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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437854/is-there-sufficient-evidence-for-a-causal-association-between-antiretroviral-therapy-and-diabetes-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Peter K Kimani, Ahmed M Sarki, Olalekan A Uthman
BACKGROUND: The association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diabetes is inconsistent and varies widely across primary epidemiological studies. A comprehensive and more precise estimate of this association is fundamental to establishing a plausible causal link between ART and diabetes. METHODS: We identified epidemiological studies that compared mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations and proportions of diabetes and metabolic syndrome between HIV-infected patients naïve and exposed to ART...
April 24, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437477/outcomes-after-antiretroviral-therapy-during-the-expansion-of-hiv-services-in-haiti
#2
Margaret L McNairy, Patrice Joseph, Michelle Unterbrink, Stanislas Galbaud, Jean-Edouard Mathon, Vanessa Rivera, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Lindsey Reif, Serena P Koenig, Jean Wysler Domercant, Warren Johnson, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Jean W Pape
BACKGROUND: We report patient outcomes after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a network of HIV facilities in Haiti, including temporal trends and differences across clinics, during the expansion of HIV services in the country. METHODS: We assessed outcomes at 12 months after ART initiation (baseline) using routinely collected data on adults (≥15 years) in 11 HIV facilities from July 2007-December 2013. Outcomes include death (ascertained from medical records), lost to follow-up (LTF) defined as no visit > 365 days from ART initiation, and retention defined as being alive and attending care ≥ 365 days from ART initiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436334/acute-hiv-infection-advances-in-mechanisms-and-prophylactic-therapeutic-management
#3
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Amman Abid
Human infection by HIV is spreading rapidly. The spread of the virus is generally organized and transmission can be rectal, oral, or penile. Several types of cells are susceptible to viral invasion. The appearance of symptoms during infection can vary, but the presence of the virus can be confirmed by testing for the antigen p24. The ELISA test is used to detect viral p24 antigen and antiviral antibodies. This technique is approved for the purposes of clinical practice. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is usually a costly and lengthy treatment for HIV infection...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435692/a-cd3-cd28-microbead-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay
#4
EDITORIAL
Yury V Kuzmichev, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Caroline C Garliss, Victoria Ek Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
AIMS: Latently infected resting CD4 T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication efforts. The standard assays used for measuring this reservoir induce activation of resting CD4 T cells with either phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with irradiated feeder cells, or with anti-CD3 antibodies. We designed a study to compare the sensitivity of a new assay (based on the stimulation of CD4 T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated microbeads) with that of the traditional PHA- and feeder-based viral outgrowth assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435691/interrupting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-cure-research-scientific-and-ethical-considerations
#5
EDITORIAL
Samual A Garner, Stuart Rennie, Jintanat Ananworanich, Karine Dube, David M Margolis, Jeremy Sugarman, Randall Tressler, Adam Gilbertson, Liza Dawson
Over the past several years there has been intense activity directed at the possibility of achieving remission or eradication of HIV infection. Current assays for the measurement of latent HIV are insufficient to demonstrate complete clearance of replication-competent HIV. Therefore, the ultimate test for assessing whether investigational interventions have resulted in HIV remission or eradication is to interrupt standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a carefully controlled clinical trial setting. These procedures, known as analytic treatment interruptions (ATIs), raise important scientific and ethical questions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435232/self-reported-adherence-and-associated-factors-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-health-centers-in-gondar-town-north-west-ethiopia
#6
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Seyfe Asrade Atnafie, Demis Driba Balcha, Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal, Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis, Mulgeta Melaku Wotte, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#7
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#8
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
April 22, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431010/clinical-trial-of-the-anti-pd-l1-antibody-bms-936559-in-hiv-1-infected-participants-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Cynthia L Gay, Ronald J Bosch, Justin Ritz, Jason M Hataye, Evgenia Aga, Randall L Tressler, Stephen W Mason, Carey K Hwang, Dennis M Grasela, Neelanjana Ray, Josh C Cyktor, John M Coffin, Edward P Acosta, Richard A Koup, John W Mellors, Joseph J Eron
Background.: Reversing immune exhaustion with an anti-PD-L1 antibody may improve HIV-1-specific immunity and increase clearance of HIV-1 expressing cells. Methods.: Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalating study of BMS-936559including HIV-1-infected adults ≥18 to ≤70 years on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ counts ≥350 cells/μL and detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA by single copy assay. Data on single infusions of BMS-936559 (0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430844/effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-depressive-symptoms-on-all-cause-mortality-among-hiv-infected-women
#11
Jonathan V Todd, Stephen R Cole, Brian W Pence, Catherine R Lesko, Peter Bacchetti, Mardge H Cohen, Daniel J Feaster, Stephen Gange, Michael E Griswold, Wendy Mack, Anna Rubtsova, Cuiwei Wang, Jeremy Weedon, Kathryn Anastos, Adaora A Adimora
Depression affects up to 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We estimated joint effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and depressive symptoms on time to death using a joint marginal structural model and data from a cohort of HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (conducted in the United States) from 1998-2011. Among 848 women contributing 6,721 years of follow-up, 194 participants died during follow-up, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.9 per 100 women-years...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#12
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428210/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-study-of-the-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-impact-on-neurometabolic-parameters-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#13
J Boban, D Kozic, V Turkulov, D Lendak, M Bjelan, M Semnic, S Brkic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy-na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427967/mechanisms-underlying-hiv-associated-non-infectious-lung-disease
#14
REVIEW
Rachel M Presti, Sonia C Flores, Brent E Palmer, Jeffrey J Atkinson, Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Andrew P Fontenot, Jesse Roman, John F McDyer, Homer L Twigg
Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of cART. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggest that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage which predisposes PLWH to these conditions...
April 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#15
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427339/cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-chinese-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#16
Fuping Guo, Evelyn Hsieh, Wei Lv, Yang Han, Jing Xie, Yanling Li, Xiaojing Song, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, however little is known about the burden of CVD among this population in Asia. We sought to quantify prevalence of CVD risk factors, 10-year CVD risk, and patterns of CVD risk factor treatment in a group of individuals with HIV in China. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed baseline data from treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults enrolled in two multicenter clinical trials in China...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426825/levels-of-hiv-1-persistence-on-antiretroviral-therapy-are-not-associated-with-markers-of-inflammation-or-activation
#17
Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Joshua C Cyktor, Bernard J Macatangay, Charles R Rinaldo, Sharon A Riddler, Evelyn Hogg, Catherine Godfrey, Ann C Collier, Joseph J Eron, John W Mellors
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces levels of HIV-1 and immune activation but both can persist despite clinically effective ART. The relationships among pre-ART and on-ART levels of HIV-1 and activation are incompletely understood, in part because prior studies have been small or cross-sectional. To address these limitations, we evaluated measures of HIV-1 persistence, inflammation, T cell activation and T cell cycling in a longitudinal cohort of 101 participants who initiated ART and had well-documented sustained suppression of plasma viremia for a median of 7 years...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426819/virological-success-after-12-and-24-months-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-comparing-results-of-trials-cohorts-and-cross-sectional-studies-using-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Fabien Taieb, Yoann Madec, Amandine Cournil, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: UNAIDS recently defined the 90-90-90 target as a way to end the HIV epidemic. However, the proportion of virological success following antiretroviral therapy (ART) may not be as high as the anticipated 90%, and may in fact be highly heterogeneous. We aimed to describe the proportion of virological success in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify factors associated with the proportion of virological success. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the proportion of patients in sub-Saharan Africa who demonstrate virological success at 12 and 24 months since ART initiation, as well as at 6 and 36 months, where possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-a-general-population-cohort-in-zimbabwe
#19
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426533/hiv-dna-content-in-different-cd4-t-cell-subsets-correlates-with-cd4-cd8-ratio-or-length-of-efficient-treatment
#20
Lara Gibellini, Simone Pecorini, Sara de Biasi, Elena Bianchini, Margherita Digaetano, Marcello Pinti, Gianluca Carnevale, Vanni Borghi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Milena Nasi
OBJECTIVES: HIV establishes a latent infection at different degrees within naïve (TN) or central (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cell. Studying patients in whom HIV production was suppressed by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), our main aim was to find which factors are related or can influence intracellular viral reservoir in different CD4+ T cell subsets. METHODS: We enrolled 32 HIV+ patients successfully treated for > 2 years, with a CD4+ T cell count > 500 cells/μL and plasma viremia undetectable from at least one year...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
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