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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050425/sodium-butyrate-improved-performance-while-modulating-the-cecal-microbiota-and-regulating-the-expression-of-intestinal-immune-related-genes-of-broiler-chickens
#1
C Bortoluzzi, A A Pedroso, J J Mallo, M Puyalto, W K Kim, T J Applegate
This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050381/space-based-bias-of-covert-visual-attention-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#2
Janet H Bultitude, Ian Walker, Charles Spence
See Legrain (doi:10.1093/awx188) for a scientific commentary on this article. Some patients with complex regional pain syndrome report that movements of the affected limb are slow, more effortful, and lack automaticity. These symptoms have been likened to the syndrome that sometimes follows brain injury called hemispatial neglect, in which patients exhibit attentional impairments and problems with movements affecting the contralesional side of the body and space. Psychophysical testing of patients with complex regional pain syndrome has found evidence for spatial biases when judging visual targets distanced at 2 m, but not in directions that indicate reduced attention to the affected side...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050316/pharmacokinetics-and-drug-drug-interaction-between-enalapril-enalaprilat-and-felodipine-extended-release-er-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Dai Li, Sumei Xu, Yulu Wang, Dan Li, Xiaomin Li, Jing Pan, Pingsheng Xu
Since angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium antagonists have complimentary mechanisms of action, enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, is used in combination with felodipine, a vascular selective dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate the possible drug-drug interaction between these two agents in Chinese healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 3-period, 6-sequence cross-over study enrolling 12 healthy subjects (six male and six female subjects) was performed...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050302/2l-pca-a-two-level-principal-component-analyzer-for-quantitative-drug-design-and-its-applications
#4
Qi-Shi Du, Shu-Qing Wang, Neng-Zhong Xie, Qing-Yan Wang, Ri-Bo Huang, Kuo-Chen Chou
A two-level principal component predictor (2L-PCA) was proposed based on the principal component analysis (PCA) approach. It can be used to quantitatively analyze various compounds and peptides about their functions or potentials to become useful drugs. One level is for dealing with the physicochemical properties of drug molecules, while the other level is for dealing with their structural fragments. The predictor has the self-learning and feedback features to automatically improve its accuracy. It is anticipated that 2L-PCA will become a very useful tool for timely providing various useful clues during the process of drug development...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050249/profiling-cancer-associated-genetic-alterations-and-molecular-classification-of-cancer-in-korean-gastric-cancer-patients
#5
Yoonjung Kim, Mee-Yon Cho, Juwon Kim, Sung Nam Kim, Seoung Chul Oh, Kyung-A Lee
Recently, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network and Asian Cancer Research Group provided a new classification of gastric cancer (GC) to aid the development of biomarkers for targeted therapy and predict prognosis. We studied associations between genetically aberrant profiles of cancer-related genes, environmental factors, and histopathological features in 107 paired gastric tumor-non-tumor tissue GC samples. 6.5% of our GC cases were classified as the EBV subtype, 17.8% as the MSI subtype, 43.0% as the CIN subtype, and 32...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049985/insight-into-the-structure-function-relationships-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-during-rice-straw-pretreatment
#6
Xue-Dan Hou, Ao-Lin Li, Kai-Peng Lin, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Zhi-Yin Kuang, Shi-Lin Cao
Rice straw pretreatment mediated by choline chloride (ChCl) or lactic acid (Lac) sequences deep eutectic solvents (DESs) was investigated in this work. Hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) and hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) proved to be both important for DESs pretreatment efficiency. DESs containing lots of hydroxyl or amino groups with a high intermolecular hydrogen-bond (H-bond) strength exhibited weak biomass deconstruction abilities. The presence of strong electron-withdrawing groups in DESs was benefit for xylan removal, thus furnishing higher cellulose digestibility...
October 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049896/fabrication-and-photoelectric-properties-of-bio-inspired-honeycomb-film-based-on-semiconducting-polymer
#7
Xiaofeng Fang, Xiaoju Men, Haobin Chen, Yu-Mo Zhang, Hang Sun, Shengyan Yin, Weiping Qin
Organic semiconducting materials have attracted significant attention for use in optoelectronic devices, as they can significantly improve device performance. Herein, a donor-acceptor conjugated polymer (poly(isoindigo-thiopheneylbenzothiadiazole, PID-TBT) was synthesized, which has strong and broad absorption in the visible region (400-800nm). The band gap of PID-TBT is 1.65eV. The PID-TBT honeycomb film with a porous structure was easily fabricated by the breath figure method. Compared with the smooth PID-TBT film, the honeycomb film shows significant enhancement in light capture capability and the efficiency of photoelectric conversion...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049889/early-metabolic-response-after-resistance-exercise-with-blood-flow-restriction-in-well-trained-men-a-metabolomics-approach
#8
Denis F Valério, Ricardo Berton, Miguel S Conceição, Rafael R Canevarolo, Mara Patrícia T Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Gabriela V Meirelles, Ana C Zeri, Cleiton A Libardi
The present study aimed to compare the early metabolic response between high-load resistance exercise (HL-RE) and low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LL-BFR). Nine young well-trained men participated in a randomized crossover design in which each subject completed LL-BFR, HL-RE or condition control (no exercise) with a one-week interval between them. Blood samples were taken immediately before and five minutes after the exercise sessions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy identified and quantified 48 metabolites, six of which presented significant changes among the exercise protocols...
October 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049872/optimal-dosing-and-delivery-of-pth-and-its-analogues-for-osteoporosis-and-hypoparathyroidism-translating-the-pharmacology
#9
REVIEW
D Tay, S Cremers, J P Bilezikian
In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), bone loss results from the resorptive effects of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH). Under physiological conditions, PTH has actions that are more targeted to homeostasis and to bone accrual. The predominant action of PTH, either catabolic, anabolic, or homeostatic, can be understood in molecular and pharmacokinetic terms. When administered intermittently, PTH increases bone mass, but when present continuously and in excess (e.g., PHPT), bone loss ensues. This dual effect of PTH depends not only on the dosing regimen, continuous or intermittent, but also on how the PTH molecule interacts with various states of its receptor (PTH/PTHrP receptor) influencing downstream signaling pathways differentially...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049756/interventions-to-improve-follow-up-of-positive-results-on-fecal-blood-tests-a-systematic-review
#10
Kevin Selby, Christine Baumgartner, Theodore R Levin, Chyke A Doubeni, Ann G Zauber, Joanne Schottinger, Christopher D Jensen, Jeffrey K Lee, Douglas A Corley
Background: Fecal immunochemical testing is the most commonly used method for colorectal cancer screening worldwide. However, its effectiveness is frequently undermined by failure to obtain follow-up colonoscopy after positive test results. Purpose: To evaluate interventions to improve rates of follow-up colonoscopy for adults after a positive result on a fecal test (guaiac or immunochemical). Data Sources: English-language studies from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Embase from database inception through June 2017...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049625/a-goldilocks-approach-to-hearing-aid-self-fitting-user-interactions
#11
Arthur Boothroyd, Carol Mackersie
Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate user reactions to custom software designed for self-adjustment of amplification. Method: "Goldilocks" software was developed to allow user exploration and selection of preferred levels of overall output, low-frequency cut, and high-frequency boost while listening to preprocessed speech. Thirteen hearing-aid users and 13 nonusers self-adjusted before and after taking a speech perception test incorporated into the software...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049621/autonomic-nervous-system-responses-to-hearing-related-demand-and-evaluative-threat
#12
Carol L Mackersie, Lucia Kearney
Purpose: This paper consists of 2 parts. The purpose of Part 1 was to review the potential influence of internal (person-related) factors on listening effort. The purpose of Part 2 was to present, in support of Part 1, preliminary data illustrating the interactive effects of an external factor (task demand) and an internal factor (evaluative threat) on autonomic nervous system measures. Method: For Part 1, we provided a brief narrative review of motivation and stress as modulators of listening effort...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049565/a-low-cost-bioprosthetic-semilunar-valve-for-research-disease-modelling-and-surgical-training-applications
#13
Benoit Rosa, Zurab Machaidze, Borami Shin, Sunil Manjila, David W Brown, Christopher W Baird, John E Mayer, Pierre E Dupont
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides detailed instructions for constructing low-cost bioprosthetic semilunar valves for animal research and clinical training. This work fills an important gap between existing simulator training valves and clinical valves by providing fully functioning designs that can be employed in ex vivo and in vivo experiments and can also be modified to model valvular disease. METHODS: Valves are constructed in 4 steps consisting of creating a metal frame, covering it with fabric and attaching a suture ring and leaflets...
August 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049539/mid-and-long-term-outcome-comparisons-of-everolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-scaffolds-versus-everolimus-eluting-metallic-stents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Xin-Lin Zhang, Qing-Qing Zhu, Li-Na Kang, Xue-Ling Li, Biao Xu
Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions to implant bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) were designed to reduce the late thrombotic events that occur with metallic stents. Purpose: To estimate the incidence of scaffold thrombosis after BVS implantation and compare everolimus-eluting BVSs with everolimus-eluting metallic stents (EESs) in terms of safety and efficacy at mid- and long-term follow-up in adults who had a percutaneous coronary intervention...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049391/modelling-individual-tree-height-to-crown-base-of-norway-spruce-picea-abies-l-karst-and-european-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l
#15
Ram P Sharma, Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Vilém Podrázský, Václav Jansa
Height to crown base (HCB) of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM), basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure) or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure), and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049381/a-structural-equation-model-of-the-relationship-between-insomnia-negative-affect-and-paranoid-thinking
#16
Alexander J Scott, Georgina Rowse, Thomas L Webb
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i) whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii) whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii) to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties. METHOD: Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049310/molecular-epidemiology-of-influenza-b-virus-among-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-in-northern-italy-during-the-2015-16-season
#17
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Luca Ruggiero, Alessia Girello, Sonia Bianchini, Francesca Rovida, Silvia Caimmi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Nicola Principi, Fausto Baldanti, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The influenza B viruses belong to two lineages distinguished by their genetic and antigenic characteristics, which are referred to as the Yamagata and Victoria lineages, designated after their original isolates, B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in a region of Northern Italy, Lombardia, during the influenza season of 2015-2016. METHODS: Influenza B virus was detected using a respiratory virus panel of assays and an influenza B-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049305/pig-movements-in-france-designing-network-models-fitting-the-transmission-route-of-pathogens
#18
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Nicolas Rose
Pathogen spread between farms results from interaction between the epidemiological characteristics of infectious agents, such as transmission route, and the contact structure between holdings. The objective of our study was to design network models of pig movements matching with epidemiological features of pathogens. Our first model represents the transmission of infectious diseases between farms only through the introduction of animals to holdings (Animal Introduction Model AIM), whereas the second one also accounts for pathogen spread through intermediate transit of trucks through farms even without any animal unloading (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049295/inferring-gene-and-protein-interactions-using-pubmed-citations-and-consensus-bayesian-networks
#19
Anthony Deeter, Mark Dalman, Joseph Haddad, Zhong-Hui Duan
The PubMed database offers an extensive set of publication data that can be useful, yet inherently complex to use without automated computational techniques. Data repositories such as the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) offer experimental data storage and retrieval as well as curated gene expression profiles. Genetic interaction databases, including Reactome and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, offer pathway and experiment data analysis using data curated from these publications and data repositories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049231/dose-duration-and-strain-of-bacillus-calmette-guerin-in-the-treatment-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#20
Yongjun Quan, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Hyung Suk Kim, Ja Hyeon Ku
BACKGROUND: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is widely used as an adjuvant therapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in patients with intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, the effective dose, duration, and strain of BCG have not yet been clearly determined. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between dose, duration, and strain of BCG and clinical outcomes in NMIBC patients treated with TURBT. METHODS: We conducted a literature search in Embase, Scopus, and PubMed databases for all relevant articles published up to October 2016 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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