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Chunxiao Li, Meiying Ning, Xiaodong Yao, Yankun Wang, Ying Liu
Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of gestodene (GEST) intravaginal ring (IVR) formulations which can release a constant dose of GEST during 3 weeks were investigated. In present study a reservoir gestodene intravaginal ring, including a gestodene silicone elastomer core and the non-active silicone layer, was reported, which was manufactured by reaction injection moulding at 80°C for 20 min. The raw materials compatibility experiments showed that the silicone elastomer core carrier wouldn't interact with drugs...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ravindra B Ghooi, Kelly Dhru, Sheela Jaywant
Many individuals at the end of life are unable to convey their wishes regarding medical treatments. Advance directives (ADs) or living wills (LWs) allow them to crystallise their wishes in a written form so that these can be carried out if the relevant situation arises. In many countries, ADs are legally valid and enforceable; they reduce the use of life-sustaining treatments, which often merely prolong life without improving or even maintaining the quality of life. Such treatment puts a financial burden on the patient's family, often leading to penury...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Jullet A Davis
Purpose Globally, in 1980, approximately 5.8 per cent of the world population was 65 years old and older. By 2050, this number will more than triple to 16 per cent. From a leadership perspective, there is at least one challenge (among many others challenges) to consider. This paper (viewpoint) aims to provide support for the growing need for academically prepared managers. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint which presents several characteristics of the long-term care (LTC) field that support the need for academically trained leaders...
October 3, 2016: Leadership in Health Services
S R Till, K A Hobbs, J K Moulder, C E Martin, M T Siedhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Sam Illingworth
The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003). This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists...
2016: F1000Research
Claus Garbe, Thomas K Eigentler, Jürgen Bauer, Norbert Blödorn-Schlicht, Lorenzo Cerroni, Falko Fend, Markus Hantschke, Peter Kurschat, Heinz Kutzner, Dieter Metze, Volker Mielke, Harald Preßler, Michael Reusch, Ursula Reusch, Rudolf Stadler, Michael Tronnier, Amir Yazdi, Gisela Metzler
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the AJCC issued a revised melanoma staging system. In addition to tumor thickness and ulceration, the mitotic rate was introduced as the third major prognostic parameter for the classification of primary cutaneous melanoma. Given that, according to the 2009 AJCC classification, the detection of one or more dermal tumor mitoses leads to an upstaging - from stage Ia to Ib - of melanomas with a tumor thickness of ≤ 1.0 mm, we set out to investigate the reproducibility of this new parameter...
September 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Amit N Vora, Tracy Y Wang, Anne S Hellkamp, Laine Thomas, Timothy D Henry, Abhinav Goyal, Matthew T Roe
BACKGROUND: Among older patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), it remains uncertain whether there is a time-dependent difference in the risk of recurrent mortality and nonfatal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events for those with ST-segment-elevation MI (STEMI) compared with those with non-ST-segment-elevation MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Older patients ≥65 years with acute MI and significant coronary artery disease identified with coronary angiography from the ACTION Registry-GWTG (Get With the Guidelines) were linked to Medicare claims data from 2007 to 2010...
September 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Lisa Epp, Lisa Lammert, Nishanth Vallumsetla, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Long-term use of enteral nutrition (EN) continues to increase due to significant noted benefits. Patients also continue to express significant desire to pursue holistic and organic diets. Despite this, many nutrition providers are not well versed in assisting patients with blenderized tube feeding (BTF), and prevalence of its use is unknown. METHODS: A validated survey was administered to Oley Foundation members or individuals with access to the Oley website to assess the prevalence of BTF...
September 1, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Shafali Talisa Arya, Bridget Dibb
Current research surrounding infertility is focused primarily on women alone, thus removing men from the fertility equation. However, alternative research has indicated that, although men also experience infertility, there is a paucity of research on men. Therefore, very little is understood about the experiences of infertility from the male perspective. This study adopted a qualitative approach in an attempt to explore the infertility experience from the perspective of men. Fifteen men who had experienced infertility were interviewed to explore their experiences...
August 26, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Brian D Fink, Fan Bai, Liping Yu, William I Sivitz
Recently, we used an ADP recycling approach to examine mouse skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial function over respiratory states intermittent between state 3 and 4. We showed that respiration energized at complex II by succinate, in the presence of rotenone to block complex I, progressively increased with incremental additions of ADP. However, in the absence of rotenone, respiration peaked at low [ADP] but then dropped markedly as [ADP] was further increased. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these respiratory dynamics would differ between mitochondria of mice fed high-fat (HF) and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to mimic type 2 diabetes and mitochondria from controls...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Guanglong Jiang, Shijun Zhang, Aida Yazdanparast, Meng Li, Aniruddha Vikram Pawar, Yunlong Liu, Sai Mounika Inavolu, Lijun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Proper cell models for breast cancer primary tumors have long been the focal point in the cancer's research. The genomic comparison between cell lines and tumors can investigate the similarity and dissimilarity and help to select right cell model to mimic tumor tissues to properly evaluate the drug reaction in vitro. In this paper, a comprehensive comparison in copy number variation (CNV), mutation, mRNA expression and protein expression between 68 breast cancer cell lines and 1375 primary breast tumors is conducted and presented...
2016: BMC Genomics
Rachel Sturke, Susan Vorkoper, Kalina Duncan, Marya Levintova, Mark Parascondola
Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: Global Health Action
Hao Chen, Hao Wang, Shuai Jiang, Jiachao Xu, Lingling Wang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
miRNAs are important gene regulators at post-transcriptional level and can modulate diverse biological processes, including immune response. Dozens of species-specific miRNAs have been identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas while their functions remain largely unknown. In the present study, an oyster species-specific miRNA scaffold42648_5080 was found responsive to LPS stimulation and might target a total of 31 oyster genes possibly involved in cell communication, cellular localization and cellular response to stimulus...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Elhum A Shamshiri, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Kelly St Pier, Ronit M Pressler, David J Sharp, Suejen Perani, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
Patients with focal epilepsy have been shown to have reduced functional connectivity in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), which has been related to neurocognitive development and outcome. However, the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and changes in ICNs remains unclear, with evidence both for and against their influence. EEG-fMRI data was obtained in 27 children with focal epilepsy (mixed localisation and aetiologies) and 17 controls. A natural stimulus task (cartoon blocks verses blocks where the subject was told "please wait") was used to enhance the connectivity within networks corresponding to ICNs while reducing potential confounds of vigilance and motion...
August 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Viswanath Ragupathy, Wang Xue, Ji Tan, Krishnakumar Devadas, Yamei Gao, Indira Hewlett
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance HIV-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. In developing countries, Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of HIV-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. In this study, we used an in vitro cell culture system to study the effects of progesterone on HIV-1 replication and to explore the molecular mechanism of progesterone effects on infected cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Shelley Cobbett, Erna Snelgrove-Clarke
BACKGROUND: Clinical simulations can provide students with realistic clinical learning environments to increase their knowledge, self-confidence, and decrease their anxiety prior to entering clinical practice settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two maternal newborn clinical simulation scenarios; virtual clinical simulation and face-to-face high fidelity manikin simulation. DESIGN: Randomized pretest-posttest design. SETTING: A public research university in Canada...
October 2016: Nurse Education Today
Michael W Wandling, Avery B Nathens, Michael B Shapiro, Elliott R Haut
BACKGROUND: Rapid transport to definitive care ("scoop and run") versus field stabilization in trauma remains a topic of debate and has resulted in variability in prehospital policy. We aimed to identify trauma systems frequently using a true "scoop and run" police transport approach and to compare mortality rates between police and ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport. METHODS: Using the National Trauma Databank (NTDB), we identified adult gunshot and stab wound patients presenting to Level 1 or 2 trauma centers from 2010 to 2012...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Marc Hallee, Kevin Wilson
Hospital boards are well-versed in overseeing executive compensation Now they're being encouraged to take a greater role in physician compensation, too, to improve strategic alignment and reduce risk.
June 2016: Trustee: the Journal for Hospital Governing Boards
Stephen P Glaholt, Meghan L Kennedy, Elizabeth Turner, John K Colbourne, Joseph R Shaw
The antipredator behavior diel vertical migration (DVM), common in aquatic keystone species Daphnia, involves daily migration from warmer surface waters before dawn to cooler deeper waters after dusk. Plasticity in Daphnia DVM behavior optimizes fitness via trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and predator avoidance. Migration behavior is affected by co-varying biotic and abiotic factors, including light, predator cues, and anthropogenic stressors making it difficult to determine each factor's individual contribution to the variation in this behavior...
August 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Nitesh D Kuhadiya, Husam Ghanim, Aditya Mehta, Manisha Garg, Salman Khan, Jeanne Hejna, Barrett Torre, Antoine Makdissi, Ajay Chaudhuri, Manav Batra, Paresh Dandona
CONTEXT: It is imperative that novel approaches to treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are devised. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether addition of dapagliflozin to insulin and liraglutide results in a significant reduction in glycemia and body weight. DESIGN: This was a randomized clinical trial. SETTING: The study was conducted at a single academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included T1D patients on liraglutide therapy for at least last 6 months...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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