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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#1
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779252/germination-niche-breadth-varies-inconsistently-among-three-asclepias-congeners-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#2
Jessamine Finch, Jeffrey L Walck, Siti N Hidayati, Andrea T Kramer, Victoria Lason, Kayri Havens
Species responses to climate change will be primarily driven by their environmental tolerance range, or niche breadth, with the expectation that broad niches will increase resilience. Niche breadth is expected to be greater in more heterogeneous environments and moderated by life history. Niche breadth also varies across life stage. Therefore, the life stage with the narrowest niche may serve as the best predictor of climatic vulnerability. To investigate the relationship between niche breadth, climate, and life stage we identify germination niche breadth for dormant and nondormant seeds in multiple populations of three milkweed (Asclepias) species...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779224/ir-catalyzed-silyl-directed-peri-borylation-of-c-h-bonds-in-fused-polycyclic-arenes-and-heteroarenes
#3
Bo Su, John F Hartwig
peri-Disubstituted naphthalenes exhibit interesting physical properties and unique chemical reactivity, due to the parallel arrangement of the bonds to the two peri-disposed substituents. Regioselective installation of a functional group at the position peri to 1-substituted naphthalenes is challenging due to the steric interaction between the existing substituent and the position at which the second one would be installed. We report an iridium-catalyzed borylation of the C-H bond peri to a silyl group in naphthalenes and analogous polyaromatic hydrocarbons...
May 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779190/therapeutic-strategies-for-modulating-the-extracellular-matrix-to-improve-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-after-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra M Smink, Paul de Vos
PURPOSES OF REVIEW: Extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate the interaction between pancreatic islet cells. During the islet isolation prior to transplantation as treatment for type 1 diabetes, the ECM is disrupted impacting functional graft survival. Recently, strategies for restoring ECM have shown to improve transplantation outcomes. This review discusses the current therapeutic strategies to modulate ECM components to improve islet engraftment. RECENT FINDINGS: Approaches applied are seeding islets in ECM of decellularized organs, supplementation of specific ECM components in polymeric scaffolds or immunoisolating capsules, and stimulating islet ECM production with specific growth factors or ECM-producing cells...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779171/carrying-minor-allele-of-fads1-and-haplotype-of-fads1-and-fads2-increased-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-moderate-but-not-low-fat-diets-lowered-the-risk-in-two-korean-cohorts
#5
Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang
PURPOSE: Delta-5-desaturase (fatty acid desaturase-1, FADS1) and delta-6 desaturase (fatty acid desaturase-2, FADS2), rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, may be associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated how FADS1 rs174547 and FADS2 rs2845573 variants modify the prevalence of MetS and whether the risk is modulated by interactions with dietary fat. METHODS: Genetic, anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary data were collected from the Ansan/Ansung (8842 adults) and City-Rural (5512 adults) cohorts in Korea...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779156/adolescent-isolation-rearing-produces-a-prepulse-inhibition-deficit-correlated-with-expression-of-the-nmda-glun1-subunit-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Megan L Fitzgerald, Virginia M Pickel
Adolescence is a transition period during which social interaction is necessary for normal brain and behavior development. Severely abnormal social interactions during adolescence can increase the incidence of lifelong psychiatric disease. Decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a quantifiable hallmark of some psychiatric illnesses in humans and can be elicited in rodents by isolation rearing throughout the adolescent transition period. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating in which the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is crucially involved...
May 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779144/effect-of-pre-gravid-body-mass-index-on-outcomes-of-pregnancies-following-in-vitro-fertilization
#7
Miha Lucovnik, Isaac Blickstein, Tomislav Mirkovic, Ivan Verdenik, Katja Bricelj, Marijana Vidmar Simic, Natasa Tul, Andreja Trojner Bregar
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) on perinatal outcomes in in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study. All singleton pregnancies delivered at ≥ 22 weeks' in Slovenia between 2002 and 2015 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between BMI category and outcomes, controlling for potential confounding variables. Interaction term was included to evaluate whether effects of obesity on perinatal outcomes differ in IVF vs...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779099/the-differential-expression-of-adhesion-molecule-and-extracellular-matrix-genes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-interaction-with-cord-blood-hematopoietic-progenitors
#8
L B Buravkova, E R Andreeva, M V Lobanova, E V Cotnezova, A I Grigoriev
The dynamics of the expression of genes encoding adhesion molecules, molecules of the connective tissue matrix, and its remodeling enzymes was studied in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue after interaction with cord blood hematopoietic progenitors (HSPCs). An upregulation of ICAM1 and VCAM1, directly proportional to the coculture time (24-72 h), was found. After 72 h of culturing, a downregulation of the genes encoding the majority of matrix molecules (SPP1; COL6A2,7A1; MMP1,3; TIMP1,3; and HAS1) and cell-matrix adhesion molecules (ITGs) was revealed...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779093/pharmacokinetics-of-the-novel-selective-non-steroidal-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-finerenone-in-healthy-volunteers-results-from-an-absolute-bioavailability-study-and-drug-drug-interaction-studies-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Roland Heinig, Michael Gerisch, Anna Engelen, Johannes Nagelschmitz, Stephanie Loewen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Finerenone is a selective, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to assess absolute bioavailability of finerenone, the effect of metabolic enzyme inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of finerenone and its metabolites, the quantitative contribution of the involved enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C8 and the relevance of gut wall versus liver metabolism. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of finerenone (1...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779049/biochemical-and-functional-interplay-between-ion-channels-and-the-components-of-the-dystrophin-associated-glycoprotein-complex
#10
REVIEW
Margarita Leyva-Leyva, Alejandro Sandoval, Ricardo Felix, Ricardo González-Ramírez
Dystrophin is a cytoskeleton-linked membrane protein that binds to a larger multiprotein assembly called the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). The deficiency of dystrophin or the components of the DGC results in the loss of connection between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix with significant pathophysiological implications in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well as in the nervous system. Although the DGC plays an important role in maintaining membrane stability, it can also be considered as a versatile and flexible molecular complex that contribute to the cellular organization and dynamics of a variety of proteins at specific locations in the plasma membrane...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779046/sex-differences-in-the-long-term-prognostic-value-of-13-n-ammonia-myocardial-perfusion-positron-emission-tomography
#11
Catherine Gebhard, Michael Fiechter, Bernhard A Herzog, Christine Lohmann, Susan Bengs, Valerie Treyer, Michael Messerli, Dominik C Benz, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann
PURPOSE: Evidence to date on the unique female determinants of cardiovascular risk is inadequate. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is considered to have the highest accuracy for the assessment of myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), but its long-term prognostic accuracy in women has not been established. METHODS: A total of 619 consecutive patients (138 women, mean age 60.0 ± 11.8 years) underwent clinically indicated 13 N-ammonia PET at our institution and were followed up (median 5...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779042/combining-theoretical-and-experimental-data-to-decipher-cftr-3d-structures-and-functions
#12
Brice Hoffmann, Ahmad Elbahnsi, Pierre Lehn, Jean-Luc Décout, Fabio Pietrucci, Jean-Paul Mornon, Isabelle Callebaut
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has recently provided invaluable experimental data about the full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) 3D structure. However, this experimental information deals with inactive states of the channel, either in an apo, quiescent conformation, in which nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are widely separated or in an ATP-bound, yet closed conformation. Here, we show that 3D structure models of the open and closed forms of the channel, now further supported by metadynamics simulations and by comparison with the cryo-EM data, could be used to gain some insights into critical features of the conformational transition toward active CFTR forms...
May 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779028/dietary-changes-involving-bifidobacterium-longum-and-other-nutrients-delays-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#13
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779016/integrated-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer-microrna-datasets-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-tumor-development
#14
Luca Falzone, Letizia Scola, Antonino Zanghì, Antonio Biondi, Antonio Di Cataldo, Massimo Libra, Saverio Candido
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, no effective early diagnostic biomarkers are available for colorectal carcinoma. Therefore, there is a need to discover new molecules able to identify pre-cancerous lesions. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with the onset of specific pathologies, thus the identification of miRNAs associated to colorectal cancer may be used to detect this pathology at early stages. On these bases, the expression levels of miRNAs were analyzed to compare the miRNAs expression levels of colorectal cancer samples and normal tissues in several miRNA datasets...
May 18, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778981/walking-the-line-the-fate-of-nanomaterials-at-biological-barriers
#15
REVIEW
Huan Meng, Wei Leong, Kam W Leong, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Biological systems have developed an efficient multi-tiered defense system to block foreign substances such as engineered nanomaterials (NMs) from causing damage. In a pathological scenario, the disease itself may also pose additional barriers due to the imbalance between abnormal cells and their surrounding microenvironment, and NMs could behave similarly or differently to classic foreign substances, depending on their unique characteristics. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that govern the fate of NMs against these biological barriers, including the strategies that can be used to shift their fate between access and blockage, become key information for NMs design...
May 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778978/tough-love-accommodating-intracellular-bacteria-through-directed-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-during-the-nitrogen-fixing-symbiosis
#16
REVIEW
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778960/rapid-colorimetric-detection-of-p53-protein-function-using-dna-gold-nanoconjugates-with-applications-for-drug-discovery-and-cancer-diagnostics
#17
Enock Assah, Walter Goh, Xin Ting Zheng, Ting Xiang Lim, Jun Li, David Lane, Farid Ghadessy, Yen Nee Tan
The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in preventing cancer through interaction with DNA response elements (REs) to regulate target gene expression in cells. Due to its significance in cancer biology, relentless efforts have been directed toward understanding p53-DNA interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. In this paper, we report a rapid, label-free and versatile colorimetric assay to detect wildtype p53 DNA-binding function in complex solutions. The assay design is based on a concept that alters interparticle-distances between RE-AuNPs from a crosslinking effect induced through tetramerization of wildtype p53 protein (p53-WT) upon binding to canonical DNA motifs modified on gold nanoparticles (RE-AuNPs)...
May 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778958/building-on-common-ground-to-address-biodiversity-conflicts-and-foster-collaboration-in-environmental-management
#18
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Sophie Calmé
Conservation biology faces critical challenges that require collaborative approaches, including novel strategies to support interactions among actors in biodiversity conflicts. The goals of this study were to investigate the concept of common ground across multiple issues and to explore its practical application for the support of environmental management. We conceptually defined common ground as the areas of relevance underlying the suite of issues expressed by people regarding environmental management in a particular context...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778954/ionizing-radiation-and-taxonomic-functional-and-evolutionary-diversity-of-bird-communities
#19
Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Timothy A Mousseau, Anders Pape Møller
Ionizing radiation from nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Fukushima and elsewhere has reduced the abundance, species richness and diversity of ecosystems. Here we analyzed the taxonomic, functional and evolutionary diversity of bird communities in forested areas around Chernobyl. Species richness decreased with increasing radiation, mainly in 2007. Functional richness, but not functional evenness and divergence, decreased with increasing level of ionizing radiation. Evolutionary distinctiveness of bird communities was higher in areas with higher levels of ionizing radiation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778887/biological-potential-of-oxo-vanadium-salicylediene-amino-acid-complexes-as-cytotoxic-antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-dna-interaction
#20
Mohamed Shaker S Adam, Hany Elsawy
New series of oxo-vanadium N-salicyledieneamino acid Schiff base complexes are synthesized and characterized. They are synthesized from the reaction of sodium salicylaldehyde-5-sulfonate, some amino acids, alanine (VOHL1), leucine (VOHL2) or glycine (VOHL3) in an aqueous media, and leucine (VOHLpy1) or tryptophan (VOHLpy2) in pyridine with vanadyl acetylacetonate. The complexes are characterized by EA, TGA, IR, UV-Visible and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic measurements. The biological activity of the VO-complexes shows that VOHL1, VOHL2 and VOHL3 exhibit anti-proliferative effect and may be used as anticancer drugs...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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