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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538919/expert-communities-and-interest-formation-in-the-brazilian-aids-program
#1
Regina Ferro do Lago, Nilson do Rosário Costa
This paper examines the role of the Technical Advisory Committee for antiretroviral therapy of the Brazilian AIDS program in mediating the decision-making process of including new antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the Unified Health System services by the end of the 2000s. We conducted documental analysis and interviews with key informants from the governmental sphere and professionals. The work features the Technical Advisory Committee as an "expert community", defined as a network of individuals with expertise and competence in a particular sphere and whose knowledge is relevant in critical public policy decision areas...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538874/clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-staging-and-outcomes-of-individuals-with-aids-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-at-an-university-hospital
#2
Catarina Tenório de Lima, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Heberton Medeiros de Teixeira, Josemir Belo Dos Santos, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be the most common human immunodeficiency virus - associated neoplasm with considerable morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, initial staging, and outcomes of aids patients with Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital of Recife, Pernambuco. Methods: This is a descriptive study with analytic character, retrospective, of a case series between 2004 and 2014...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#3
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538284/the-advance-study-a-groundbreaking-trial-to-evaluate-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#4
Willem D F Venter, Polly Clayden, Celicia Serenata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current WHO-recommended first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries has been very successful in saving millions of lives but still has toxicity concerns and a low barrier to resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Two candidate antiretrovirals may substantially transform first-line therapy in low-income and middle-income countries, yielding a safer, more robust and cheaper regimen. Tenofovir alafenamide carries toxicity and cost benefits over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537936/zidovudine-use-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-malformations-meta-analysis-and-bayesian-incorporation-of-medicaid-data
#5
Kathryn Rough, Jenny W Sun, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
OBJECTIVE: There is inconsistent evidence that zidovudine use during pregnancy increases overall, cardiac, and male genital malformations. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of zidovudine use and malformations and, using Bayesian methods, combined it with data from a cohort study of mother-infant pairs in the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX). METHODS: Using MAX data (2000-2010), we identified pregnant women with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535397/quality-of-life-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-who-present-poor-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-salvador-brazil
#6
Mónica Narváez Betancur, Liliane Lins, Irismar Reis de Oliveira, Carlos Brites
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy...
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#7
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535179/reduced-frequency-of-cells-latently-infected-with-replication-competent-hiv-1-in-virally-suppressed-individuals-living-in-rakai-uganda
#8
Jessica L Prodger, Jun Lai, Steven J Reynolds, Jeanne C Keruly, Richard D Moore, Jingo Kasule, Taddeo Kityamuweesi, Paul Buule, David Serwadda, Martha Nason, Adam A Capoferri, Stephen F Porcella, Robert F Siliciano, Andrew D Redd, Janet D Siliciano, Thomas C Quinn
Background: HIV-1 persists in latently infected resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4), posing a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Previous studies have quantified this pool of latently infected cells in Americans; however, no study has quantified this reservoir in sub-Saharan Africans, who make up the largest population of HIV-1-infected individuals globally. Methods: Peripheral blood was collected from 70 virally suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals from Rakai District, Uganda, who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) during chronic infection...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534891/treatment-as-prevention-should-hepatitis-c-learn-the-lessons-from-hiv
#9
Jose Vicente Fernandez-Montero, Esther J Aspinall, James E Burns
Long-term experience in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals has shown indirect benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, particularly in preventing HIV transmission. With the advent of direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis C, the strategy of treatment-as-prevention has become feasible. However, economic, clinical, ethical, and public health issues arise from the concept of using therapeutic interventions only as prevention strategies.
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534887/when-is-early-antiretroviral-therapy-early-enough-for-hiv-remission
#10
Eva Poveda, Manuelo Cresp
Several strategies to reduce and control the HIV reservoir are being evaluating to achieve the great challenge of HIV remission or functional cure. Some of these are based on immune and gene therapy, or in the use of agents with latency reversing properties. Moreover, acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation is another key issue of current research. It has been demonstrated that ART initiation during acute HIV infection minimizes the establishment of the latent HIV reservoir...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534886/a-new-hiv-paradigm-dual-antiretroviral-regimens-as-maintenance-therapy
#11
Vicente Soriano, José M Peña
Since the advent of triple combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996, the prognosis of HIV-infected persons has improved drastically. The clinical benefits of HAART derive from producing sustained viral load suppression and CD4 gains. The major drawbacks of the first HAART regimens were common adverse events and high pill burden, which resulted in difficult drug adherence and led to frequent discontinuations and selection of drug resistance.
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534319/case-report-human-papilloma-virus-type-120-related-papillomatosis-mimicking-laryngeal-carcinoma
#12
Valeria Belvisi, Salvatore Martellucci, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Cosmo Del Borgo, Stanislao Martellucci, Andrea Baiocchini, Anna Maria Manicone, Oreste Bagni, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Andrea Gallo
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. METHODS: A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534034/clinical-and-mucosal-immune-correlates-of-hiv-1-semen-levels-in-antiretroviral-naive-men
#13
Brendan J W Osborne, Angie K Marsh, Sanja Huibner, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Cindy Liu, Tania Contente, Nico J D Nagelkerke, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Lance Price, Kelly S MacDonald, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: This study was done to characterize parameters associated with semen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load (VL) variability in HIV-infected, therapy-naive men. METHODS: Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 30 HIV-infected, therapy-naive men who have sex with men, and 13 participants were observed longitudinally for up to 1 year. Human immunodeficiency virus RNA, bacterial load by 16S RNA, herpesvirus (Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) shedding, and semen cytokines/chemokines were quantified, and semen T-cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534032/cooking-fuel-and-respiratory-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#14
Crystal M North, Linda Valeri, Peter W Hunt, A Rain Mocello, Jeffrey N Martin, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load...
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533305/changes-in-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-with-immediate-versus-deferred-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-hiv-positive-participants-in-the-start-strategic-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-trial
#15
Jason V Baker, Shweta Sharma, Amit C Achhra, Jose Ignacio Bernardino, Johannes R Bogner, Daniel Duprez, Sean Emery, Brian Gazzard, Jonathan Gordin, Greg Grandits, Andrew N Phillips, Siegfried Schwarze, Elsayed Z Soliman, Stephen A Spector, Giuseppe Tambussi, Jens Lundgren
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection and certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, mediated, in part, through traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied cardiovascular disease risk factor changes in the START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial, a randomized study of immediate versus deferred ART initiation among HIV-positive persons with CD4(+) cell counts >500 cells/mm(3)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532715/caretakers-barriers-to-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-study
#16
C T Tran, T H Pham, K T Tran, T K C Nguyen, M Larsson
BACKGROUND: Poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence leads to drug resistance and treatment failures. The options for second and third line ART regimens, particularly for pediatric patients, are very limited in low and middle-income countries. HIV-infected children are mostly passive drug-takers, thus caretakers play a very important role in assuring ART adherence. Pediatric ART adherence is still a challenging problem in Vietnam since non-adherence is the major risk factor for treatment failure...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532596/costs-and-cost-efficacy-analysis-of-the-2017-gesida-spanish-national-aids-plan-recommended-guidelines-for-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-adults
#17
Antonio Rivero, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Antonio Javier Blasco, José Ramón Arribas, Víctor Asensi, Manuel Crespo, Pere Domingo, José Antonio Iribarren, Pablo Lázaro, José López-Aldeguer, Fernando Lozano, Esteban Martínez, Santiago Moreno, Rosario Palacios, Juan Antonio Pineda, Federico Pulido, Rafael Rubio, Jesús Santos, Javier de la Torre, Montserrat Tuset, Josep M Gatell
INTRODUCTION: GESIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan panel of experts have recommended preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis...
May 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532195/vertical-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-babies-born-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-southern-brazil
#18
Manoela Muller Barbieri, Renate von Linsingen, Renato Luiz Sbalqueiro, Edson Gomes Tristão
PURPOSE: Programs for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are essentially focused on prevention actions that occur during prenatal care. This study aimed to evaluate the mother-to-child vertical transmission (MCVT) rate, and identify its possible causes, in a sample of pregnant women with HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective and descriptive study. The sample was composed of HIV-positive pregnant women who delivered a live infant in the maternity ward at the hospital of the Federal University of Parana in Brazil, between January 2007 and December 2012...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532134/assessing-the-efficacy-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv-patients-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-iran-a-cohort-study
#19
Mehrnaz Rasooli-Nejad, Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Ladan Abbasian, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Banafsheh Moradmand Badie, Afsaneh Pargar, Gholamreza Esmaeeli Djavid
There are limited documents about HIV patients switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of second-line ART for HIV patients following first-line ART failure. This was a cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ART treatment failure switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and March 2014, who followed for at least 12 months after switching. Fifty of studied patients (85%) were treated with regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and nine of them (15%) treated with other regimes...
April 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531643/lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-containing-vitamins-and-minerals-attenuate-renal-electrolyte-loss-in-hiv-aids-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-zambia
#20
D Munkombwe, T L Muungo, C Michelo, P Kelly, S Chirwa, S Filteau
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advanced HIV infection combined with undernutrition and antiretroviral therapy (ART) places HIV/AIDS patients at high risk of electrolyte abnormalities and increased morbidity and mortality. Here, in a sub-study of a large published randomized trial, we evaluated if nutritional supplements will help curtail renal electrolyte loss in HIV/AIDS patients starting ART. METHODS: 130 malnourished HIV-positive patients referred for ART received lipid-based nutrient supplements alone (LNS, n = 63) or together with vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM, n = 67)...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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