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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931369/acute-hiv-infection-presenting-as-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Farheen Manji, Evan Wilson, Etienne Mahe, John Gill, John Conly
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon systemic inflammatory condition that can result from infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. It is a rarely reported life threatening complication of an acute HIV infection, with only ten documented case reports per our literature search. We present a case of HLH secondary to acute HIV infection with a negative HIV antibody-based assay and high plasma viral load. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male with a past medical history of well controlled hypertension presented with fever, dizziness and non-bloody diarrhea...
September 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926562/generics-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-in-monoinfected-and-hiv-coinfected-patients-pros-and-cons
#2
Dario Cattaneo, Alessandro Fossati, Chiara Resnati, Massimo Galli, Cristina Gervasoni
The treatment of hepatitis C virus in monoinfected and HIV-coinfected patients has greatly changed over recent years as a result of the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), which have revolutionized clinical outcomes and led to sustained virological response rates above 90-95%. The discovery of new molecules and the subsequent competition between pharmaceutical companies, together with the negotiated price policies pursued by many national health systems, have led to a gradual reduction in the cost of DAAs, and expand their use to an increasing number of patients, including those with mild liver damage...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914169/development-of-an-algorithm-for-determination-of-the-likelihood-of-virological-failure-in-hiv-positive-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-decentralized-care
#3
Anton Reepalu, Taye Tolera Balcha, Sten Skogmar, Per-Erik Isberg, Patrik Medstrand, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Early identification of virological failure (VF) limits occurrence and spread of drug-resistant viruses in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Viral load (VL) monitoring is therefore recommended, but capacities to comply with this are insufficient in many low-income countries. Clinical algorithms might identify persons at higher likelihood of VF to allocate VL resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to construct a VF algorithm (the Viral Load Testing Criteria; VLTC) and compare its performance to the 2013 WHO treatment failure criteria...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911356/high-completion-rates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-swaziland
#4
L V Adams, N Mahlalela, E A Talbot, M Pasipamire, S Ginindza, M Calnan, S Haumba
SETTING: Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facilities in Swaziland. OBJECTIVE: To assess adherence and treatment completion of a 6-month course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) provided to HIV-infected patients through a self-selected model of facility-based, community-based or peer-supported IPT delivery coordinated with antiretroviral refills. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. RESULTS: Between February and August 2015, we enrolled 908 patients, with follow-up until February 2016...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906278/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-a-long-term-nonprogressor-due-to-nivolumab-therapy
#5
Adam C Lake
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been documented in association with multiple immunotherapy regimens . These reactivations can be life-threatening and result in fulminant hepatic failure. There are currently no reports of HBV reactivation on nivolumab treatment. This is a case of a patient with known HIV infection and previous HBV workup that revealed him to be anti-hepatitis B core antibody positive, hepatitis B surface antigen negative, and HBV DNA negative. He experienced a HBV reactivation while on therapy with nivolumab for stage IIIa poorly differentiated carcinoma of the lung, which was a recurrence from a prior surgically resected stage Ia well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung...
September 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#6
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903736/factors-associated-with-syphilis-treatment-failure-and-reinfection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-shenzhen-china
#7
Zhenzhou Luo, Lin Zhu, Yi Ding, Jun Yuan, Wu Li, Qiuhong Wu, Lishan Tian, Li Zhang, Guomao Zhou, Tao Zhang, Jianping Ma, Zhongwei Chen, Tubao Yang, Tiejian Feng, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: The treatment failure and reinfection rates among syphilis patients are high, and relevant studies in China are limited. The aim of this study was to detect the rates of treatment failure and reinfection after syphilis treatment and to explore the potential associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in a sexually transmitted disease clinic, the Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease Control...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902721/hiv-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Harish Jarrett, Christopher Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a well-recognized severe cardiovascular complication of HIV infection that confers an adverse prognosis irrespective of the stage of disease. This review will summarize the available data on HIV-PAH epidemiology and provide insights into the pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with HIV are several thousand times more likely to develop HIV-PAH compared to the incidence of idiopathic PAH...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902412/interventions-for-treating-tuberculous-pericarditis
#9
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Lehana Thabane, Jimmy Volmink, Dumisani Majombozi, Freedom Gumedze, Shaheen Pandie, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017)...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901212/a-retrospective-clinical-audit-of-general-practices-in-australia-to-determine-the-motivation-for-switch-to-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-and-clinical-outcomes
#10
Pedro E Ferrer, Mark Bloch, Norman Roth, Robert Finlayson, David Baker, Ken Koh, David Orth, Rimgaile Urbaityte, Dannae Brown, Fraser Drummond
The most common reasons for switching HIV-1 therapy in patients with virologic suppression are treatment regimen simplification and resolving tolerability issues. Single-pill regimens that include an integrase inhibitor are recommended options. A retrospective clinical audit was performed to determine the motivations for switching to dolutegravir (DTG)/abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) at high HIV-caseload general practice clinics in Australia. The most common reasons for switching from a prior suppressive therapy to DTG/ABC/3TC were simplification of regimen, resolving toxicity/intolerance and patient preference (73%, 13% and 12%, respectively)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#11
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898610/-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-challenge-of-relapse-and-treatment-failure
#12
Patrícia Cipriano, Ana Cláudia Miranda, Isabel Antunes, Kamal Mansinho
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disseminated infection, considered to be the third most frequent opportunistic parasitic infection in Europe. It is especially prevalent in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, in whom it poses a great therapeutic challenge due to increased risk of relapse. The goal of this study is to characterize a population of co-infected patients, as well as the efficiency of the adopted treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study with a sample composed of all patients with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus admitted in an Infectious Diseases ward over a period of 10 years...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895090/effort-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Robert Paul, Gina Rhee, Laurie M Baker, Florin Vaida, Sarah A Cooley, Beau M Ances
The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persistent HIV-related cognitive impairment among individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV+ individuals (n = 111) averaged 48.2 (14.9) years of age and 13.0 (2.7) years of education and HIV- individuals (n = 92) averaged 34...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891788/week-48-resistance-analysis-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-versus-atazanavir-ritonavir-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-in-hiv-1-infected-women-waves-study-gs-us-236-0128
#14
Rima Kulkarni, Sally L Hodder, Huyen Cao, Silvia Chang, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
Background Women and those with non-B subtype HIV-1 are typically underrepresented in clinical trials. WAVES (GS-US-236-0128) was a double-blind phase 3b study among treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected women that demonstrated that elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; N = 289) was superior to atazanavir + ritonavir + FTC/TDF (ATV + RTV + FTC/TDF; N = 286) for HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL by FDA snapshot analysis at week 48. Here, we describe resistance development through week 48 in women with virologic failure and determine the impact of pre-existing mutations and HIV-1 subtype on viral suppression...
July 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891717/longitudinal-viral-suppression-among-a-cohort-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-behaviorally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#15
Sarah M Wood, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Susan Lee, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Nadia Dowshen
Youth living with HIV (YLWH) are less likely than older adults to achieve and sustain viral suppression. While treatment guidelines recommend decreased viral load (VL) monitoring in individuals with well-controlled HIV, the appropriateness of this strategy for adolescents is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe longitudinal viral suppression and identify incidence of, and risk factors for, virologic failure among YLWH at a US adolescent HIV clinic from 2002 to 2015. We utilized Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare hazard ratios (HRs) for virologic failure stratified by baseline characteristics...
September 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887858/liver-transplantation-equity-supply-demand-and-access
#16
EDITORIAL
David Axelrod, Heidi Yeh
Despite advances in treatment for end stage liver disease (ESLD), death from cirrhosis and chronic liver disease remains a major source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in younger patients. The National Center for Health Statistics estimates that the years of life lost prior to age 75 due to ESLD has increased from 164.1 per 100,000 in 2000 to 190.3 in 2015, exceeding life years lost from cerebrovascular disease (161.0), colorectal cancer (123.3), and HIV (50.4).(1) Liver transplantation is the sole treatment for patients with decompensated liver failure, with exceptional success among patients who make it through transplant...
September 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882911/predictors-of-hiv-virological-failure-and-drug-resistance-in-chinese-patients-after-48-months-of-antiretroviral-treatment-2008-2012-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Wei Kan, Tao Teng, Shujia Liang, Yanling Ma, Heng Tang, Tuerdi Zuohela, Guoqing Sun, Cui He, Kristin M Wall, Vincent C Marconi, Lingjie Liao, Xuebing Leng, Pengtao Liu, Yuhua Ruan, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors associated with HIV virological failure (VF) and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among HIV-positive Chinese individuals 4 years after initiating first-line lamivudine-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2008 at five sentinel sites. DESIGN: First-line ART initiators who were previously treatment naïve were selected using consecutive ID numbers from the 2008 National Surveillance Database into a prospective cohort study. Questionnaires and blood samples were collected in 2011 and 2012 to assess the outcomes of interest: VF (defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/mL) and HIVDR (defined as VF with genetic drug-resistant mutations)...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877173/assessment-of-who-criteria-for-identifying-art-treatment-failure-in-vietnam-from-2007-to-2011
#18
Nicole K Le, Emilia Riggi, Gaetano Marrone, Tam Van Vu, Ricardo O Izurieta, Chuc Kim Thi Nguyen, Mattias Larsson, Cuong Duy Do
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO immunological criteria for detecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment failure in a cohort of Vietnamese patients. We conducted a stratified analysis to determine the effects of BMI, peer support, adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, age, and gender on the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 605 HIV-infected patients using data previously collected from a cluster randomized control trial study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863015/heart-failure-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#19
Priscilla Y Hsue, David D Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss presentation, pathophysiology, complications, and treatment of heart failure in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the advent of effective ART and improved longevity, heart failure has become more chronic and insidious and is often characterized by preserved ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The mechanism underlying heart failure in the setting of HIV infection remains unknown...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859436/prevalence-of-drug-resistant-minority-variants-in-untreated-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-and-those-without-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-sanger-sequencing
#20
Dana S Clutter, Shuntai Zhou, Vici Varghese, Soo-Yon Rhee, Benjamin A Pinsky, W Jeffrey Fessel, Daniel B Klein, Ean Spielvogel, Susan P Holmes, Leo B Hurley, Michael J Silverberg, Ronald Swanstrom, Robert W Shafer
Minority variant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations are associated with an increased risk of virological failure during treatment with NNRTI-containing regimens. To determine whether individuals to whom variants with isolated NNRTI-associated drug resistance were transmitted are at increased risk of virological failure during treatment with a non-NNRTI-containing regimen, we identified minority variant resistance mutations in 33 individuals with isolated NNRTI-associated transmitted drug resistance and 49 matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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