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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533769/celecoxib-enhances-the-efficacy-of-low-dose-antibiotic-treatment-against-polymicrobial-sepsis-in-mice-and-clinical-isolates-of-eskape-pathogens
#1
Madhavi Annamanedi, Gajapati Y N Varma, K Anuradha, Arunasree M Kalle
Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527125/diversity-and-probiotic-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-horreh-a-traditional-iranian-fermented-food
#2
Alireza Vasiee, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Hamid Noorbakhsh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from Horreh. Some probiotic properties, e.g., resistance to acid, bile tolerance, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility, were investigated. A total of 140 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from Horreh were subjected to identification and grouping by cultural methods and the 16S rRNA sequencing. The new isolates were identified to be Lactobacillus (fermentum, plantarum, and brevis) Weissella cibaria, Enterococcus (faecium and faecalis), Leuconostoc (citreum and mesenteroides subsp...
May 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526094/patients-with-community-acquired-bacteremia-of-unknown-origin-clinical-characteristics-and-usefulness-of-microbiological-results-for-therapeutic-issues-a-single-center-cohort-study
#3
Johan Courjon, Elisa Demonchy, Nicolas Degand, Karine Risso, Raymond Ruimy, Pierre-Marie Roger
Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525287/occurrence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-various-clinical-infections-detection-of-their-drug-resistance-and-virulence-determinants
#4
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Toofan Aghazadeh, Jalal Mardaneh
The aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of Iran. A total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of University Teaching Hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from September 2014 to July 2015. Identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex PCR in the genus and species level. Antibiotic resistance properties and virulence determinants were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
May 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515717/the-leaderless-bacteriocin-enterocin-k1-is-highly-potent-against-enterococcus-faecium-a-study-on-structure-target-spectrum-and-receptor
#5
Kirill V Ovchinnikov, Per Eugen Kristiansen, Daniel Straume, Marianne S Jensen, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Ingolf F Nes, Dzung B Diep
Enterocin K1 (EntK1), enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97), and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB - both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3-4 residues longer than that of LsbB...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504916/contribution-of-type-ii-topoisomerase-mutations-to-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecium-from-japanese-clinical-setting
#6
Noriko Urushibara, Keisuke Suzaki, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
High-level fluoroquinolone resistance is conferred by the mutation of conserved serine and acidic amino acids in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the A subunits of the type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase (GyrA) and topoisomerase IV (ParC). In Japan, fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterococcus faecium continues to emerge in clinical settings. We analyzed 131 Japanese E. faecium clinical isolates for susceptibility to levofloxacin (LVFX), and QRDR mutational status. The bacterial collection had a high percentage of resistance (79%) and showed elevated drug minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504889/genetic-characterization-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-wild-red-legged-partridges-in-portugal
#7
Vanessa Silva, Gilberto Igrejas, Isabel Carvalho, Fernando Peixoto, Lucas Cardoso, José Eduardo Pereira, Rosa Del Campo, Patricia Poeta
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been detected in wild animals representing a public health concern. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a common game bird and its meat is consumed in several countries, including Portugal. Three hundred five fecal samples of red-legged partridge from the north of Portugal were screened for VRE. Samples were cultured on Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 mg/L) and six vanA-Enterococcus faecium were recovered. Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500123/enterococcus-casseliflavus-septicaemia-associated-with-hepatobiliary-infection-in-a-75-year-old-man
#8
Rajanshu Verma, Allison L Baroco
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a rare non-faecium, non-faecalis, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) that is responsible for up to 2% of all enterococcal infections. Septicaemia with this bacterium is usually seen in older patients with multiple comorbidities who have had several previous hospitalisations. Septicaemia with E. casseliflavus portends a poorer prognosis, and treatment usually involves administration of antienterococcal beta-lactams or anti-VRE medications such as linezolid or daptomycin. We present such a case of a 75-year-old man who developed E...
May 12, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499907/occurrence-of-ampicillin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-carrying-esp-gene-in-pet-animals-an-upcoming-threat-for-pet-lovers
#9
Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Mahmoud D El-Hariri, Momtaz O Wasfy, Ahmed Samir
OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to investigate oral colonisation by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in pet dogs and cats, with special reference to antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Oral swabs were collected from 63 pet dogs and 57 pet cats with no known history of hospitalisation. All samples were enriched in Kenner Fecal (KF) broth before being cultured on KF agar to isolate enterococci. E. faecalis and E. faecium were identified by biochemical and molecular techniques...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497217/inhibition-of-clostridium-difficile-in-mice-using-a-mixture-of-potential-probiotic-strains-enterococcus-faecalis-nm815-e-faecalis-nm915-and-e-faecium-nm1015-novel-candidates-to-control-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#10
Nahla M Mansour, Walid F Elkhatib, Khaled M Aboshanab, May M A Bahr
This study is aimed at the isolation, identification, and characterization of potential probiotic strains capable of inhibiting Clostridium difficile in vitro and in vivo. Twenty isolates were isolated from infant fecal samples and screened against C. difficile using their cell-free supernatant. Only three isolates showed maximum inhibition from 56.05 to 60.60%, thus they were characterized for probiotic properties and safety. The results obtained approved their tolerance to the gastrointestinal tract conditions and safety profile...
May 11, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494240/cooperating-commensals-restore-colonization-resistance-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#11
Silvia Caballero, Sohn Kim, Rebecca A Carter, Ingrid M Leiner, Bože Sušac, Liza Miller, Grace J Kim, Lilan Ling, Eric G Pamer
Antibiotic-mediated microbiota destruction and the consequent loss of colonization resistance can result in intestinal domination with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), leading to bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients. Clearance of VRE remains a challenging goal that, if achieved, would reduce systemic VRE infections and patient-to-patient transmission. Although obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria have been associated with colonization resistance to VRE, the specific bacterial species involved remain undefined...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484708/activity-of-fosfomycin-and-daptomycin-containing-bone-cement-on-selected-bacterial-species-being-associated-with-orthopedic-infections
#12
Sigrun Eick, Kevin Hofpeter, Anton Sculean, Claudia Ender, Susann Klimas, Sebastian Vogt, Sandor Nietzsche
The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin). Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483950/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-against-clinically-important-gram-positive-cocci-in-the-united-states-a-5-year-summary-of-in-vitro-activity-and-resistance-mechanisms-from-the-leader-surveillance-program-2011-2015
#13
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
This study describes linezolid susceptibility testing results for 6,741 gram-positive pathogens from 60 U.S. sites collected during 2015 for the LEADER Program. In addition, the study summarizes linezolid in vitro activity, resistance mechanisms, and molecular typing obtained for 2011 to 2015. During 2015, linezolid showed potent activity when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting >99.9% of 3,031 isolates at ≤2 mg/liter. Similarly, linezolid showed coverage against 99.2% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 99...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483600/phenotypic-and-genotypic-study-of-biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#14
F Fallah, M Yousefi, M R Pourmand, A Hashemi, A Nazari Alam, D Afshar
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent types of nosocomial and community acquired infections in humans. Management of multidrug-resistant Enterococci UTI due to the limited therapeutic options is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The role of bacterial biofilms in recurrent urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance has great importance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern as well as the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation ability of Enterococci isolates from patients with UTI...
May 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479127/whole-genome-characterization-of-a-naturally-occurring-vancomycin-dependent-enterococcus-faecium-from-a-patient-with-bacteremia
#15
Stephanie L Mitchell, Lisa M Mattei, Kevin Alby
Vancomycin-dependent enterococci are a relatively uncommon phenotype recovered in the clinical laboratory. Recognition and recovery of these isolates are important, to provide accurate identification and susceptibility information to treating physicians. Herein, we describe the recovery of a vancomycin-dependent and revertant E. faecium isolates harboring vanB operon from a patient with bacteremia. Using whole genome sequencing, we found a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (S186N) in the D-Ala-D-Ala ligase (ddl) conferring vancomycin-dependency...
May 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465062/self-assembled-snowball-like-hybrid-nanostructures-comprising-viburnum-opulus-l-extract-and-metal-ions-for-antimicrobial-and-catalytic-applications
#16
Nilay Ildiz, Ayse Baldemir, Cevahir Altinkaynak, Nalan Özdemir, Vedat Yilmaz, Ismail Ocsoy
Herein, we report the production of novel organic-inorganic nanobio-catalytic and antimicrobial agents called "nanosnowball" (NSBs) with a rational design and elucidate the increase in the catalytic and antimicrobial activities. The NSBs resemble to guelder rose were formed of the extract of Viburnum opulus (VO) as the organic component and copper (II) ions (Cu(2+)) as the inorganic component. The effects of the VO extract and Cu(2+) concentrations on the morphology of NSBs were systematically examined and characterized with several techniques such as SEM, FT-IR, EDX and XRD...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464580/-analysis-of-the-spectrum-and-resistance-of-pathogen-causing-sepsis-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#17
H X Ma, L He, S W Cai, X L Xin, H D Shi, L Zhou, X J Shi
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of spectrum and drug resistance of pathogens causing sepsis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). Methods: The clinical data of 63 SAP patients with sepsis admitted in Department of Hepatobiliary, People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied. There were 47 males and 16 females, aged from 22 to 73 years, with an average age of (52±11)years. Samples were collected mainly from: (1)pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis and abdominal drainage; (2)bile; (3) blood or deep venous catheter; (4) sputum and tracheal catheter and thoracic drainage; (5) urine...
May 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464539/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-with-vana-and-vanb-genes-in-australian-gulls
#18
Veronika Oravcova, Pavel Svec, Ivan Literak
This study is revealing the possible dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans into the wildlife. We studied silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) in Australia as potential carriers and reservoirs of VRE with acquired vancomycin resistance. In New South Wales (Australia), we have found two multi-resistant isolates belonging to Enterococcus faecium (sequence type 341, vanB genotype) and Enterococcus dispar (vanA genotype). Based on our knowledge, this is the first report of VRE in Australian wildlife...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462431/total-staphylococci-as-performance-surrogate-for-greywater-treatment
#19
David C Shoults, Nicholas J Ashbolt
Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci. However, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and E. coli and other FIB may grow within greywater unrelated to pathogens...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458799/the-use-of-bloodstream-infection-mortality-to-measure-the-impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions-assessing-the-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Sonali Coulter, Jason A Roberts, Krispin Hajkowicz, Kate Halton
This review sets out to evaluate the current evidence on the impact of inappropriate therapy on bloodstream infections (BSI) and associated mortality. Based on the premise that better prescribing practices should result in better patient outcomes, BSI mortality may be a useful metric to evaluate antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions. A systematic search was performed in key medical databases to identify papers published in English between 2005 and 2015 that examined the association between inappropriate prescribing and BSI mortality in adult patients...
March 30, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
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