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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107699/analysis-of-n-nitrosonornicotine-enantiomers-in-human-urine-by-chiral-stationary-phase-liquid-chromatography-nanoelectrospray-ionization-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Jing Yang, Steven G Carmella, Stephen S Hecht
We have developed a chiral stationary phase liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-NSI-HRMS/MS) method to investigate the enantiomeric composition of low parts per trillion amounts of the carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in the urine of cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users. (S)-NNN is the major enantiomer in tobacco and is more carcinogenic than (R)-NNN in rats, but no data are available on the enantiomeric composition of NNN in humans. The method used [(13)C6]NNN as an internal standard and [pyridine-D4]nornicotine to monitor possible artifactual formation of NNN, which was found to be less than 2% of the quantified NNN...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088709/characterization-of-smokeless-powders-using-multiplexed-collision-induced-dissociation-mass-spectrometry-and-chemometric-procedures
#2
Kristen L Reese, A Daniel Jones, Ruth Waddell Smith
This work demonstrates a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach for identification of organic compounds in smokeless powders. Unburned powders were removed from various commercial ammunitions of different brand, primer composition, caliber, and age. The unburned powders and corresponding fired residues were analyzed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-TOFMS). Multiplexed collision-induced dissociation was performed at increasing collision potentials resulting in successive fragmentation that provided structural information for compound identification in a non-targeted manner...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076666/the-global-incidence-of-lip-oral-cavity-and-pharyngeal-cancers-by-subsite-in-2012
#3
Kevin D Shield, Jacques Ferlay, Ahmedin Jemal, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Anil K Chaturvedi, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
By using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer publication Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents and GLOBOCAN, this report provides the first consolidated global estimation of the subsite distribution of new cases of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by country, sex, and age for the year 2012. Major geographically based, sex-based, and age-based variations in the incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite were observed. Lip cancers were highly frequent in Australia (associated with solar radiation) and in central and eastern Europe (associated with tobacco smoking)...
January 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073035/criterion-validity-of-measures-of-perceived-relative-harm-of-e-cigarettes-and-smokeless-tobacco-compared-to-cigarettes
#4
Alexander Persoskie, Anh B Nguyen, Annette R Kaufman, Cindy Tworek
Beliefs about the relative harmfulness of one product compared to another (perceived relative harm) are central to research and regulation concerning tobacco and nicotine-containing products, but techniques for measuring such beliefs vary widely. We compared the validity of direct and indirect measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) compared to cigarettes. On direct measures, participants explicitly compare the harmfulness of each product. On indirect measures, participants rate the harmfulness of each product separately, and ratings are compared...
January 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071639/the-ban-on-smokeless-tobacco-products-is-systematically-violated-in-chennai-india
#5
E Vidhubala, C Pisinger, B Basumallik, D S Prabhakar
BACKGROUND: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP available in Chennai, India. METHODS: In systematically chosen zones and regions of Chennai city, we randomly identified three kinds of kiosks (n = 18) and asked for "gutkha" and "pan masala," one of each product available...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071638/smokeless-tobacco-use-and-perceptions-of-risk-among-students-in-mumbai-municipal-schools
#6
M L Rose, D Chadha, T D Bhutia
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 15% of youth in India use tobacco. However, few studies have explored the use, knowledge, and attitudes of smokeless tobacco use among youth. AIM: To determine the patterns of use as well as knowledge and perceptions of smokeless tobacco among youth in Mumbai attending municipal schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 1053 students in the 8th and 9th grades in 16 municipal schools in Mumbai to determine the knowledge and perceptions about smokeless tobacco products as well as the patterns of use...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070179/prevalence-and-factors-that-influence-smokeless-tobacco-use-among-adults-in-pastoralist-communities-of-borena-zone-ethiopia-mixed-method-study
#7
Edao Sinba Etu, Desta Hiko Gemeda, Mamusha Aman Hussen
BACKGROUND: Deaths due to tobacco consumption are on the rise, from 5.4 million in 2005 to 6.4 million in 2015 and 8.3 million in 2030 of which more than 80% will be in developing countries. Smokeless tobacco use is a significant health risk and cause of disease. Over 300 million people use smokeless tobacco worldwide. More than 250 million adult smokeless tobacco users are in low- and middle-income countries, the total burden of smokeless tobacco use is likely to be substantial. In Ethiopia, nationally representative data on the smokeless tobacco use is not available...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068113/perceptions-of-harm-and-addiction-of-snus-an-exploratory-study
#8
Annette R Kaufman, Emily Grenen, Meredith Grady, Bryan Leyva, Rebecca A Ferrer
Tobacco companies in the United States are prohibited from making reduced harm claims without filing a modified risk tobacco product application with the Food and Drug Administration and obtaining an order to market as such. However, it is possible that product marketing may suggest reduced risk to individuals. This study examines perceptions, in particular those related to harm and addiction, of snus print advertisements using a combination of eye-tracking, survey, and semistructured interviews. Participants were 22 male smokers ages 19-29 (M = 26...
December 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067951/smokeless-tobacco-product-may-increase-mortality-rate-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#9
Carrie Printz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061360/effect-of-formalin-fixation-on-surgical-margins-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Tejashree B Pangare, Pushkar P Waknis, Shilpa S Bawane, Mayank N Patil, Shaliki Wadhera, Padmasree B Patowary
PURPOSE: Formalin fixation causes shrinkage of surgical margins, which can result in the underestimation of tumor-free margins. The purpose of this study was to show the effect of formalin fixation on surgical margins. Another aim of this study was to evaluate surgical margin shrinkage after fixation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens of the gingivobuccal sulcus (GBS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of OSCC specimens of the GBS after composite resection...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042597/the-effect-of-comparatively-framed-versus-similarity-framed-e-cigarette-and-snus-print-ads-on-young-adults-ad-and-product-perceptions
#11
Smita C Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Yuelin Li, Jamie S Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. METHODS: One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035020/tobacco-use-and-cancer-risk-in-the-agricultural-health-study
#12
Gabriella Andreotti, Neal D Freedman, Debra T Silverman, Catherine C Lerro, Stella Koutros, Patricia Hartge, Michael C Alavanja, Dale P Sandler, Laura Beane Freeman
BACKGROUND: Cigarettes are well known to cause cancer, but less is known about the risks of other tobacco products and use of more than one product. METHODS: We examined cancer incidence in relation to exclusive use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, other combustibles (pipe, cigar, cigarillo), and smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff)) in the Agricultural Health Study. We also examined the added cancer risks associated with use of cigarettes and other tobacco products...
December 29, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027011/smokeless-tobacco-use-among-united-states-air-force-trainees
#13
Brittany D Linde, Jon O Ebbert, Darrell R Schroeder, Andy C Hanson, G Wayne Talcott, Robert C Klesges
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the United States Air Force (USAF) exceeds civilian use rates. We assessed the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and evaluated the correlates of smokeless tobacco use in a sample of United States Air Force trainees. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of USAF Technical Training school personnel at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland and Fort Sam Houston (N = 14,810). Survey completion rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between demographic variables, tobacco use, and social factors for both regular and infrequent smokeless tobacco (e...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018597/associations-between-unhealthy-dieting-behaviors-and-tobacco-use-among-adolescents
#14
Megan E Sutter, Aashir Nasim, Susan Veldheer, Caroline O Cobb
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for unhealthy dieting behaviors (UDBs) in youth. The role of alternative tobacco products and UDB engagement has yet to be examined empirically despite concerning trends in use. This study aimed to examine UDB prevalence in a U.S. geographic region-specific adolescent sample and associations with a variety of tobacco use behaviors and perceptions. METHODS: Weighted data from the 2013 Virginia Youth Survey were analyzed (n = 6903)...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013271/frequency-of-youth-e-cigarette-and-tobacco-use-patterns-in-the-u-s-measurement-precision-is-critical-to-inform-public-health
#15
Andrea C Villanti, Jennifer L Pearson, Allison M Glasser, Amanda L Johnson, Lauren K Collins, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams
INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use occurs with tobacco product use in youth. METHODS: Using the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), we examined past 30-day frequency of cigarette, cigar, smokeless, and e-cigarette use in the context of past 30-day and ever tobacco product use in U.S. middle and high school students (N=22,007). Frequency of product-specific use was examined by exclusive versus concurrent use with another product in the past 30 days (poly-use). RESULTS: In 2014, the majority (83%) of U...
December 24, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003512/characteristics-of-american-snus-and-swedish-snus-products-for-sale-in-massachusetts-usa
#16
Andrew B Seidenberg, Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf, Vaughan W Rees
INTRODUCTION: Snus may present lower health risks than cigarettes, but its harm reduction potential may be undermined if used dually with cigarettes. The likelihood of exclusive snus use compared with dual use may depend in part on the capacity of snus to deliver nicotine in doses that are satisfactory to smokers. We examined characteristics of "American snus" products, including nicotine levels, and compared to snus products that are more typical of Sweden. METHODS: Tobacco industry reports for snus products submitted to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for the year 2014 were used to assess moisture (%), pH, total nicotine, and un-ionized (free) nicotine (both mg/g and percent of total)...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996695/reduced-combustion-mechanism-for-c1-c4-hydrocarbons-and-its-application-in-cfd-flare-modeling
#17
Vijaya Damodara, Daniel H Chen, Helen H Lou, Kader M A Rasel, Peyton Richmond, Anan Wang, Xianchang Li
Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, CO, soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with CO2 and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators /regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991471/cigarette-and-snus-modified-association-between-unprotected-exposure-to-noise-from-hunting-rifle-caliber-weapons-and-high-frequency-hearing-loss-a-cross-sectional-study-among-swedish-hunters
#18
Louise Honeth, Peter Ström, Alexander Ploner, Dan Bagger-Sjöbäck, Ulf Rosenhall, Olof Nyrén
AIM: To investigate in this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters if tobacco use modifies the previously observed association, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), between unprotected exposure to impulse noise from hunting rifle caliber (HRC) weapons and high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted among Swedish sport hunters in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was Internet-based and consisted of a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test...
November 2016: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964733/an-examination-of-the-effectiveness-of-health-warning-labels-on-smokeless-tobacco-products-in-four-states-in-india-findings-from-the-tcp-india-cohort-survey
#19
Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Pete Driezen, Steve Xu, Anne C K Quah, Genevieve Sansone, Prakash C Gupta, Mangesh S Pednekar
BACKGROUND: In 2009, after many delays and changes, India introduced a single pictorial health warning label (HWL) on smokeless tobacco (SLT) packing-a symbolic image of a scorpion covering 40% of the front surface. In 2011, the scorpion was replaced with 4 graphic images. This paper tested the effectiveness of SLT HWLs in India and whether the 2011 change from symbolic to graphic images increased their effectiveness. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of 4733 adult SLT users (age15+) of the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Survey from 4 states...
December 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940900/prevalence-and-correlates-of-late-initiation-of-smokeless-tobacco-in-us-firefighters
#20
Nattinee Jitnarin, Walker Sc Poston, Christopher K Haddock, Sara A Jahnke, Rena S Day, Herbert H Severson
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and late initiation among firefighters (ie, starting use as an adult after joining the fire service) are remarkably high, 10.5% and 26.0%, respectively. The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics associated with late SLT initiation in a sample comprised of male career firefighters from two large cohort studies. METHODS: We examined correlates of late SLT initiation in a secondary analysis of data combining the baseline evaluations of two published firefighter health studies with 1474 male career firefighters in the United States...
December 10, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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