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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330296/tumor-progression-is-mediated-by-thymosin-%C3%A3-4-through-a-tgf%C3%A3-mrtf-signaling-axis
#1
Tsuyoshi Morita, Kenichiro Hayashi
Although enhanced thymosin beta-ß4 (TMSBX4/Tß4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here it is demonstrated that transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) facilitates Tß4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#2
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321224/reconsidering-an-active-role-for-g-actin-in-cytoskeletal-regulation
#3
REVIEW
Kristen Skruber, Tracy-Ann Read, Eric A Vitriol
Globular (G)-actin, the actin monomer, assembles into polarized filaments that form networks that can provide structural support, generate force and organize the cell. Many of these structures are highly dynamic and to maintain them, the cell relies on a large reserve of monomers. Classically, the G-actin pool has been thought of as homogenous. However, recent work has shown that actin monomers can exist in distinct groups that can be targeted to specific networks, where they drive and modify filament assembly in ways that can have profound effects on cellular behavior...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300408/design-of-a-substrate-tailored-peptiligase-variant-for-the-efficient-synthesis-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-1
#4
Marcel Schmidt, Ana Toplak, Henriëtte J Rozeboom, Hein J Wijma, Peter J L M Quaedflieg, Jan H van Maarseveen, Dick B Janssen, Timo Nuijens
The synthesis of thymosin-α1, an acetylated 28 amino acid long therapeutic peptide, via conventional chemical methods is exceptionally challenging. The enzymatic coupling of unprotected peptide segments in water offers great potential for a more efficient synthesis of peptides that are difficult to synthesize. Based on the design of a highly engineered peptide ligase, we developed a fully convergent chemo-enzymatic peptide synthesis (CEPS) process for the production of thymosin-α1via a 14-mer + 14-mer segment condensation strategy...
January 4, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274195/molecular-motions-and-interactions-in-aqueous-solutions-of-thymosin-%C3%A3-4-stabilin-ctd-and-their-1-1-complex-studied-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy
#5
Mónika Bokor, Ágnes Tantos, Attila Mészáros, Bence Jenei, Réka Haminda, Péter Tompa, Kálmán Tompa
Wide-line 1H NMR measurements were extended and all results were reinterpreted in a thermodynamics based new approach on aqueous solutions of thymosin-β4 (Tβ4), stabilin C-terminal domain (CTD) and their 1:1 complex. The energy distributions of the potential barriers, which control motion of protein-bound water molecules, were determined. Heterogeneous and homo-geneous regions were found in the protein-water interface. The measure of heterogeneity give quantitative value for the portion of disordered parts in the protein...
December 23, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262310/binding-of-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-to-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Elena V Navolotskaya, Vladimir B Sadovnikov, Valery M Lipkin, Vladimir P Zav'yalov
We have prepared 125I-labeled cholera toxin B subunit (125I-labeled CT-B, a specific activity of 98Ci/mmol) and found that it binds to rat IEC-6 and human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells with high affinity (Kd 3.6 and 3.7nM, respectively). The binding of labeled protein was completely inhibited by unlabeled thymosin-α1 (TM-α1), interferon-α2 (IFN-α2), and the synthetic peptide LKEKK that corresponds to residues 16-20 in TM-α1 and 131-135 in IFN-α2, but was not inhibited by the synthetic peptide KKEKL with inverted amino acid sequence (Ki>10μM)...
December 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234137/ratiometric-mass-spectrometry-for-cell-identification-and-quantitation-using-intracellular-dual-biomarkers
#7
Xiaoming Chen, Fangjie Wo, Jiang Chen, Jie Tan, Tao Wang, Xiao Liang, Jianmin Wu
This study proposed an easy-to-use method for cell identification and quantitation by ratiometric matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Two pairs of MS peaks in the molecular fingerprint of cells were selected as intracellular dual-biomarkers due to the stability and specificity of their ratio values in different types of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines. Five types of HCC cells can be thereafter differentiated based on these two pairs of intracellular peptides/proteins...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221124/production-of-n%C3%AE-acetyl-t%C3%AE-1-hsa-through-in-vitro-acetylation-by-rimj
#8
Jing Chen, Haibin Li, Tao Wang, Shuyang Sun, Jia Liu, Jianhua Chen
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is an important immunomodulating agent with various clinical applications. The natural form of Tα1 is Nα -acetylated, which was supposed to be related to in vivo stability of the hormone. In this study, fusion protein Tα1-HSA was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. RimJ, a Nα -acetyltransferase from E.coli, was also overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. In vitro acetylation of Tα1-HSA in the presence of RimJ and acetyl coenzyme A resulted in Nα -acetyl Tα1-HSA. The Nα -acetylation was determined by LC-MS/MS...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202457/recapitulation-of-developmental-mechanisms-to-revascularize-the-ischemic-heart
#9
Karina N Dubé, Tonia M Thomas, Sonali Munshaw, Mala Rohling, Paul R Riley, Nicola Smart
Restoring blood flow after myocardial infarction (MI) is essential for survival of existing and newly regenerated tissue. Endogenous vascular repair processes are deployed following injury but are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether developmental mechanisms of coronary vessel formation are intrinsically reactivated in the adult mouse after MI. Using pulse-chase genetic lineage tracing, we establish that de novo vessel formation constitutes a substantial component of the neovascular response, with apparent cellular contributions from the endocardium and coronary sinus...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188873/p49-strap-a-serum-response-factor-binding-protein-srfbp1-is-involved-in-the-redistribution-of-cytoskeletal-f-actin-proteins-during-glucose-deprivation
#10
E D Williams, S C Rogers, X Zhang, G Azhar, J Y Wei
The functional decline that usually accompanies adult aging also encompasses cellular changes including cytoplasmic architecture. In addition to their role in cytoskeletal structure, actin microfilaments have important roles in various cellular processes, including cell-to-cell communication and intracellular signaling. Age-related diseases and late-stage cellular morphological appearances often correlate with altered f-actin structure, which has been observed most notably in cancer. What remains less clear are the molecular pathways that may be involved in normal and premature aging-induced f-actin changes...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139251/-clinical-application-features-of-fufang-kushen-injection-in-treating-malignant-esophageal-tumor%C3%AF-real-world-study-based-on-hospital-information-system
#11
Ya-Xin Liu, Zhi-Fei Wang, Yan-Ming Xie, Yin Zhang, Cen Chen, Yan Zhuang
To analyze the clinical application features of Fufang Kushen injection in treating malignant esophageal tumors in the real world by using hospital information system database, and provide reference for clinical application of Fufang Kushen injection. The electronic medical data from 2 550 patients with malignant esophageal tumors using Fufang Kushen injection from 22 large-scale hospitals nationwide were extracted based on the hospital information system (HIS) established by Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077041/thymosin-%C3%AE-1-interacts-with-hyaluronic-acid-electrostatically-by-its-terminal-sequence-lkekk
#12
Walter Mandaliti, Ridvan Nepravishta, Francesca Pica, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Enrico Garaci, Maurizio Paci
Thymosin α1 (Tα1), is a peptidic hormone, whose immune regulatory properties have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo and approved in different countries for treatment of several viral infections and cancers. Tα1 assumes a conformation in negative membranes upon insertion into the phosphatidylserine exposure as found in several pathologies and in apoptosis. These findings are in agreement with the pleiotropy of Tα1, which targets both normal and tumor cells, interacting with multiple cellular components, and have generated renewed interest in the topic...
October 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063072/potential-role-of-thymosin-beta-4-in-the-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Yong Jiang, Tao Han, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Man Li, Feng-Xiang Qi, Ying Zhang, Ying-Lan Ji
As a result of increased prevalence of obesity worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. Although most NAFLD cases remain benign, some progress to end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, treatment should be considered for NAFLD patients who are likely to progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4), a G-actin sequestering peptide, regulates actin polymerization in mammalian cells...
September 2017: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052304/immunotherapy-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-direct-acting-anti-viral-era-reevaluating-the-thymosin-%C3%AE-1-efficacy-trials-in-light-of-a-combination-therapy-approach
#14
Paul H Naylor, Milton G Mutchnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes both acute and chronic hepatitis and infects large numbers of individuals worldwide. Unfortunately, prediction of typical clinical outcome is problematic and there is considerable variability in the frequency, duration and severity of disease progression. The mainstay of HBV treatment is directed towards the suppression of HBV replication by nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs). The use of immunomodulators such as α-Interferon and thymosin α1 can, in select patients, result in elimination of both HBsAg and HBeAg...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047363/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-alleviates-renal-fibrosis-and-tubular-cell-apoptosis-through-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-inhibition-in-uuo-rat-models
#15
Jing Yuan, Yan Shen, Xia Yang, Ying Xie, Xin Lin, Wen Zeng, Yingting Zhao, Maolu Tian, Yan Zha
BACKGROUND: Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is closely associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and myocardial regeneration, but the effects of Tβ4 treatment on chronic renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (CRTIF) are poorly known. This study aimed to examine the effects of Tβ4 on the renal apoptosis and the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-β), E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in CRTIF rat models. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomized into four groups (sham group, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) group, UUO + low-dose Tβ4 group, and UUO + high-dose Tβ4 group)...
October 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032684/effect-of-boron-on-thymic-cytokine-expression-hormone-secretion-antioxidant-functions-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-potential-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#16
Erhui Jin, Man Ren, Wenwen Liu, Shuang Liang, Qianqian Hu, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li
Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the ERK1/2 pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L of boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (P < 0...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#17
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988532/interaction-of-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-with-human-t-lymphocytes
#18
E V Navolotskaya, V B Sadovnikov, D V Zinchenko, Y A Zolotarev, V M Lipkin, V P Zav'yalov
In this work, (125)I-labeled cholera toxin B-subunit (CT-B) (specific activity 98 Ci/mmol) was prepared, and its high-affinity binding to human blood T-lymphocytes (Kd = 3.3 nM) was determined. The binding of the (125)I-labeled CT-B was inhibited by unlabeled interferon-α2 (IFN-α2), thymosin-α1 (TM-α1), and by the synthetic peptide LKEKK, which corresponds to sequences 16-20 of human TM-α1 and 131-135 of IFN-α2 (Ki 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 nM, respectively), but was not inhibited by the unlabeled synthetic peptide KKEKL with inverted sequence (Ki > 1 µM)...
September 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979901/approaches-to-augment-vascularisation-and-regeneration-of-the-adult-heart-via-the-reactivated-epicardium
#19
REVIEW
Owen J Duffey, Nicola Smart
Survival rates following myocardial infarction have increased in recent years but current treatments for post-infarction recovery are inadequate and cannot induce regeneration of damaged hearts. Regenerative medicine could provide disease-reversing treatments by harnessing modern concepts in cell and developmental biology. A recently-established paradigm in regenerative medicine is that regeneration of a tissue can be achieved by reactivation of the coordinated developmental processes that originally formed the tissue...
December 30, 2016: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978161/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-inhibits-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#20
Lili Zhu, Mingliang Cheng, Yongmei Liu, Yumei Yao, Zixin Zhu, Baofang Zhang, Qiuju Mou, Yiju Cheng
Liver fibrosis is a necessary stage for chronic liver diseases, and serious threat to human health. Hepatic fibrosis is a necessary stage for chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary cell type responsible for fibrosis. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) has a potential role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and that it is especially associated with the activation of HSCs, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the potential role of Tβ4 in liver fibrosis by describing the effects of Tβ4, and we discuss the possible signaling pathway regulated by Tβ4...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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