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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243494/does-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-clinically-important-antibiotic-induce-biofilm-production-of-enterococcus-faecium-strains
#1
Fatma Neslihan Yuksel, Neslihan Taskale Karatug, Mustafa Akcelik
Biofilm structures are the most resistant form of active microorganisms against sanitation, disinfection, and sterilization processes. One of the specific properties of biofilm is the development of antibiotic resistance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than planktonic cells. Enterococcus faecium is a human pathogen that causes nosocomial bacteremia and at the present time, it is well known that most of the chronic infections are biofilm-based. Recent evidence suggested that subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics have an important role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance and induction on biofilm formation...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238458/bacteriocinogenic-potential-and-virulence-traits-of-enterococcus-faecium-and-e-faecalis-isolated-from-human-milk
#2
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
Background and Objectives: Human milk is a continuous supply of Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB), including enterococci with probiotic potentials. The aim of this study was to analyze two Enterococcus species, isolated from human milk for their probiotic potential, bacteriocin producing ability and virulence traits. Materials and Methods: Enterococcus faecium TA0033 and E. faecalis TA102 were tested for acid and bile tolerance, survival in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235021/occurrence-of-antimicrobial-agents-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-genes-in-the-sewage-impacted-vistula-river-poland
#3
Joanna Giebułtowicz, Stefan Tyski, Renata Wolinowska, Wanda Grzybowska, Tomasz Zaręba, Agata Drobniewska, Piotr Wroczyński, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
Antimicrobial agents (antimicrobials) are a group of therapeutic and hygienic agents that either kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Their occurrence in surface water may reveal harmful effects on aquatic biota and challenge microbial populations. Recently, there is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water with both antimicrobial agents and multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was the determination of the presence of selected antimicrobials at specific locations of the Vistula River (Poland), as well as in tap water samples originating from the Warsaw region...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227922/evolution-of-virulence-in-enterococcus-faecium-a-hospital-adapted-opportunistic-pathogen
#4
REVIEW
Wei Gao, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Enterococci are long-standing members of the human microbiome and they are also widely distributed in nature. However, with the surge of antibiotic-resistance in recent decades, two enterococcal species (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) have emerged to become significant nosocomial pathogens, acquiring extensive antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize what is known about the evolution of virulence in E. faecium, highlighting a specific clone of E. faecium called ST796 that has emerged recently and spread globally...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224317/-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-of-pathogenic-bacteria-distribution-and-drug-resistance-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-hematological-diseases-in-shanghai
#5
J Zhu, J Hu, Y F Mao, F Y Chen, J Y Zhu, J M Shi, D D Yu, S G Hao, R Tao, P Liu, S Y Gu, J Hou, H Y He, A B Liang, Y Ding, L G Liu, Y H Xie, Q Zhu, Y H Yu, Y H Yao, W Chen, H L Xu, X H Han, C Wang
Objective: To investigate the pathogen spectrum distribution and drug resistance of febrile neutropenic patients with hematological diseases in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical isolates from the febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in the departments of hematology in 12 general hospitals in Shanghai from January 2012 to December 2014. The drug susceptibility test was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method. WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility data...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218505/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-traditional-artisanal-milk-cheese-from-northeast-china-against-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#6
Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Shanshan Gu, Xin Yan, Hongyan Chen, Junwei Ge
The present study aims to investigate the probiotic properties of novel strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional artisanal milk cheese from Northeast China and to explore their antibacterial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. Of the 321 isolates, 86 exhibited survival in low pH, resistance to pancreatin, and tolerance to bile salts; of these, 12 inhibited the growth of more than seven enteropathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003 and/or Escherichia coli CVCC230...
December 7, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216824/use-of-a-mixed-culture-strategy-to-isolate-halophilic-bacteria-with-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activity-from-the-manaure-solar-saltern-in-colombia
#7
Natalia Conde-Martínez, Alejandro Acosta-González, Luis E Díaz, Edisson Tello
BACKGROUND: Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211024/engineering-the-l-arabinose-isomerase-from-enterococcus-faecium-for-d-tagatose-synthesis
#8
Marylane de Sousa, Ricardo M Manzo, José L García, Enrique J Mammarella, Luciana R B Gonçalves, Benevides C Pessela
l-Arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.4) (l-AI) from Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ E36 was overproduced in Escherichia coli by designing a codon-optimized synthetic araA gene. Using this optimized gene, two N- and C-terminal His-tagged-l-AI proteins were produced. The cloning of the two chimeric genes into regulated expression vectors resulted in the production of high amounts of recombinant N-His-l-AI and C-His-l-AI in soluble and active forms. Both His-tagged enzymes were purified in a single step through metal-affinity chromatography and showed different kinetic and structural characteristics...
December 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208540/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activities-extracts-of-mangrove-leaf-against-the-growth-of-some-pathogenic-bacteria
#9
Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Fakhri Shahidi, Hamid Noorbakhsh, Alireza Vasiee, Ali Alghooneh
In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels (0, 31.25, 83.33, 125 and 250 ml) were investigated on the efficiency of mangrove leaf extraction using mixture optimal design. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The mangrove leaf extraction components were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207701/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-hospitalized-patients-and-role-of-gut-colonization
#10
Geetarani Purohit, Rajni Gaind, Reetika Dawar, P K Verma, K C Aggarwal, Raman Sardana, Monorama Deb
Introduction: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora and have been recognized as important human pathogens. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are global threat as this resistance is transmissible and also poses a challenge for infection control. Aim: This study was undertaken to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE from clinically significant infections among hospitalized patients and their association with gut colonization. Materials and Methods: Clinically significant isolates of enterococci (n=250) were studied...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203445/rapid-monitoring-of-local-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-on-a-department-level-by-reppcr
#11
Frank Froeschen, Mike Gajdiss, Julia Uebele, Alina Meilaender, Achim Hoerauf, Martin Exner, Ernst Molitor, Gabriele Bierbaum, Steffen Engelhart, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
BACKGROUND: The current increase in nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) warrants improvement of detection methods and hygiene measures. Knowledge of the local epidemiology is important for monitoring compliance of medical personnel with hygiene measures. AIM: We evaluated semi-automated repPCR for rapid molecular typing of VRE. METHODS: Primary VRE isolates were collected over an observation period of one year and retrospectively typed by repPCR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202873/gene-expression-in-the-chicken-caecum-is-dependent-on-microbiota-composition
#12
Jiri Volf, Ondrej Polansky, Zuzana Sekelova, Philippe Velge, Catherine Schouler, Bernd Kaspers, Ivan Rychlik
Gut microbiota is of considerable importance for each host. Despite this, germ-free animals can be obtained and raised to sexual maturity and consequences of the presence or absence of gut microbiota on gene expression of the host remain uncharacterised. In this study, we performed an unbiased study of protein expression in the caecum of germ-free and colonised chickens. The major difference between these two groups was in the expression of immunoglobulins which were essentially absent in the germ-free chickens...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195991/molecular-identification-and-technological-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-fermented-kidney-beans-flours-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-and-p-coccineus-in-northwestern-argentina
#13
Gabriel D Sáez, Elvira M Hébert, Lucila Saavedra, Gabriela Zárate
Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195768/failure-of-daptomycin-%C3%AE-lactam-combination-therapy-to-prevent-resistance-emergence-in-enterococcus-faecium
#14
Vidthiya Menon, Rebecca Davis, Nick Shackel, Bjorn A Espedido, Alicia G Beukers, Slade O Jensen, Sebastiaan J van Hal
Daptomycin β-Lactam combination therapy offers "protection" against daptomycin non-susceptibility (DNS) development in Enterococcus faecium. We report failure of this strategy and the importance of source control. Mutations were detected in the LiaF and cls genes in DNS isolates. A single DNS isolate contained an unrecognized mutation, which requires confirmation.
November 28, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195766/dalbavancin-is-active-in-vitro-against-biofilms-formed-by-dalbavancin-susceptible-enterococci
#15
Katharina Neudorfer, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Robin Patel
We tested the in vitro activity of dalbavancin, vancomycin and daptomycin against 83 enterococcal isolates in planktonic and biofilm states. The MIC90 for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis was 0.125 and 4μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. For vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, the MIC90 was >16 and 2μg/mL for dalbavancin and daptomycin, respectively. Dalbavancin minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) for vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates were ≤0...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192087/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-clinical-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-18-strain-from-south-africa
#16
Nontombi Marylucy Mbelle, Nontuthuko Excellent Maningi, Vhudzani Tshisevhe, Lesedi Modipane, Daniel Gyamfi Amoako, John Osei Sekyere
We report the first draft genome sequence of an Enterococcus faecium sequence type 18 (ST18) strain isolated from a tuberculosis patient in Africa. The genome is comprised of 3,202,539 bp, 501 contigs, 37.70% GC content, 3,202 protein-encoding genes, and 61 RNA genes. The resistome and virulome of this important pathogen are presented herein.
November 30, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187841/genome-comparison-of-erythromycin-resistant-campylobacter-from-turkeys-identifies-hosts-and-pathways-for-horizontal-spread-of-erm-b-genes
#17
Diego Florez-Cuadrado, María Ugarte-Ruiz, Guillaume Meric, Alberto Quesada, M C Porrero, Ben Pascoe, Jose L Sáez-Llorente, Gema L Orozco, Lucas Domínguez, Samuel K Sheppard
Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) between strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187672/clinical-characteristics-and-low-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#18
Hiroki Namikawa, Koichi Yamada, Wataru Shibata, Hiroki Fujimoto, Etsuko Takizawa, Makoto Niki, Kiyotaka Nakaie, Yasutaka Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Mamiko Niki, Yasuhiko Takemoto, Yukihiro Kaneko, Taichi Shuto, Hiroshi Kakeya
Enterococcus faecium has high levels of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and the mortality due to E. faecium bacteremia is high. Accordingly, E. faecium strains with low susceptibility to daptomycin are a concern in clinical practice. This study assessed the predictive factors and prognosis of patients with bacteremia due to E. faecium as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility, particularly to daptomycin, among E. faecium isolates. The medical records of patients admitted to Osaka City University Hospital with E...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186434/rapid-disc-diffusion-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-enterococcus-spp
#19
Michael Hombach, Marion Jetter, Nicolas Blöchliger, Natalia Kolesnik-Goldmann, Peter M Keller, Erik C Böttger
Background: We investigated the feasibility of rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (rAST) with reading of inhibition zones after 6 and/or 8 h of incubation for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, we evaluated discrimination of resistant populations from the WT populations at early timepoints and the requirement for clinical breakpoint adaptations for proper interpretation of rAST data. Methods: In total, 815 clinical strains [E...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184121/isolation-and-structure-elucidation-of-lipopeptide-antibiotic-taromycin-b-from-the-activated-taromycin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster
#20
Kirk A Reynolds, Hanna Luhavaya, Jie Li, Samira Dahesh, Victor Nizet, Kazuya Yamanaka, Bradley S Moore
In the ongoing effort to unlock the chemical potential of marine bacteria, genetic engineering of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) is increasingly used to awake or improve expression of biosynthetic genes that may lead to discovery of novel bioactive natural products. Previously, we reported the successful capture, engineering and heterologous expression of an orphan BGC from the marine actinomycete Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490, which resulted in the isolation of the novel lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin A...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
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