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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107484/resveratrol-co-treatment-attenuates-the-effects-of-hiv-protease-inhibitors-on-rat-body-weight-and-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-respiration
#1
Burger Symington, Rudo F Mapanga, Gavin R Norton, M Faadiel Essop
Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107222/romidepsin-induced-hiv-1-viremia-during-effective-art-contains-identical-viral-sequences-with-few-deleterious-mutations
#3
Anni Winckelmann, Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Timothy E Schlub, Wei Shao, Thomas A Rasmussen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sarah Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the origin of the HIV-1 viremia induced by the latency-reversing agent romidepsin. DESIGN: Six individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received romidepsin administered intravenously once weekly for three consecutive weeks. CD4+ T-cells were obtained at baseline, following the second and third romidepsin infusion, and 10 weeks after the final romidepsin treatment. METHODS: Single-genome sequencing of the env region was used to genetically characterize the virus from proviral DNA, the transcribed cell-associated RNA and the plasma RNA pool...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107221/cash-vs-food-assistance-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-tanzania-a-randomized-trial
#4
Sandra I McCoy, Prosper F Njau, Carolyn Fahey, Ntuli Kapologwe, Suneetha Kadiyala, Nicholas P Jewell, William H Dow, Nancy S Padian
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of short-term cash and food assistance to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in care among people living with HIV in Tanzania. METHODS: At three clinics, 805 participants were randomized to three groups in a 3 : 3 : 1 ratio, stratified by site : nutrition assessment and counseling (NAC) and cash transfers (∼$11/month, n = 347), NAC and food baskets (n = 345), and NAC-only (comparison group, n = 113, clinicaltrials...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#5
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105557/the-anticancer-drug-sunitinib-promotes-autophagyand-protects-from-neurotoxicity-in-an-hiv-1-tat-model-of-neurodegeneration
#6
Jerel A Fields, Jeff Metcalf, Cassia Overk, Anthony Adame, Brian Spencer, Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Jazmin Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Johnny J He, Eliezer Masliah
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapies to control systemic HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) has not decreased among aging patients with HIV. Autophagy pathway alterations, triggered by HIV-1 proteins including gp120, Tat, and Nef, might contribute to the neurodegenerative process in aging patients with HAND. Although no treatments are currently available to manage HAND, we have previously shown that sunitinib, an anticancer drug that blocks receptor tyrosine-kinase and cyclin kinase pathways, might be of interest...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#7
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104604/hiv-infection-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-mice
#8
Patrick Geraghty, Eran Hadas, Boe-Hyun Kim, Abdoulaye J Dabo, David J Volsky, Robert Foronjy
Cigarette smoke usage is prevalent in HIV+ patients and, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), these individuals develop an accelerated form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies investigating the mechanisms of COPD development in HIV have been limited by the lack of suitable mouse models. Here we describe a model of HIV induced COPD in wild type mice using EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV capable of establishing chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. A/J mice were infected with EcoHIV and subjected to whole body cigarette smoke exposure...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104138/a2-to-b-blood-type-incompatible-deceased-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-a-recipient-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#9
R C Forbes, A DeMers, B P Concepcion, D R Moore, H M Schaefer, D Shaffer
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of the Kidney Allocation System in the United States in December 2014, transplant centers can list eligible B blood type recipients for A2 organ offers. There have been no prior reports of ABO incompatible A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) recipients to guide clinicians on enrolling or performing A2 to B transplantations in HIV+ candidates. We are the first to report a case of A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in an HIV+ recipient with good intermediate-term results...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103895/feasibility-of-antiretroviral-treatment-monitoring-in-the-era-of-decentralized-hiv-care-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Minh D Pham, Lorena Romero, Bruce Parnell, David A Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of HIV patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to ensure patient benefits and the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of ART programs. Prompted by WHO recommendations for expansion and decentralization of HIV treatment and care in low and middle income countries, we conducted a systematic review to assess the feasibility of treatment monitoring in these settings. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was developed using a combination of MeSH and free text terms relevant to HIV treatment and care, health service delivery, health service accessibility, decentralization and other relevant terms...
January 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102939/what-is-the-relationship-between-increased-access-to-haart-relationship-status-and-fertility-decisions-amongst-hiv-positive-women-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Abigail Burgess, Edward Purssell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between fertility decisions, to have already had a child or to desire to have one in the future, and the prognostic factors of; access to antiretrovirals, the time since these became widely available (year of the study) and relationship status. BACKGROUND: There have been significant advances in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with the advent of antiretroviral therapy which has been used to successfully reduce the rate of mother to child transmission; leading researchers to hypothesise that HIV positive women may desire to have children more so now than in the past...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programs
#12
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programs. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other studies and program characteristics, and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programs...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101954/task-sharing-with-nurses-to-enhance-access-to-hiv-treatment-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#13
Margaret L McNairy, Jules B Bashi, Hannah Chung, Louise Wemin, Marie-Nicole Akpro Lorng, Hermann Brou, Cyprien Nioble, A Lokossué, Kouame Abo, Delphine Achi, Kiyali Ouattara, Daniel Sess, Pongathie Adama Sanogo, Alexandre Ekra, Virginie Ettiegne-Traore, Conombo J Diabate, Elaine J Abrams, Wafaa M El-Sadr
OBJECTIVE: We report the first national program in Côte d'Ivoire to evaluate the feasibility of nurse-led HIV care as a model of task-sharing with nurses to increase coverage and decentralization of HIV services. METHODS: Twenty-six public HIV facilities implemented either a nurse-with-onsite-physician or a nurse-with-visiting-physician model of HIV task-sharing. Routinely collected patient data were reviewed to analyze patient characteristics of those enrolling in care and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
January 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100241/personalized-life-expectancy-and-treatment-benefit-index-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Yanni Xiao, Xiaodan Sun, Sanyi Tang, Yicang Zhou, Zhihang Peng, Jianhong Wu, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) within host includes typical stages and the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is shown to be effective in slowing down this progression. There are great challenges in describing the entire HIV disease progression and evaluating comprehensive effects of ART on life expectancy for HIV infected individuals on ART. METHODS: We develop a novel summative treatment benefit index (TBI), based on an HIV viral dynamics model and linking the infection and viral production rates to the Weibull function...
January 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100136/barriers-to-access-and-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-hanoi-vietnam-from-hiv-testing-to-treatment
#16
Hao T M Bui, Giang M Le, Anh Q Mai, Iryna Zablotska-Manos, Lisa Maher
Little is known about the experiences of Vietnamese men who have sex with men in accessing HIV testing and treatment. We aimed to explore barriers to access and uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Hanoi. During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with 35 participants recruited using snowball sampling based on previous research and social networks. Key individual impediments to ART uptake included inadequate preparation for a positive diagnosis and the dual stigmatisation of homosexuality and HIV and its consequences, leading to fear of disclosure of HIV status...
January 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100068/prevalence-patterns-and-correlates-of-hiv-disclosure-among-tb-hiv-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-lesotho
#17
Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Suzue Saito, Koen Frederix, Blanche Pitt, Bridget Llang Maama, Andrea A Howard
Disclosure of HIV-positive status has important implications for patient outcomes and preventing HIV transmission, but has been understudied in TB-HIV patients. We assessed disclosure patterns and correlates of non-disclosure among adult TB-HIV patients initiating ART enrolled in the START Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial conducted in Lesotho, which evaluated a combination intervention package (CIP) versus standard of care. Interviewer-administered questionnaire data were analyzed to describe patterns of disclosure...
January 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099515/polymorphisms-and-mutational-covariation-associated-with-death-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-aids-patients-receiving-long-term-art-in-china
#18
Pengtao Liu, Yi Feng, Jianjun Wu, Suian Tian, Bin Su, Zhe Wang, Lingjie Liao, Hui Xing, Yinghui You, Yiming Shao, Yuhua Ruan
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance is associated with faster clinical progression of AIDS. However, the effect of significant polymorphisms and mutational covariation on mortality among HIV/AIDS patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), have rarely been studied. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study from December 2003 to December 2014, we present a new computational modelling approach based on bioinformatics-based models and several statistical methods to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of polymorphisms and mutations on death in HIV/AIDS patients receiving long-term ART in China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099434/mlst-based-population-genetic-analysis-in-a-global-context-reveals-clonality-amongst-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-vni-isolates-from-hiv-patients-in-southeastern-brazil
#19
Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Andrade-Silva, Fernanda M Fonseca, Thatiana B Ferreira, Delio J Mora, Juliana Andrade-Silva, Aziza Khan, Aiken Dao, Eduardo C Reis, Margarete T G Almeida, Andre Maltos, Virmondes R Junior, Luciana Trilles, Volker Rickerts, Ariya Chindamporn, Jane E Sykes, Massimo Cogliati, Kirsten Nielsen, Teun Boekhout, Matthew Fisher, June Kwon-Chung, David M Engelthaler, Marcia Lazéra, Wieland Meyer, Mario L Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with HIV. In Brazil, despite the free availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the public health system, the mortality rate due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is still high. To obtain a more detailed picture of the population genetic structure of this species in southeast Brazil, we studied 108 clinical isolates from 101 patients and 35 environmental isolates. Among the patients, 59% had a fatal outcome mainly in HIV-positive male patients...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099432/an-analysis-of-the-last-clinical-encounter-before-outpatient-mortality-among-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure-in-lilongwe-malawi
#20
Chris A Rees, Robert J Flick, David Sullivan, Menard Bvumbwe, Joseph Mhango, Mina C Hosseinipour, Peter N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
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