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Lynn T Kozlowski
BACKGROUND: Before the 1980s in the USA, smokeless tobacco carried no health warnings, was not judged to cause disease, and was a declining practice. In 1986, the federal government passed legislation requiring rotating warnings on "mouth cancer," "gum disease and tooth loss," and "This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes." This paper explores the history of the establishment of these warnings with emphasis on the 'not a safe alternative' warning and the bases for claiming that smokeless was 'not safe' (absolute harm) versus 'not safer than cigarettes' (relative harm)...
April 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Benjamin T Kopp, Alice Hinton, Rong Lu, Sarah Cooper, Haikady Nagaraja, Mary Ellen Wewers
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in children is changing due to new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and non-combustible product use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users...
April 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Nathan J Doogan, Sarah Cooper, Amanda J Quisenberry, Theodore M Brasky, Christopher R Browning, Elizabeth G Klein, Alice Hinton, Haikady N Nagaraja, Wenna Xi, Mary Ellen Wewers
INTRODUCTION: Rural Americans are particularly vulnerable to tobacco price reducing promotions are known to be directed to and used by vulnerable populations. Tobacco purchasing decisions, such as unit quantity purchased, may vary by rurality, by price promotion use, and possibly by the interaction between the two. Purchase decisions are likely to affect tobacco use behavior. Therefore, explanation of variation in tobacco purchase quantity by factors associated with rural vulnerability and factors that fall under the regulatory scope of the Tobacco Control Act (TCA) of 2009 could be of value to regulatory proposals intended to equitably benefit public health...
April 3, 2018: Health & Place
Robert K Jackler, Vanessa Y Li, Ryan A L Cardiff, Divya Ramamurthi
BACKGROUND: Facebook has a comprehensive set of policies intended to inhibit promotion and sales of tobacco products. Their effectiveness has yet to be studied. METHODS: Leading tobacco brands (388) were identified via Nielsen and Ranker databases and 108 were found to maintain brand-sponsored Facebook pages. Key indicators of alignment with Facebook policy were evaluated. RESULTS: Purchase links (eg, 'shop now' button) on brand-sponsored pages were found for hookah tobaccos (41%), e-cigarettes (74%), smokeless (50%) and cigars (31%)...
April 5, 2018: Tobacco Control
Thomas Zandonai, Cristiano Chiamulera, Alberto Mancabelli, Danilo Falconieri, Marco Diana
Introduction: Among athletes, an increasing use of nicotine via smokeless tobacco has been reported. However, there are currently unanswered questions about whether the use by athletes is due to nicotine's addictive properties and/or to benefits in physical and cognitive performance (e.g., decision-making). In this original article we reported about, (i) snus-induced reinforcing effects among snus-user athletes (Survey) and (ii) the effects of snus on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in snus-user skiers (Experimental study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
John P Pierce, James D Sargent, David B Portnoy, Martha White, Madison Noble, Sheila Kealey, Nicolette Borek, Charles Carusi, Kelvin Choi, Victoria R Green, Annette R Kaufman, Eric Leas, M Jane Lewis, Katherine A Margolis, Karen Messer, Yuyan Shi, Marushka L Silveira, Kimberly Snyder, Cassandra A Stanton, Susanne E Tanski, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Dennis Trinidad, Andrew Hyland
Importance: Cigarette marketing contributes to initiation of cigarette smoking among young people, which has led to restrictions on use of cigarette advertising. However, little is known about other tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults. Objective: To investigate whether receptivity to tobacco advertising among youth and young adults is associated with progression (being a susceptible never user or ever user) to use of the product advertised, as well as conventional cigarette smoking...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
David A Siegel, S Jane Henley, Jennifer M Wike, A Blythe Ryerson, Christopher J Johnson, Judy R Rees, Lori A Pollack
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use data are important when the epidemiology and prognosis of tobacco-associated cancers are being defined. Central cancer registries in 10 National Program of Cancer Registries states pilot-tested the collection of standardized tobacco use variables. This study evaluated the capture of tobacco use data and examined smoking prevalence among cancer patients. METHODS: Participating registries collected data about the use of tobacco-cigarettes, other smoked tobacco, and smokeless tobacco-for cases diagnosed during 2011-2013...
March 26, 2018: Cancer
Arnab Mukherjea, Mary V Modayil, Elisa K Tong
BACKGROUND: Asian Indians (AIs) in the United States exhibit disproportionate burdens of oral cancer and cardiovascular disease, which are potentially linked to smokeless tobacco. However, little is known about the use of cultural smokeless tobacco (CST) products in this population. METHODS: California Asian Indian Tobacco Use Survey data from 2004 (n = 1618) were used to investigate CST prevalence among California's AIs. CST products included paan, paan masala, and gutka...
April 1, 2018: Cancer
Samrat Das, Pimily Langthasa, Dharmeswar Barhoi, Puja Upadhaya, Sarbani Giri
BACKGROUND: Recently, high concentrations of arsenic have been documented in ground waters of Southern Assam, India. Indiscriminate smokeless tobacco consumption is a common practice in this region. Correlation between nutritional status and arsenic and smokeless tobacco-induced health effects has not been taken up in humans or other test systems. METHODS: Mice were divided into groups based on protein (casein) content in the diet: High protein (40%), optimum protein (20%), and low protein (5%)...
March 22, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Nousheen Iqbal, Zain A Khan, Syed Muhammad Hamza Anwar, Omar Irfan, Babar Irfan, Ammar Mushtaq, Maria Bibi, Faraz Siddiqui, Javaid A Khan
OBJECTIVE: The manufacturers of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are actively marketing their product through electronic and social media. Undergraduate medical students are expected to have better knowledge and awareness as they directly interact with patients in their training, The purpose of this study is therefore, to determine knowledge, use and perception regarding e-cigarettes among medical students from Sindh, Pakistan. RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1st July and 30th September 2016 at five different medical colleges situated in the second largest province of Sindh, Pakistan...
March 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Daniel S Kreitzberg, Ana Laura Herrera, Alexandra Loukas, Keryn E Pasch
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to tobacco marketing and perceptions of peer tobacco use among college students. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 5,767 undergraduate students from 19 colleges/universities in the State of Texas. METHODS: Students completed an online survey, in the spring of 2016, that assessed past 30 day exposure to e-cigarette, cigar, smokeless tobacco, and traditional cigarette advertising across multiple marketing channels, past 30 day use of each product, and perceived prevalence of peer use...
March 22, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Indranil Saha, Kamirul Islam, Bobby Paul, Tapas Kumar Som
Background: Tobacco kills half of its users, with smoking and smokeless tobacco killing nearly 6 million people worldwide - one death every 6 s in each year. Use of tobacco over time causes a physical and psychological addiction due to the presence of nicotine. To find out the level of nicotine dependence among adult (18 years and above) tobacco users and the factors responsible for it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 128 current tobacco users in an urban slum of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Israel Agaku, Satomi Odani, Constantine Vardavas, Linda Neff
BACKGROUND: We investigated tobacco-related self-identity and risk perceptions among adolescent tobacco users. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 20 675 US sixth- to 12th-graders from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students who reported past-30-day use of a specific tobacco product or ≥2 products but denied having used "any tobacco product" in the past 30 days were classified as not self-identifying as tobacco users. Tobacco product harm perceptions were further assessed across products...
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics
David R Strong, Mark G Myers, Kim Pulvers, Madison Noble, Kristin Brikmanis, Neal Doran
BACKGROUND: With an increase in marijuana use among adults in the United States (US), understanding the potential impact of marijuana use on tobacco use and associated behavioral and health consequences, including respiratory conditions, is necessary. METHOD: Survey responses from Wave 1 of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were used to assess tobacco use and marijuana use among non-current tobacco users (n = 17,952) and current established tobacco-users classified as: cigarette only users (n = 8689), e-cigarette only users (n = 437), cigar only (traditional, cigarillo, or filtered) users (n = 706), hookah only users (n = 461), smokeless tobacco only users (n = 971), cigarette + e-cigarette users (n = 709), and users of multiple tobacco products (n = 2314)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kesheng Wang, Ying Liu, Youssoufou Ouedraogo, Nianyang Wang, Xin Xie, Chun Xu, Xingguang Luo
Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ijeoma U Itanyi, Chika N Onwasigwe, Scott McIntosh, Tamara Bruno, Deborah Ossip, Emmanuel A Nwobi, Chima A Onoka, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use during adolescence is a substantial problem and adolescents are at higher risk of addiction and prolonged use. To reduce the burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, monitoring of adolescent tobacco use is imperative. We aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in urban and rural secondary schools in Enugu State, southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 4332 adolescents in 8th to 10th grades in 25 urban and 24 rural secondary schools in Enugu, Nigeria was done using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Ivan Fagiolino, Maria Assunta Meli
The occurrence and mobility of different elements in oral smokeless tobacco products (STPs) were determined because the effects on human health must take into account their availability. In this research, the elemental analysis of 15 oral STPs of different brands purchased in local specialty stores in Europe, and the determination of % extraction of the different elements into an artificial salivary juice during the sucking or chewing operations were performed. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Deeksha Bhartiya, Amit Kumar, Jasmine Kaur, Suchitra Kumari, Amitesh Kumar Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Harpreet Singh, Ravi Mehrotra
Smokeless tobacco (SLT) products are consumed by millions of people in over 130 countries around the world. Consumption of SLT has been estimated to cause a number of diseases accounting to more than 0.65 million deaths per year. There is sufficient epidemiological evidence on the association of SLT products with nicotine addiction, cancers of oral cavity and digestive systems but there is a lack of understanding of the role of toxic chemicals in these diseases. We provide the first comprehensive in-silico analysis of chemical compounds present in different SLT products used worldwide...
March 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Teresa W Wang, Katrina F Trivers, Kristy L Marynak, Erin Keely O'Brien, Alexander Persoskie, Sherry T Liu, Brian A King
PURPOSE: We aimed to describe U.S. youth harm perceptions of intermittent tobacco use. METHODS: Using data from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey of U.S. students (grades 6-12; N = 20,675), we examined prevalence and correlates of all respondents' perceived harm of using four different tobacco products on "some days but not every day." Associations between current (past 30-day) use and harm perceptions were assessed using multivariable regression...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Astrid Fontaine, Fernanda Artigas
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes are smokeless devices that simulate the act of tobacco smoking by spraying an ?e-liquid? and diffusing an aerosol that is inhaled by the user. Although the initial enthusiasm observed in 2012-2013 has tended to flag, electronic cigarettes are now part of the landscape of smokers seeking an alternative to smoking and abstinence. Smoking cessation professionals need to meet a growing demand from smokers and must adopt a clear position in relation to this device...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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