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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098358/subclinical-alteration-of-the-cervical-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-idiopathic-infertility
#1
Giuseppina Campisciano, Fiorella Florian, Angela D'Eustacchio, David Stanković, Giuseppe Ricci, Manola Comar
Biomarkers have a wide application in research and clinic, they help to choose the correct treatment for diseases. Recent studies, addressing the vaginal microbiome using next generation sequencing (NGS), reported the involvement of bacterial species in infertility. We compared the vaginal microbiome of idiopathic infertility diagnosed women with that of healthy, non-idiopathic infertile and bacterial vaginosis affected women, to identify bacterial species suitable as biomarkers. Information on microorganisms was obtained from the V3-16S rDNA sequencing of cervical-vaginal fluids of 96 women using the Ion Torrent platform...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098248/microbial-succession-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-dairy-cows-from-2-weeks-to-first-lactation
#2
Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Jacob D Breaker, Garret Suen
Development of the dairy calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its associated microbiota are essential for survival and milk production, as this community is responsible for converting plant-based feeds into accessible nutrients. However, little is known regarding the establishment of microbes in the calf GIT. Here, we measured fecal-associated bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of dairy cows from 2 weeks to the middle of first lactation (>2 years) as well as rumen-associated communities from weaning (8 weeks) to first lactation...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098228/unique-bacteria-community-composition-and-co-occurrence-in-the-milk-of-different-ruminants
#3
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Yifeng Yang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097816/effect-of-temperature-and-colonization-of-legionella-pneumophila-and-vermamoeba-vermiformis-on-bacterial-community-composition-of-copper-drinking-water-biofilms
#4
Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097736/restoration-and-management-for-plant-diversity-enhances-the-rate-of-belowground-ecosystem-recovery
#5
Ryan P Klopf, Sara G Baer, Elizabeth M Bach, J Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n=15)...
January 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097070/sponge-exhalent-seawater-contains-a-unique-chemical-profile-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#6
Cara L Fiore, Christopher J Freeman, Elizabeth B Kujawinski
Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097058/determining-virus-host-interactions-and-glycerol-metabolism-profiles-in-geographically-diverse-solar-salterns-with-metagenomics
#7
Abraham G Moller, Chun Liang
Solar salterns are excellent model ecosystems for studying virus-microbial interactions because of their low microbial diversity, environmental stability, and high viral density. By using the power of CRISPR spacers to link viruses to their prokaryotic hosts, we explored virus-host interactions in geographically diverse salterns. Using taxonomic profiling, we identified hosts such as archaeal Haloquadratum, Halorubrum, and Haloarcula and bacterial Salinibacter, and we found that community composition related to not only salinity but also local environmental dynamics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097056/rhea-a-transparent-and-modular-r-pipeline-for-microbial-profiling-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-amplicons
#8
Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Neeraj Kumar, Thomas Clavel
The importance of 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles for understanding the influence of microbes in a variety of environments coupled with the steep reduction in sequencing costs led to a surge of microbial sequencing projects. The expanding crowd of scientists and clinicians wanting to make use of sequencing datasets can choose among a range of multipurpose software platforms, the use of which can be intimidating for non-expert users. Among available pipeline options for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene analysis, the R programming language and software environment for statistical computing stands out for its power and increased flexibility, and the possibility to adhere to most recent best practices and to adjust to individual project needs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#9
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096491/expressing-the-geobacter-metallireducens-pila-in-geobacter-sulfurreducens-yields-pili-with-exceptional-conductivity
#10
Yang Tan, Ramesh Y Adhikari, Nikhil S Malvankar, Joy E Ward, Trevor L Woodard, Kelly P Nevin, Derek R Lovley
: The electrically conductive pili (e-pili) of Geobacter sulfurreducens serve as a model for a novel strategy for long-range extracellular electron transfer. e-pili are also a new class of bioelectronic materials. However, the only other Geobacter pili previously studied, which were from G. uraniireducens, were poorly conductive. In order to obtain more information on the range of pili conductivities in Geobacter species, the pili of G. metallireducens were investigated. Heterologously expressing the PilA gene of G...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#11
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096378/biosynthesis-of-the-microtubule-destabilizing-diterpene-pseudolaric-acid-b-from-golden-larch-involves-an-unusual-diterpene-synthase
#12
Sibongile Mafu, Prema Sambandaswami Karunanithi, Teresa Ann Palazzo, Bronwyn Lee Harrod, Selina Marakana Rodriguez, Iris Natalie Mollhoff, Terrence Edward O'Brien, Shen Tong, Oliver Fiehn, Dean J Tantillo, Jörg Bohlmann, Philipp Zerbe
The diversity of small molecules formed via plant diterpene metabolism offers a rich source of known and potentially new biopharmaceuticals. Among these, the microtubule-destabilizing activity of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) holds promise for new anticancer agents. PAB is found, perhaps uniquely, in the coniferous tree golden larch (Pseudolarix amabilis, Pxa). Here we describe the discovery and mechanistic analysis of golden larch terpene synthase 8 (PxaTPS8), an unusual diterpene synthase (diTPS) that catalyzes the first committed step in PAB biosynthesis...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095925/the-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-oral-and-nasal-microbiota
#13
Guoqin Yu, Stephen Phillips, Mitchell H Gail, James J Goedert, Michael S Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Yanfang Ren, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to investigate whether cigarette smoking alters oral and nasal microbial diversity, composition, and structure. Twenty-three current smokers and 20 never smokers were recruited. From each subject, nine samples including supra and subgingiva plaque scrapes, saliva, swabs from five soft oral tissue sites, and one nasal swab from both the anterior nares were collected. 16S rRNA V3-V4 region was sequenced for microbial profiles. RESULTS: We found that alpha diversity was lower in smokers than in nonsmokers in the buccal mucosa, but in other sample sites, microbial diversity and composition were not significantly different by smoking status...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095835/antimicrobial-activity-of-some-plant-materials-used-in-armenian-traditional-medicine
#14
Mikayel Ginovyan, Margarit Petrosyan, Armen Trchounian
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance has become one of the major problems facing humanity. The need for new antimicrobials has been increased dramatically. Plants are considered as one of the most promising sources for new antimicrobials discovery. Despite relatively small area, Armenia has large diversity of flora with many endemic species. In Armenian folk medicine plant materials have been used to treat various microbial diseases since ancient times. The goal of our research was to evaluate antimicrobial efficiency of different parts of five wild plants species which are commonly used in Armenian traditional medicine...
January 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095773/dietary-pea-fiber-increases-diversity-of-colonic-methanogens-of-pigs-with-a-shift-from-methanobrevibacter-to-methanomassiliicoccus-like-genus-and-change-in-numbers-of-three-hydrogenotrophs
#15
Yuheng Luo, Hong Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Gang Tian, Jie Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Junqiu Luo, Daiwen Chen
BACKGROUND: Pea fiber (PF) is a potential fibrous supplement in swine production. The influence of dietary PF on microbial community in the colon of pigs remains largely unexplored. Methanogens in the hindgut of monogastric animals play important roles in degradation of dietary fibers and efficient removal of microbial metabolic end product H2. Understanding the impact of dietary PF on the structure of colonic methanogens may help understand the mechanisms of microbe-mediated physiological functions of PF...
January 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095528/the-role-of-cutaneous-microbiota-harmony-in-maintaining-a-functional-skin-barrier
#16
Hilary E Baldwin, Neal D Bhatia, Adam Friedman, Richard Martin Eng, Sophie Seite
The skin is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors that may impact its barrier function at the physical, mechanical, immunological, and microbial levels. These factors have the potential to initiate or exacerbate a variety of inflammatory skin conditions, especially those associated with barrier dysfunction. The barrier function of the skin depends upon a symbiotic relationship between resident microbial communities and host tissue. This symbiosis results from complex signals involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095182/effect-of-intermittent-aeration-on-microbial-diversity-in-an-intermittently-aerated-ifas-reactor-treating-municipal-wastewater-a-field-study
#17
Akansha Bhatia, Nitin Kumar Singh, Timsi Bhando, Ranjana Pathania, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
In the present study, the effect of three intermittent aeration (IA) cycles on treatment performance and microbial diversity was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that IA strategies were able to achieve efficient removal of organics and nitrogen ranging between 90 and 95% and 70 and 80%, respectively, however the phosphorus removal was found to be inversely proportional to the duration of aeration off time in each IA cycle...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094795/impacts-of-chemical-gradients-on-microbial-community-structure
#18
Jianwei Chen, Anna Hanke, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Ines Kattelmann, Ritin Sharma, Emmo Hamann, Theresa Hargesheimer, Beate Kraft, Sabine Lenk, Jeanine S Geelhoed, Robert L Hettich, Marc Strous
Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox tower'. Here, we investigated whether redox sorting of microbial processes explains microbial community structure at low-oxygen concentrations. We subjected a diverse microbial community sampled from a coastal marine sediment to 100 days of tidal cycling in a laboratory chemostat...
January 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094773/methane-emissions-and-microbial-communities-as-influenced-by-dual-cropping-of-azolla-along-with-early-rice
#19
Jingna Liu, Heshui Xu, Ying Jiang, Kai Zhang, Yuegao Hu, Zhaohai Zeng
Azolla caroliniana Willd. is widely used as a green manure accompanying rice, but its ecological importance remains unclear, except for its ability to fix nitrogen in association with cyanobacteria. To investigate the impacts of Azolla cultivation on methane emissions and environmental variables in paddy fields, we performed this study on the plain of Dongting Lake, China, in 2014. The results showed that the dual cropping of Azolla significantly suppressed the methane emissions from paddies, likely due to the increase in redox potential in the root region and dissolved oxygen concentration at the soil-water interface...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093673/metagenomic-insights-into-effects-of-spent-engine-oil-perturbation-on-the-microbial-community-composition-and-function-in-a-tropical-agricultural-soil
#20
Lateef B Salam, Sunday O Obayori, Francisca O Nwaokorie, Aisha Suleiman, Raheemat Mustapha
Analyzing the microbial community structure and functions become imperative for ecological processes. To understand the impact of spent engine oil (SEO) contamination on microbial community structure of an agricultural soil, soil microcosms designated 1S (agricultural soil) and AB1 (agricultural soil polluted with SEO) were set up. Metagenomic DNA extracted from the soil microcosms and sequenced using Miseq Illumina sequencing were analyzed for their taxonomic and functional properties. Taxonomic profiling of the two microcosms by MG-RAST revealed the dominance of Actinobacteria (23...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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