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Erythroxylum coca

Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Ana Carolina Acorinte, Fernando Oliveira Calzavara, Adriano André da Silva, Amarilys de Toledo Cesar, Maristela Schiabel Adler, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness and tolerability of homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and E...
May 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
E Moreno-Artero, E Querol-Cisneros, N Rodríguez-Garijo, A Tomás-Velázquez, J Antoñanzas, F Secundino, M Pilar Gil-Sánchez, A España
Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that emerged in the 1970s as a fashionable drug among members of certain social backgrounds. Cocaine abuse is a problem of current interest, which is mostly hidden and underdiagnosed, but dramatically widespread among all socio-economic strata, and with an incidence which is increasing at an alarming rate. There are 1.5 million cocaine consumers in the USA. In Spain, the prevalence of consumption among the population between 15 and 65 years old is higher, reaching 3...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Mônica Jaskulski, Henrique Morais Hamerski, Ferando Garcez Porto, Brenda da Silva, Carlos Alberto Mayora Aita, Karla Kroker, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Gabriela Trevisan Santos, Jonatas Zeni Klafke, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili
Crack is a central nervous system stimulant extracted from the Erythroxylum coca plant. It is considered the most potent and addictive form of cocaine, and its euphoric effects are attained within a few seconds after consumption. Alteration of biological markers of oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be related to the severity of crack withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing rehabilitation. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate if the crack consumption and the drug detoxification process during 14 days in hospitalization regime was able to modify the oxidative status and BDNF levels, in male crack-abstinent patients...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hironori Tsuchiya
The majority of currently used anesthetic agents are derived from or associated with natural products, especially plants, as evidenced by cocaine that was isolated from coca (Erythroxylum coca, Erythroxylaceae) and became a prototype of modern local anesthetics and by thymol and eugenol contained in thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae), respectively, both of which are structurally and mechanistically similar to intravenous phenolic anesthetics. This paper reviews different classes of phytochemicals with the anesthetic activity and their characteristic molecular structures that could be lead compounds for anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Katrin Luck, Jan Jirschitzka, Sandra Irmisch, Meret Huber, Jonathan Gershenzon, Tobias G Köllner
BACKGROUND: Amino acid-derived aldoximes and nitriles play important roles in plant defence. They are well-known as precursors for constitutive defence compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides and glucosinolates, but are also released as volatiles after insect feeding. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family catalyze the formation of aldoximes from the corresponding amino acids. However, the majority of CYP79s characterized so far are involved in cyanogenic glucoside or glucosinolate biosynthesis and only a few have been reported to be responsible for nitrogenous volatile production...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Liliana Marcela Henao Muñoz, Claudia Marsela Montes Rojas, Manuel Hernando Bernal Bautista
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide...
March 2015: Revista de Biología Tropical
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug among those seeking care in Emergency Departments or drug detoxification centers. Cocaine, chemically known as benzoylmethylecgonine, is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant. The pharmacokinetics of cocaine is dependent on multiple factors, such as physical/chemical form, route of administration, genetics and concurrent consumption of alcohol. This review aims to discuss metabolomics of cocaine, namely by presenting all known metabolites of cocaine and their roles in the cocaine-mediated toxic effects...
2015: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Zachary Currie, Ryan S Prosser, Jose Luis Rodriguez-Gil, Kim Mahon, Dave Poirier, Keith R Solomon
In 2011, an alternative formulation of glyphosate (Cúspide 480SL®) was chosen to replace Roundup-SL®, Fuete-SL®, and Gly-41® for the control of Erythroxylum coca, the source of cocaine, in Colombia. Cúspide 480SL contains the active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA) salt, which is the same active ingredient used in previous formulations. However, Cúspide 480SL contains an alkyl polyglycoside surfactant rather than the polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactant used in other formulations and known to be more toxic to nonprimary producing aquatic organisms than glyphosate itself...
May 2015: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
L Manetti, F Cavagnini, E Martino, A Ambrogio
INTRODUCTION: Cocaine hydrochloride is a psychoactive substance extracted from the leaves of plants called Erythroxylum coca. Cocaine is the second most commonly used drug in the world after cannabis; 20 % of cocaine users will become long-term cocaine-dependent patients. Different routes of administration may be recognized: smokable modality, intranasal and intravenous. Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system and causes structural changes on the brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney...
August 2014: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Teresa Docimo, Gregor W Schmidt, Katrin Luck, Sven K Delaney, John C D'Auria
Real-time quantitative PCR is a powerful technique for the investigation of comparative gene expression, but its accuracy and reliability depend on the reference genes used as internal standards. Only genes that show a high level of expression stability are suitable for use as reference genes, and these must be identified on a case-by-case basis. Erythroxylum coca produces and accumulates high amounts of the pharmacologically active tropane alkaloid cocaine (especially in the leaves), and is an emerging model for the investigation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis...
2013: F1000Research
John F Casale, Jennifer R Mallette, Laura M Jones
Colombian coca farmers have historically cultivated three varieties of coca for cocaine production (Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense, Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense, and Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu). Within the past 13 years, 15 new cultigens of cocaine-bearing Erythroxylum have been propagated by Colombian coca farmers; each with differing physical characteristics, yet producing cocaine alkaloids at similar levels found in the historical and native varieties. Fifteen new cultigens were collected from throughout Colombia and propagated along with the three historical varieties within an experimental field in Colombia...
April 2014: Forensic Science International
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Georg Krupitza, Gustavo Barcelos, Miroslav Mišík, Georg Wultsch, Juan Carrion, Gladys Carrion-Carrera, Siegfried Knasmueller
The leaves of coca (Erythroxylum coca var. coca), a South American shrub which contains cocaine, other alkaloids and phenolics are widely used by indigenous populations of the Andes. It is currently not known if coca consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans. This information is important to predict potential long-term toxic effects such as cancer induction. Therefore, the buccal cytome assay was used to analyze oral cells from 45 uni- and bilateral chewers and 23 controls living in the Altiplano of the Peruvian Andes...
March 2013: Archives of Toxicology
José Carlos Pardo Torre, Gregor W Schmidt, Christian Paetz, Michael Reichelt, Bernd Schneider, Jonathan Gershenzon, John C D'Auria
Complexation of alkaloids is an important strategy plants utilize to facilitate storage in vacuoles and avoid autotoxicity. Previous studies have implicated hydroxycinnamoyl quinate esters in the complexation of purine alkaloids in Coffea arabica. The goal of this study was to determine if Erythroxylum coca uses similar complexation agents to store abundant tropane alkaloids, such as cocaine and cinnamoyl cocaine. Metabolite analysis of various E. coca organs established a close correlation between levels of coca alkaloids and those of two hydroxycinnamoyl esters of quinic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-coumaroyl quinate...
July 2013: Phytochemistry
C Rubio, S Strano-Rossi, M J Tabernero, L Anzillotti, M Chiarotti, A M Bermejo
Cocaine abuse is widespread all over the world, and is performed generally by sniffing, injecting or smoking cocaine or crack. The distinction between the recreational use of cocaine from the practice of the so called "coqueo" is still an issue in those countries where this habit is diffused and where it is not considered an addiction, by this reason is necessary to develop a method for to distinguish the coca chewers and cocaine abusers. The use of an unique marker to distinguish between cocaine abuse and chewing of coca leaves is of fundamental importance in those countries where this habit is diffused...
April 10, 2013: Forensic Science International
Jan Jirschitzka, Gregor W Schmidt, Michael Reichelt, Bernd Schneider, Jonathan Gershenzon, John Charles D'Auria
The pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids have a scattered distribution among angiosperm families, like many other groups of secondary metabolites. To determine whether tropane alkaloids have evolved repeatedly in different lineages or arise from an ancestral pathway that has been lost in most lines, we investigated the tropinone-reduction step of their biosynthesis. In species of the Solanaceae, which produce compounds such as atropine and scopolamine, this reaction is known to be catalyzed by enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family...
June 26, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Teresa Docimo, Michael Reichelt, Bernd Schneider, Marco Kai, Grit Kunert, Jonathan Gershenzon, John C D'Auria
Despite the long history of cocaine use among humans and its social and economic significance today, little information is available about the biochemical and molecular aspects of cocaine biosynthesis in coca (Erythroxylum coca) in comparison to what is known about the formation of other pharmacologically-important tropane alkaloids in species of the Solanaceae. In this work, we investigated the site of cocaine biosynthesis in E. coca and the nature of the first step. The two principal tropane alkaloids of E...
April 2012: Plant Molecular Biology
Mary E Penny, Alfonso Zavaleta, Melanie Lemay, Maria Reyna Liria, Maria Luisa Huaylinas, Marie Alminger, James McChesney, Franklin Alcaraz, Manju B Reddy
BACKGROUND: Coca leaves (Erythroxylum coca) have been promoted as a food that could address the dietary deficiencies of the Andean population, but this is based on nutrient analyses of a small sample of leaves. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the nutritional potential of eight samples of coca leaves grown in different regions of Peru. METHODS: We used AOAC techniques to measure nutrients, nutrient inhibitors (phytate, polyphenols, oxalic acid, and fiber), and alkaloid concentrations, all expressed per 100 g dry weight (DW) of the ground leaves...
September 2009: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
J D Lynch, S B Arroyo
The Colombian amphibian fauna is among the richest known in the world, with about 20 species of salamanders (order Caudata), 35 of the limbless caecilians (order Gymnophiona), and more than 700 species of frogs and toads (order Anura) recorded from localities within the country. The potential effects of exposure to glyphosate on amphibians arising from production of illegal crops (coca) were examined. The analysis was based on (1) behavior and ecology of species and (2) proximities of actual museum records to localities in which illegal crops are being grown and the subset of those that have been sprayed with glyphosate...
2009: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M H Bernal, K R Solomon, G Carrasquilla
The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate (coca mixture, a combination of formulated glyphosate, Glyphos, and an adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux) in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. Although acute LC50 for 8 species of Colombian frogs ranged from 1.2 to 2.78 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L, these exposures were conducted in the laboratory in the absence of sediments and organic matter such as would occur under realistic field conditions. In order to assess the effects of overspray of frog habitat under field conditions, Gosner stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella granulosa, R...
2009: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M H Bernal, K R Solomon, G Carrasquilla
The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. There are few toxicity data for species other than those from temperate regions, and these have not been generated with the combination of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and the adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux (coca mix) as used in coca control in Colombia. In order to characterize toxicity of the spray mixture to frogs from Colombia, Gosner stage-25 tadpoles of Scinax ruber, Dendropophus microcephalus, Hypsiboas crepitans, Rhinella granulosa, Rhinella marina, Rhinella typhonius, Centrolene prosoblepon, and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to the coca mix at concentrations of glyphosate ranging from 1 to 4...
2009: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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