010-2013), and clinical and wastewater strains from Czech Republic, a region lacking data about vanA plasmids, were analysed...
June 2, 2018: Environment International
Kumudu R V Bandara, Chayanika Padumadasa, Dinithi C Peiris
Passiflora suberosa L. belonging to the family Passifloraceae is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicinal system in Sri Lanka to treat diabetes, hypertension and skin diseases. We extracted P. suberosa leaves under reflux conditions using different solvents (hexane, chloroform, methanol and water), then subjected to phytochemical screening. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins and saponins and anthraquinones were present in hexane and chloroform extracts. Alkaloids, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both methanol and aqueous extracts...
2018: PeerJ
Preeti Sharma, Sumanpreet Kaur, Raminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to grow by almost 70% in the coming 2 decades. Recent microbiome studies in cancer mice models have shown that certain commensal bacteria play protective roles against cancer. Thus, the use of commensal microflora having anticancer activities for the treatment of cancer appears to be an attractive alternative therapeutic strategy. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form an integral component of commensal microflora in healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amy C Weintrob, Clinton K Murray, Jiahong Xu, Margot Krauss, William Bradley, Tyler E Warkentien, Bradley A Lloyd, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: During the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, more than 52,000 U.S. military members were wounded in action. The battlefield mortality rate was lower than in past conflicts, however, those surviving often had complex soft tissue and bone injuries requiring multiple surgeries. This report describes the rates, types, and risks of infections complicating the care of combat casualties. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Infection and microbiology data obtained from the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS), a prospective observational study of infections complicating deployment-related injuries, were used to determine the proportion of infection, types, and associated organisms...
April 2018: Surgical Infections
Soraia Younan, Gabriel Zanuto Sakita, João Gabriel Younan Coluna, Marcos Natal Rufino, Rogéria Keller, Hermann Bremer-Neto
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional, physiological, and biochemical effects of dietary supplementation of an association of probiotic bacteria in rats intoxicated with chromium (VI). Ninety-six male rats, recently weaned, were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=12): Control, DK12, DK24, and DK36 (0, 0.12, 0.24, and 0.36 of K2 Cr2 O7 incorporated in the basal feed, respectively) and groups Prob, DK12+Prob, DK24+Prob, and DK36+Prob received a progressive dose of 0, 0...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hani Adnan Ozbak
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are resistant to most classes of antibiotics. Diagnosis of VRE using standard methods takes 2 to 5 days. Development of a rapid PCR-assay that detects and identifies resistant genes in bacteria would provide time-critical information on the presence of VRE in clinical samples allowing early treatment and management of infected patients. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the use of high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and 16S-rRNA-PCR approach for rapid and cost-effective identification of VRE...
May 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Ângela Novais, Tânia Moniz, Ana Rita Rebelo, Ana M G Silva, Maria Rangel, Luísa Peixe
The restricted number of antibiotics to treat infections caused by common multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in the clinical setting demands a continuous search for new molecules with antibacterial properties. Bacterial iron deprivation represents a promising alternative, being iron chelators an attractive class for drug design in which particular compounds seem to have antibacterial effect. In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone (3,4-HPO) iron chelator functionalized with a carboxyrosamine fluorophore (MRB20)...
May 15, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Pınar Sanlibaba, Basar Uymaz Tezel, Esra Senturk
The aim of the present work was to provide information about Enterococcus strains isolated from pre-packaged chicken samples in Ankara (Turkey), focusing on their prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and antibiotic resistance. We report the first study on the occurrence of antibiotic resistant enterococci in pre-packaged chicken samples in Ankara. A total of 97 suspicious enterococcal isolates were identified from 122 chicken samples. All isolates were identified to species level by phenotypic and molecular methods...
April 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Elpiniki Vandera, Georgia Tsirka, Athanasia Kakouri, Anna-Irini Koukkou, John Samelis
Enterococci are naturally selected for growth in thermized ewes'/goats' milk mixtures used for traditional cooked hard cheese processing in Greece. A culture-independent PCR-based approach was applied to detect the presence of enterocin-encoding genes in naturally culture-enriched thermized milk (TM). Portions of TM (63 °C, 30 s) collected from a commercial cheese plant before addition of starters were fermented at 37 °C for 48 h to facilitate growth of indigenous enterococci. The multiple enterocin-producing (m-Ent+) Enterococcus faecium KE82 and the nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Junfeng Li, Xianjun Yuan, Zhihao Dong, Wazha Mugabe, Tao Shao
Biological inoculants were tested on Pennisetum sinese for their effects on fermentation characteristics, structural carbohydrates degradation, and enzymatic conversion yields. Pennisetum sinese was ensiled without additive, Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp), Trichoderma reesei (Tr), fibrolytic enzymes (E), and Enterococcus faecium (Y83) for 90 days. Y83 silages had higher LA and lower AA, ammonia-N and DM loss as compared to E and Tr silages. Tr and E had superior effects for degrading lignocellulose while Y83 had intermediate effects...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Fangyuan Zhou, Xiaoqing Wu, Letian Xu, Shuhai Guo, Guanhong Chen, Xinjian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Insects form both mutualistic and antagonistic relationships with microbes, and some antagonistic microbes have been used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) in pest management. Contextually, BCAs may be inhibited by beneficial insect symbionts, which can become potential barriers for entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. Thus, by using the symbioses formed by one devastating dipteran pest, Delia antiqua, and its associated microbes as a model system, we sought to determine whether the antagonistic interaction between BCAs and microbial symbionts could affect the outcome of entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol...
May 23, 2018: Pest Management Science
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