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Microbial diversity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748644/diversity-and-stability-of-coral-endolithic-microbial-communities-at-a-naturally-high-pco2-reef
#1
Vanessa R Marcelino, Kathleen M Morrow, Madeleine J H van Oppen, David G Bourne, Heroen Verbruggen
The health and functioning of reef-building corals is dependent on a balanced association with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. The coral skeleton harbours numerous endolithic microbes, but their diversity, ecological roles and responses to environmental stress, including ocean acidification, are not well characterized. This study tests whether pH affects the diversity and structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal communities associated with skeletons of Porites spp. using targeted amplicon (16S rRNA gene, UPA and tufA) sequencing...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748273/changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-gibel-carp-carassius-gibelio-associated-with-cyprinid-herpesvirus-2-cyhv-2-infection
#2
Rong She, Tong-Tong Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Bao Li, Liu-Yi Yin, Huan Li, Yao-Min Liu, Xiang-Zhen Li, Qi-Gui Yan
Gut microbiota are integral to the host, and have received increased attention in recent years. However, information regarding the intestinal microbiota of many aquaculture animals is insufficient; elucidating the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota can be beneficial for nutrition, immunity, and disease control. In this study, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to observe changes in the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) associated with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection. Our results indicate that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota was strongly reduced, and the composition was dramatically altered following CyHV-2 infection...
July 26, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748257/use-of-plant-preservative-mixture%C3%A2-for-establishing-in-vitro-cultures-from-field-plants-experience-with-papaya-reveals-several-ppm%C3%A2-tolerant-endophytic-bacteria
#3
Pious Thomas, Mukta Agrawal, C B Bharathkumar
Prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya, the broad-spectrum microbicide specified for use in plant tissue cultures, capable of surviving covertly in MS-based medium, with implications in contamination management. Plant Preservative Mixture™ was employed for establishing papaya (Carica papaya) tissue cultures from field explants. Comparing three recommended practices for controlling endogenous microbial contaminants, axillary shoot tips (1.0-1.5 cm) from cv. Arka Prabhath were treated with PPM™ 5% for 4 h (T1), 50% for 10 min (T2) or 100% for 10 min (T3) and cultured in MS-based papaya establishment medium (PEM)...
July 26, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748040/effect-of-erythritol-on-microbial-ecology-of-in-vitro-gingivitis-biofilms
#4
Marleen Marga Janus, Catherine Minke Charlotte Volgenant, Bernd Willem Brandt, Mark Johannes Buijs, Bart Jan Frederik Keijser, Wim Crielaard, Egija Zaura, Bastiaan Philip Krom
Gingivitis is one of the most common oral infections in humans. While sugar alcohols such as erythritol are suggested to have caries-preventive properties, it may also have beneficial effects in prevention of gingivitis by preventing maturation of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of erythritol on the microbial ecology and the gingivitis phenotype of oral microcosms. Biofilms were inoculated with stimulated saliva from 20 healthy donors and grown in a gingivitis model in the continuous presence of 0 (control group), 5, and 10% erythritol...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747900/fungal-and-bacterial-diversity-isolated-from-aquilaria-malaccensis-tree-and-soil-induces-agarospirol-formation-within-3-months-after-artificial-infection
#5
Hemraj Chhipa, Nutan Kaushik
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam, commonly known as Agarwood, is a highly valuable species used in production of agar oil from its infected wood, which is utilized in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. Agar oil formation in agarwood takes years through the natural process which is induced by natural or artificial injury or microbial infection. The role of soil fungi and bacteria in artificial induction is still an unexplored area. In the present study, we isolated the fungal and bacterial community residing inside the stem of A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747897/identification-of-emerging-human-mastitis-pathogens-by-maldi-tof-and-assessment-of-their-antibiotic-resistance-patterns
#6
María Marín, Rebeca Arroyo, Irene Espinosa-Martos, Leónides Fernández, Juan M Rodríguez
Lactational mastitis constitutes one of the main causes of undesired weaning, depriving the mother-infant pair from the benefits of breastfeeding; therefore, this condition should be considered a relevant public health issue. The role of specific microorganisms remains unclear since human milk cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are not routinely performed, despite the fact that this would be key to ensure an early and effective diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the culturable microbial diversity in 647 milk samples from breastfeeding women with clinical symptoms of mastitis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) VITEK MS technology and to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a collection of isolates from these samples by the VITEK 2 AST system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747705/soil-nutritional-status-and-biogeography-influence-rhizosphere-microbial-communities-associated-with-the-invasive-tree-acacia-dealbata
#7
Casper N Kamutando, Surendra Vikram, Gilbert Kamgan-Nkuekam, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Michelle Greve, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Don Cowan, Angel Valverde
Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746890/aged-engineered-nanoparticles-effect-on-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-performance-and-associated-microbial-communities
#8
Samuel Eduok, Robert Ferguson, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa, Frédéric Coulon
To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0...
July 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745930/what-does-the-eggshell-cuticle-do-a-functional-comparison-of-avian-eggshell-cuticles
#9
Liliana D'Alba, Roxana Torres, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Chad Eliason, Mark E Hauber, Matthew D Shawkey
The avian eggshell is a highly ordered structure with several layers (mammillae, palisades, and vertical crystal layer) composed of calcium carbonate (∼96%) and minerals within an organic matrix. The cuticle is a noncalcified layer that covers the eggshells of most bird species. Eggshells are multifunctional structures that have evolved in response to diverse embryonic requirements and challenges, including protection from microbial infection, nest flooding, and exposure to solar radiation. However, experimental evidence for these functions across diverse taxa is currently limited...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745827/genetic-diversity-of-catechol-1-2-dioxygenase-in-the-fecal-microbial-metagenome
#10
Bo Xu, Caiyun Xiong, Meng Deng, Junjun Li, Xianghua Tang, Qian Wu, Junpei Zhou, Yunjuan Yang, Junmei Ding, Nanyu Han, Zunxi Huang
Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of the aromatic ring of catechol. We explored the genetic diversity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase in the fecal microbial metagenome by PCR with degenerate primers. A total of 35 gene fragments of C12O were retrieved from microbial DNA in the feces of pygmy loris. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most sequences were closely related to C12O sequences from Acinetobacter. A full-length C12O gene was directly cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and biochemically characterized...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745342/defense-contracts-molecular-protection-in-insect-microbe-symbioses
#11
REVIEW
Ethan B Van Arnam, Cameron R Currie, Jon Clardy
Insects cope with environmental threats using a broad array of strategies. A key strategy, widespread among insects but unappreciated until recently, is the use of molecular defenses from symbiotic microbes. Insect-microbe defensive symbioses span the diversity of insect lineages and microbial partners and use molecules ranging from reactive oxygen species to small molecules to protein toxins to defend against predators, parasites, and microbial pathogens. These systems have a strong initial track record as sources of novel biologically active compounds with therapeutic potential...
July 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745292/biomimetic-synthesis-of-agnps-from-penicillium-chrysogenum-strain-fgcc-bls1-by-optimising-physico-cultural-conditions-and-assessment-of-their-antimicrobial-potential
#12
Juhi Saxena, Pankaj Sharma, Abhijeet Singh
Biomimetic synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is safe and eco-friendly; therefore, find diverse applications. Considering this, the soil fungi Penicillium chrysogenum strain Fungal germplasm collection centre/ BLS1 was isolated, characterized and explored to synthesize extracellular silver NPs (AgNPs) under optimised conditions. The synthesis of AgNPs was investigated using ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743984/gut-microbiota-and-ibd-causation-or-correlation
#13
REVIEW
Josephine Ni, Gary D Wu, Lindsey Albenberg, Vesselin T Tomov
A general consensus exists that IBD is associated with compositional and metabolic changes in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis). However, a direct causal relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has not been definitively established in humans. Findings from animal models have revealed diverse and context-specific roles of the gut microbiota in health and disease, ranging from protective to pro-inflammatory actions. Moreover, evidence from these experimental models suggest that although gut bacteria often drive immune activation, chronic inflammation in turn shapes the gut microbiota and contributes to dysbiosis...
July 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743263/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-alters-the-microbial-composition-and-induces-immune-changes-in-rat-lung
#14
Naijian Li, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Yuming Zhou, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter exposure has been shown to increase the risks of respiratory diseases. However, the role of the lung microbiome and the immune response to inhaled particulate matter are largely unexplored. We studied the influence of biomass fuel and motor vehicle exhaust particles on the lung microbiome and pulmonary immunologic homeostasis in rats. METHODS: Fifty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into clean air (CON), biomass fuel (BMF), and motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) groups...
July 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742948/microbial-metabolites-and-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
Mary Riwes, Pavan Reddy
The health of mammals is a reflection of the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota. Alterations in the composition and functions of the intestinal microbiota have been implicated in multiple disease processes. The impact of the microbiota in health and disease is in part a function of the nutrient processing and release of metabolites. Recent studies have uncovered a major role for microbial metabolites in the function of the host immune system by which they influence disease processes such as acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), which is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT)...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742069/nematode-grazing-promotes-bacterial-community-dynamics-in-soil-at-the-aggregate-level
#16
Yuji Jiang, Manqiang Liu, Jiabao Zhang, Yan Chen, Xiaoyun Chen, Lijun Chen, Huixin Li, Xue-Xian Zhang, Bo Sun
Nematode predation has important roles in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics, but the extent of the effects remains largely rudimentary, particularly in natural environment settings. Here, we investigated the complex microbial-microfaunal interactions in the rhizosphere of maize grown in red soils, which were derived from four long-term fertilization regimes. Root-free rhizosphere soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions whereby the abundance and community composition were examined for nematode and total bacterial communities...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740492/patterns-of-early-life-gut-microbial-colonization-during-human-immune-development-an-ecological-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740461/down-for-the-count-cryptosporidium-infection-depletes-the-gut-microbiome-in-coquerel-s-sifakas
#18
Erin A McKenney, Lydia K Greene, Christine M Drea, Anne D Yoder
Background: The gut microbiome (GMB) is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, which are a leading cause of disease and mortality worldwide. One such pathogen, the protozoan Cryptosporidium, causes a variety of digestive disorders that can be devastating and even lethal. The Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) - an endangered, folivorous primate endemic to Madagascar - is precariously susceptible to cryptosporidiosis under captive conditions. If left untreated, infection can rapidly advance to morbidity and death...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738824/visibiome-an-efficient-microbiome-search-engine-based-on-a-scalable-distributed-architecture
#19
Syafiq Kamarul Azman, Muhammad Zohaib Anwar, Andreas Henschel
BACKGROUND: Given the current influx of 16S rRNA profiles of microbiota samples, it is conceivable that large amounts of them eventually are available for search, comparison and contextualization with respect to novel samples. This process facilitates the identification of similar compositional features in microbiota elsewhere and therefore can help to understand driving factors for microbial community assembly. RESULTS: We present Visibiome, a microbiome search engine that can perform exhaustive, phylogeny based similarity search and contextualization of user-provided samples against a comprehensive dataset of 16S rRNA profiles environments, while tackling several computational challenges...
July 24, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738620/proteins-in-microbial-synthesis-of-selenium-nanoparticles
#20
Anna V Tugarova, Alexander A Kamnev
Biogenic formation of nano-sized particles composed of various materials (in particular, selenium) by live microorganisms is widespread in nature. This phenomenon has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers over the last decade not only owing to a range of diverse applications of such nanoparticles (NPs) in nanobiotechnology, but also because of the specificity of methodologies and mechanisms of NPs formation related to "green synthesis". In this mini-review, recent data are discussed on the multifaceted role of proteins in the processes of microbial reduction of selenium oxyanions and the formation of Se NPs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
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