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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#1
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906026/plasma-hiv-1-rna-viral-load-rebound-among-people-who-inject-drugs-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-a-canadian-setting-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#2
Will Small, M J Milloy, Ryan McNeil, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906022/risk-factors-for-unstructured-treatment-interruptions-and-association-with-survival-in-low-to-middle-income-countries
#3
James H McMahon, Tim Spelman, Nathan Ford, Jane Greig, Anita Mesic, Charles Ssonko, Esther C Casas, Daniel P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment interruptions lead to poor clinical outcomes with unplanned or unstructured TIs (uTIs) likely to be underreported. This study describes; uTIs, their risk factors and association with survival. METHODS: Analysis of ART programmatic data from 11 countries across Asia and Africa between 2003 and 2013 where an uTI was defined as a ≥90-day patient initiated break from ART calculated from the last day the previous ART prescription would have run out until the date of the next ART prescription...
July 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#4
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902602/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-quantification-a-laboratory-assessment-of-3-commercial-assays
#5
Pieter Pannus, Maarten Claus, Maria Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Nathan Ford, Katrien Fransen
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898571/single-dose-compared-with-multidose-metronidazole-for-the-treatment-of-trichomoniasis-in-women-a-meta-analysis
#6
Katharine Howe, Patricia J Kissinger
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization recommend a single 2-g dose of metronidazole for the first line of treatment for T. vaginalis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative women, high rates of repeat infections are found. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare treatment failure between single versus multidose metronidazole for the treatment of T...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894270/evaluation-of-tolerability-with-the-co-formulation-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-post-hiv-exposure-prophylaxis
#7
Nadia Valin, Laurent Fonquernie, Anne Daguenel, Pauline Campa, Theresita Anthony, Marguerite Guiguet, Pierre Marie Girard, Marie Caroline Meyohas
BACKGROUND: The preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is based mainly on safety and tolerability because it is given to immunocompetent people without HIV infection for a limited time (28 days). The frequency of adverse events (AEs) may be > 60%. Although AEs are generally not severe, they can lead to lack of adherence and failure to complete the regimen. We evaluated the co-formulation elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Stribild(®)) prescribed as one pill taken once daily for HIV PEP in terms of tolerability and adherence...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893693/two-case-reports-of-severe-myocarditis-associated-with-the-initiation-of-dolutegravir-treatment-in-hiv-patients
#8
Keren Mahlab-Guri, Ilan Asher, Shira Rosenberg-Bezalel, Daniel Elbirt, Michael Burke, Zev M Sthoeger
RATIONALE: The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir is now recommended as first-line treatment for HIV. A single case of myocarditis after treatment with dolutegravir was reported in the FLAMINGO trial. We present here 2 cases of severe myocarditis that occurred shortly after the initiation of dolutegravir treatment. PATIENTS CONCERNS: The first case is a 45-year-old female who developed severe congestive heart failure and died, weeks after the initiation of dolutegravir treatment (for simplification of her antiretroviral regimen)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888600/-darunavir-cobicistat-monotherapy-experience-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#9
L Yunquera-Romero, R Asensi-Díez, J C Del Rio-Valencia, I Muñoz-Castillo, M A Castaño-Carracedo
OBJECTIVE: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (IP/r) monotherapy: darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is only provided in the major treatment guidelines in pretreated patients to prevent toxicity associated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), reduce costs and simplify antiretroviral treatment. To start IP/r monotherapy, according to GESIDA guidelines 2016, patients need to meet the following criteria: absence of chronic hepatitis B, plasma viral load <50 copies/ mL for at least 6 months and absence of protease inhibitors mutations or previous virologic failures to IP/r...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#10
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879457/protective-efficacy-of-secondary-prophylaxis-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfected-patients-over-the-past-10-years-in-eastern-india
#11
Rama P Goswami, Rudra P Goswami, Ayan Basu, Yogiraj Ray, Mehebubar Rahman, Santanu K Tripathi
Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to frequent treatment failure, relapse, and death. In this retrospective analysis from eastern India (2005-2015), our primary objective was to ascertain the protective efficacy of secondary prophylaxis with monthly amphotericin B (AmB) given in patients with HIV-VL coinfection toward reducing relapse and mortality rates. The secondary objective was to compare clinical features, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes in HIV-VL patients in contrast to VL monoinfection...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879190/transplantation-in-africa-an-overview
#12
Elmi Muller
Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875905/identification-of-novel-resistance-related-polymorphisms-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-rt-connection-and-rnase-h-domains-from-patients-under-virological-failure-in-brazil
#13
Maria Fernanda M Barral, Arielly K P Sousa, André F Santos, Celina M Abreu, Amilcar Tanuri, Marcelo A Soares
Mutations in the connection and RNase H C-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) domains of HIV-1 have been shown to impact drug resistance to RT inhibitors. However, their impact in the context of non-B subtypes has been poorly assessed. This study aimed to characterize resistance-related mutations in the C-terminal portions of RT in treatment-failing patients from southern Brazil, a region with endemic HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C). Viral RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed from 280 infected subjects, and genomic regions were analyzed by PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
November 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869617/hiv-1-subtype-c-tenofovir-and-the-relationship-with-treatment-failure-and-drug-resistance
#14
EDITORIAL
Huldrych F Günthard, Alexandra U Scherrer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869328/real-life-efficacy-and-safety-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-in-hong-kong
#15
Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Owen Tak-Yin Tsang, Yee-Tak Hui, James Fung, Grace Chung-Yan Lui, Ching-Lung Lai, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Kam-Hon Chan, David Yiu-Kuen But, Moon-Sing Lai, Wai-Cheung Lao, Carmen Ka-Man Chan, Yip-Shun Lam, Wai-Kay Seto, Carlton Li, Man-Fung Yuen, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In registration studies, combination therapy of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) with and without ribavirin for 12-24 weeks can achieve >90% sustained virological response (SVR) for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, data in Asia is scanty. We aimed to study the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients in Hong Kong. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 6 local hospitals which have prescribed PrOD with and without ribavirin to patients with genotype 1 chronic HCV infection as part of a global compassionate program...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855071/high-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-dihydropteroate-synthase-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-first-episode-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-santiago-chile-and-their-clinical-response-to-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-therapy
#16
Carolina A Ponce, Magali Chabé, Claudio George, Alejandra Cárdenas, Luisa Duran, Julia Guerrero, Rebeca Bustamante, Olga Matos, Laurence Huang, Robert F Miller, Sergio L Vargas
Mutations in the Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii associate with failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs, or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with first-episode of PCP from 2002-2010 in Santiago, Chile...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845298/daclatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-real-world-patients-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-advanced-liver-disease
#17
Jürgen K Rockstroh, Patrick Ingiliz, Jörg Petersen, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Tania M Welzel, Marc Van der Valk, Yue Zhao, Maria Jesus Jimenez Exposito, Stefan Zeuzem
BACKGROUND: HIV/HCV-coinfected patients respond just as well to modern direct-acting antiviral HCV therapy as HCV-monoinfected patients. However, clinical data for all-oral HCV treatments are sparse in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with an advanced stage of liver cirrhosis. METHODS: A subanalysis of efficacy and safety for a daclatasvir (DCV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) regimen, with or without ribavirin (RBV), was undertaken in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver disease and no other treatment options enrolled into a European DCV compassionate use programme...
November 15, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842871/trends-in-drug-resistance-associated-mutations-in-a-real-life-cohort-of-italian-patients-infected-with-hiv-1
#18
Claudia Montagna, Laura Mazzuti, Francesca Falasca, Paola Maida, Mauro Bucci, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Ivano Mezzaroma, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Nadia Alvaro, Vincenzo Vullo, Guido Antonelli, Ombretta Turriziani
Recent studies support the idea that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is declining in developed countries. To help assess the current situation in Italy, the dynamics of drug resistance mutations in pol and integrase genes in plasma samples from HIV-1-positive patients attending Sapienza University Hospital, Rome, from 2003 to 2014 were analysed. In total, 1730 genotype resistance tests (GRTs) were retrospectively analysed. The prevalence of major drug resistance mutations (DRMs) was evaluated over time in the global population and in patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836020/high-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-drug-resistance-and-treatment-failure-in-nigerian-children
#19
Ragna S Boerma, T Sonia Boender, Kim C E Sigaloff, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Nicaise Ndembi, Titilope Adeyemo, Edamisan O Temiye, Akin Osibogun, Pascale Ondoa, Job C Calis, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu
INTRODUCTION: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Children are an especially vulnerable population to develop PDR given that paediatric second-line treatment options are limited. Although monitoring of PDR is important, data on the paediatric prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and its consequences for treatment outcomes are scarce. We designed a prospective paediatric cohort study to document the prevalence of PDR and its effect on subsequent treatment failure in Nigeria, the country with the second highest number of HIV-infected children in the world...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835614/depression-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-clinical-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-tanzanian-women-living-with-hiv
#20
Christopher R Sudfeld, Sylvia Kaaya, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Fedinand Mugusi, Wafaie W Fawzi, Said Aboud, Mary C Smith Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of depression at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with mortality and clinical outcomes among Tanzanian women living with HIV. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,487 women who initiated ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a Tanzanian adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25)...
November 9, 2016: AIDS
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