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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310974/sepsis-in-tropical-regions-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#1
Steven McGloughlin, Guy A Richards, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Shirish Prayag, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Sepsis and septic shock in the tropics are caused by a wide array of organisms. These infections are encountered mainly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where a lack of infrastructure and medical facilities contribute to the high morbidity and mortality. Published sepsis guidelines are based on studies primarily performed in high income countries and as such recommendations may or may not be relevant to practice in the tropics. Failure to adhere to guidelines, particularly among non-intensive care specialists even in high-income countries, is an area of concern for sepsis management...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310659/the-impact-of-rural-residence-and-hiv-infection-on-poor-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-hospital-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#2
Aishatu Lawal Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Umar Muhammad Lawan, Usman Bashir, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment is essential to effective TB control. TB-HIV coinfection, social determinants and access to services influenced by rural residence can affect treatment outcome. We examined the separate and joint effects of rural residence and HIV infection on poor treatment outcome among patients enrolled in a large TB treatment centre in Kano, Nigeria. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a cohort of patients with TB enrolled in a large urban TB clinic in northern Nigeria, from January 2010 to December 2014...
January 8, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305405/real-world-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-second-generation-direct-acting-antivirals-initial-results-from-a-multicentre-canadian-retrospective-cohort-of-diverse-patients
#3
Alex I Aspinall, Abdel A Shaheen, Golasa S Kochaksaraei, Breean Haslam, Samuel S Lee, Gisela Macphail, Jeff Kapler, Oscar E Larios, Kelly W Burak, Mark G Swain, Meredith A Borman, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: High hepatitis C cure rates have been observed in registration trials with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. Real-world data also indicate high sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Our objective was to determine real-world SVR rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals in the first 18 months of their availability in Canada. METHODS: Four centres in Calgary contributed their treatment data for a diverse patient population including those who had or had not undergone liver transplantation, those coinfected with HIV and vulnerable populations...
January 5, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302827/colonic-perforation-due-to-severe-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-after-immunosuppression
#4
REVIEW
Alessandra Soriano, Nazareno Smerieri, Stefano Bonilauri, Loredana De Marco, Alberto Cavazza, Carlo Salvarani
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small-vessel necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis typically involving upper airways, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to end-organ damage and life-threatening complications. Major infections during GPA course represent a considerable concern in the management of the disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease are rare but significant complications in the course of GPA being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Colonic perforation due to CMV colitis is exceedingly rare and has so far almost exclusively been documented in HIV, renal transplant, and systemic lupus erythematosus patients...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301267/the-effect-of-detectable-hiv-viral-load-among-hiv-infected-children-during-antiretroviral-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Visal Moolasart, Suthat Chottanapund, Jarurnsook Ausavapipit, Sirirat Likanonsakul, Sumonmal Uttayamakul, Don Changsom, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The RNA viral load of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is initially used to determine the status of the HIV infection. The goal of therapy following treatment failure is to achieve and maintain virologic suppression. A detectable viral load may relate to the progression of HIV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014 at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Thailand. The aim was to determine the prevalence of detectable HIV viral load (dVL) and analyze the factors associated with post-dVL conditions that occur independently of a switch to a new antiretroviral agent...
January 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299949/hiv-aids-related-hyponatremia-an-old-but-still-serious-problem
#6
Zhanjun Shu, Halmurat Upur, Zimeng Tian, Jinglin Chen, Jianping Ma, Aihemaiti Abudureyimu, Qianqian Qian, Li Zhuo
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitals. Many medical illnesses, including congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure and pneumonia, may be associated with hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993. The evidence suggests that severe hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients; however, the incidence of hyponatremic syndrome in HIV/AIDS patients remains very high in clinical practice, as almost 40% of HIV/AIDS inpatients in Xinjiang, a developing region of China, are hyponatremic...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276983/uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-sofosbuvir-sofosbuvir-metabolite-gs-331007-and-daclatasvir-in-plasma-of-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#7
Stefania Notari, Massimo Tempestilli, Gabriele Fabbri, Raffaella Libertone, Andrea Antinori, Adriana Ammassari, Chiara Agrati
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent the major advance in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment leading to extremely high eradication rates in HCV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. In this scenery, availability of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is of interest to assess plasma concentrations to prevent either therapeutic failure due to suboptimal medication adherence and drug-drug interactions or avoid adverse events. Aim of this study was to develop and validate an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of sofosbuvir, sofosbuvir metabolite (GS-331007), and daclatasvir in human plasma...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251606/issues-in-access-to-end-of-life-care-in-low-resource-areas
#8
Yogesh Jain, Gajanan Phutke
Even though 1% of people require palliative and end-of-life care in low-resource situations, it remains an uncharted arena. Yet it is as important as curative care to alleviate suffering. Palliative care is not only a need in cancer and HIV disease; but is needed in a diverse group of illnesses ranging from tuberculosis, renal failures, paraplegia to chronic lung diseases. In a lower resource setting, the gaps in palliation may be the need for more technology and interventions or more healthcare professionals...
October 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247506/suboptimal-anti-tuberculosis-drug-concentrations-and-outcomes-in-small-and-hiv-coinfected-children-in-india-recommendations-for-dose-modifications
#9
Benjamin Guiastrennec, Geetha Ramachandran, Mats O Karlsson, A K Hemanth Kumar, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, N Poorana Gangadevi, Soumya Swaminathan, Amita Gupta, Kelly E Dooley, Radojka M Savic
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing thrice-weekly dosing as per previous Indian pediatric guidelines. The exposure-response relationships were established using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach. Rifampin exposure was identified as the unique predictor of treatment outcome...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244807/socioeconomic-position-and-ten-year-survival-and-virologic-outcomes-in-a-ugandan-hiv-cohort-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Andrew G Flynn, Godwin Anguzu, Frank Mubiru, Agnes N Kiragga, Moses Kamya, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara C Castelnuovo
Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244143/impact-of-hiv-1-minority-variants-on-the-virus-response-to-a-rilpivirine-based-first-line-regimen
#11
Stéphanie Raymond, Florence Nicot, Coralie Pallier, Pantxika Bellecave, Anne Maillard, Mary Anne Trabaud, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Audrey Rodallec, Corinne Amiel, Thomas Mourez, Laurence Bocket, Agnès Beby-Defaux, Magali Bouvier-Alias, Sidonie Lambert-Niclot, Charlotte Charpentier, Brice Malve, Audrey Mirand, Julia Dina, Hélène Le Guillou-Guillemette, Stéphanie Marque-Juillet, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Francis Barin, Ali Si-Mohamed, Véronique Avettand Fenoel, Catherine Roussel, Vincent Calvez, Karine Saune, Anne Geneviève Marcelin, Christophe Rodriguez, Diane Descamps, Jacques Izopet
Background: Minority resistant variants of HIV-1 could influence the virological response to treatment based on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Data on minority rilpivirine-resistant variants are scarce. This study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify patients harbouring minority resistant variants to nucleos(t)ide and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors and to assess their influence on the virological response (VR). Methods: All the subjects, 541 HIV-1-infected patients being treated at 24 French virology laboratories, started their first line regimen containing rilpivirine between 2012 and 2015...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244129/dolutegravir-reshapes-the-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-reservoirs
#12
Pierre Gantner, Guinevere Q Lee, David Rey, Thibault Mesplede, Marialuisa Partisani, Christine Cheneau, Geneviève Beck-Wirth, Jean-Pierre Faller, Mahsa Mohseni-Zadeh, Martin Martinot, Mark A Wainberg, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Objectives: Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV reservoirs under ART is a critical step to achieve a functional HIV cure. Our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of archived HIV-1 DNA over 48 weeks in blood cells of individuals starting treatment with a dolutegravir-based regimen. Methods: Eighty blood samples were prospectively and longitudinally collected from 20 individuals (NCT02557997) including: acutely (n = 5) and chronically (n = 5) infected treatment-naive individuals, as well as treatment-experienced individuals who switched to a dolutegravir-based regimen and were either virologically suppressed (n = 5) or had experienced treatment failure (n = 5)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243388/the-treatment-outcomes-of-antiretroviral-substitutions-in-routine-clinical-settings-in-asia-data-from-the-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-tahod
#13
In Young Jung, David Boettiger, Wing Wai Wong, Man Po Lee, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Romanee Chaiwarith, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Junko Tanuma, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Fujie Zhang, Pacharee Kantipong, Oon Tek Ng, Benedict Lim Heng Sim, Matthew Law, Jeremy Ross, Jun Yong Choi
INTRODUCTION: Although substitutions of antiretroviral regimen are generally safe, most data on substitutions are based on results from clinical trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of substituting antiretroviral regimen in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients in non-clinical trial settings in Asian countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD)...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240765/drug-resistance-and-treatment-failure-in-leishmaniasis-a-21st-century-challenge
#14
REVIEW
Alicia Ponte-Sucre, Francisco Gamarro, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Michael P Barrett, Rogelio López-Vélez, Raquel García-Hernández, Andrew W Pountain, Roy Mwenechanya, Barbara Papadopoulou
Reevaluation of treatment guidelines for Old and New World leishmaniasis is urgently needed on a global basis because treatment failure is an increasing problem. Drug resistance is a fundamental determinant of treatment failure, although other factors also contribute to this phenomenon, including the global HIV/AIDS epidemic with its accompanying impact on the immune system. Pentavalent antimonials have been used successfully worldwide for the treatment of leishmaniasis since the first half of the 20th century, but the last 10 to 20 years have witnessed an increase in clinical resistance, e...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236362/implementation-of-repeat-hiv-testing-during-pregnancy-in-southwestern-kenya-progress-and-missed-opportunities
#15
Anna J Rogers, Eliud Akama, Elly Weke, Justin Blackburn, George Owino, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Patrick Oyaro, Zachary A Kwena, Craig R Cohen, Janet M Turan
INTRODUCTION: Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233121/do-retreatment-tuberculosis-patients-need-special-treatment-response-follow-up-beyond-the-standard-regimen-finding-of-five-year-retrospective-study-in-pastoralist-setting
#16
Fentabil Getnet, Henok Sileshi, Wubareg Seifu, Selam Yirga, Abere Shiferaw Alemu
BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist...
December 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230320/factors-promoting-and-inhibiting-sustained-impact-of-a-mental-health-task-shifting-program-for-hiv-providers-in-ethiopia
#17
D Jerene, M Biru, A Teklu, T Rehman, A Ruff, L Wissow
Background: Task-shifting mental health into general medical care requires more than brief provider training. Generalists need long-term support to master new skills and changes to work context are required to sustain change in the face of competing priorities. We examined program and context factors promoting sustainability of a mental health task-shifting training for hospital-based HIV providers in Ethiopia. Methods: Convergent mixed-methods quasi-experimental study...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228918/nevirapine-versus-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-antiretroviral-naive-patients-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infections-in-india-a-multi-centre-study
#18
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Srikanth Tripathy, Sahajal Dhooria, Sanjay Ranjan, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which have also been adopted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Efavirenz-based Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is better in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV)-infected patients who are also being treated with Rifampicin-based Anti-Tuberculous Therapy (ATT). However, Efavirenz is much more expensive. We hypothesize that Nevirapine is a cheaper alternative that possesses equal efficacy as Efavirenz in HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients...
December 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227424/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-growth-parameters-of-children-with-hiv-infection
#19
Anju Seth, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Rohini Gupta, Jagdish Chandra, Praveen Kumar, Sarita Singh, Garima Sharma
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) commonly experience growth failure. We report growth parameters in CLHIV at baseline and during 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Records of CLHIV who had completed at least 3 years on ART were reviewed after excluding subjects who died, were lost to follow-up or developed treatment failure to assess impact of sustained administration of ART. Height-for-age (HFA) and body mass index for age (BFA) Z scores were calculated, and proportion of CLHIV with wasting and stunting estimated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after starting ART using the linear mixed model...
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218008/improving-the-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-difficult-but-essential-task-for-a-successful-hiv-treatment-clinical-points-of-view-and-practical-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob, Gheorghita Jugulete
HIV infection is responsible for one the most devastating human pandemics. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of the pandemic and saved millions of lives. Complex therapeutic regimens have been introduced since 1996 and have contributed to the transformation of HIV infection into a treatable chronic diseases. New types of potent antiretrovirals and their combinations, including "once daily" treatment, have simplified the regimens and diminished side effects. Nevertheless the adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains unsatisfactory and varies between 27 and 80% across different population in various studies, compared with the required level of 95%...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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