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Adam G Cole, Ryan David Kennedy, Ashok Chaurasia, Scott T Leatherdale
Introduction: Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Judi Azevedo Sgambato, Bobbette A Jones, John W Caraway, G L Prasad
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this study is to investigate the inflammatory alterations due to the use of smokeless tobacco and dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, relative to smoking. SUBJECTS: Plasma and saliva samples were collected from healthy smokers (SMK-100 subjects), moist snuff users (MSC-89 subjects), the dual users (DUSMK-49 subjects), and non-tobacco consumers (NTC-99 subjects) from two cross-sectional studies. METHODS: Luminex Human InflammationMAP® 1...
December 4, 2017: Cytokine
Kelvin Choi, Naomi Taylor, Jean Forster
PURPOSE: To examine the sources of tobacco coupons and their influence on susceptibility to snus use. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: A population-based sample of US Midwest young adults in 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 (aged 22-28; n = 2384). MEASURES: Exposure to coupons for various tobacco products through various sources in the past 6 months, susceptibility to snus use...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Kamran Siddiqi, Aishwarya Lakshmi Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Ray Croucher
Background: Globally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes. Purpose of Review: To identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles. Recent Findings: The literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Subrata Naskar, Praveen Kumar Jakati
As research, has progressed through ages, we have been able to uncover the true nature of nicotine addiction. Humankind is now aware of the various ailments that it brings with it. As the slogan for a smokeless world for a better world has been raised, a new practice called "vaping" has come to the forefront. The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has been on the rise recently. Claims have been made over its role for nicotine deaddiction as well as reducing harmful use for chronic nicotine abusers. In the current review, we searched the PubMed database for available literatures on this practice...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Satomi Odani, Kevin O'Flaherty, Nichole Veatch, Michael Tynan, Israel T Agaku
Policies prohibiting smokeless tobacco (SLT) use at sports venues have been enacted in California and nine U.S. cities. We measured opposition toward SLT use at all public sports venues and its correlates among U.S. adults. Data were from the 2016 SummerStyles, a web-based survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18years (n=4203). Weighted estimates of opposition ("strongly" or "somewhat") SLT use were computed overall and by selected characteristics. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of opposition toward SLT use overall and among current tobacco product users...
November 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Patricia E Bunney, Mylissa Hansen, Mark LeSage
The ability of smoking to reduce body weight serves as motivation for continued smoking. It is unclear to what extent non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes are contributing to the weight-reducing effect of smoking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of nicotine and four minor tobacco alkaloids (nornicotine, cotinine, anatabine, and anabasine) on food intake, one of the key regulators of body weight. In addition, a smokeless tobacco extract (STE) and e-cigarette (EC) refill liquid were used to model the effects of actual tobacco product exposure on food intake...
November 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Azmina Hussain, Sidra Zaheer, Kashif Shafique
BACKGROUND: With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Aisha Al-Jamaei, Rajan Saini, Denise M Laronde, Amany Sharhan
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of white oral mucosal lesions among Yemeni adults; in particular, those who chew khat and tobacco. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 1052 dental patients aged 15 years and older. A detailed oral examination was performed by a single examiner in accordance with standard international criteria. RESULTS: Overall, 25.2% of the study participants presented with one or more white lesions...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
João M Pedro, Miguel Brito, Henrique Barros
There is concern about the potentially increasing use of tobacco in Angola. However, information on the frequency and determinants of this use is not systematised. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and nicotine dependence among smokers in an Angolan population and considering individual socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. A community-based survey with 2,472 respondents (age range: 15-64 years) was conducted in 2013-2014 in the country's Bengo Province. The collection methodology for assessing each type of tobacco consumption and its daily quantification followed the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance...
2017: PloS One
MeLisa R Creamer, Joanne Delk, Kathleen Case, Cheryl L Perry, Melissa B Harrell
BACKGROUND: Outcome expectations are an important determinant of health behavior, according to Social Cognitive Theory; yet recent literature has not examined the relationship between outcome expectations and tobacco product use (e.g., use of cigarettes, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes, or smokeless tobacco). OBJECTIVES: This study examines if outcome expectations at baseline, among an adolescent cohort of never users of tobacco products, predicts tobacco product use (i...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
P N Sylaja, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Subhash Kaul, M V Padma Srivastava, Dheeraj Khurana, Lee H Schwamm, Praveen Kesav, Deepti Arora, Aman Pannu, Tijy K Thankachan, Aneesh B Singhal
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Indo-US Collaborative Stroke Project was designed to characterize ischemic stroke across 5 high-volume academic tertiary hospitals in India. METHODS: From January 2012 to August 2014, research coordinators and physician coinvestigators prospectively collected data on 2066 patients with ischemic stroke admitted <2 weeks after onset. Investigator training and supervision and data monitoring were conducted by the US site (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston)...
November 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Asmat Ullah, Abad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Ismail Khan
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse and its consequences are a matter of great concern in South-East Asian countries, especially Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to contamination of Naswar with copper, or by any other physiological mechanism, there is a great chance of copper poisoning in addicts. Keeping in view the literature, there is no comparative study on serum copper levels (SCuL) in Naswar addicts. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate SCuL in this population. METHODS: The current study was performed in September 2016 where a total of 75 volunteers (selected from villages near the University of Peshawar, Pakistan) were grouped as Naswar addicts (n = 45) and the control group (n = 30)...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Fulsen Bozkuş, Nurhan Atilla, Seçil Şimşek, Ergül Kurutaş, Anıl Samur, Hüseyin Arpağ, Hasan Kahraman
Introduction: To the best of our knowledge, no previous study regarding the serum telomerase levels in Maras powder users (MPUs) has been founded. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum telomerase levels in smokers and MPUs. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with 98 patients (36 MPUs, 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers). Blood samples were collected, and after having measured the serum telomerase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the patients, comparison were made between the groups...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Kathryn R Koller, Christie A Flanagan, Gretchen E Day, Christi Patten, Jason G Umans, Melissa A Austin, Scarlett E Hopkins, Cheryl Raindl, Bert B Boyer
Tobacco use prevalence among Alaska Native (AN) people living in Alaska is greater than the general population prevalence statewide and nationally. Better understanding of regional tobacco use is needed to improve cessation efforts and reduce prevalence. Using self-reported baseline data from the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health study, we describe tobacco use patterns among AN people in two western Alaska regions. Data were stratified by age group and sex. Dual- and multi-product use in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) region was stratified by concurrent vs sequential use...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Joanne T Chang, David T Levy, Rafael Meza
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the US has remained constant or even increased slightly in recent years, while smoking has continuously decreased. Characterization of transitions between tobacco products is critical to understand the reasons behind the continuing use of smokeless tobacco. Methods: Two longitudinal cohorts of Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), 2002-2003 (n=14,996) and 2010-2011 (n=18,226) were used to examine transitions between cigarette and SLT use over one-year periods...
November 8, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
LaTisha L Marshall, Lei Zhang, Ann M Malarcher, Nathan H Mann, Brian A King, Robert L Alexander
Introduction: State quitlines provide free telephone-based cessation services and are available in all states. However, quitlines presently reach 1% of US cigarette smokers. We assessed variations in quitline reach by race/ethnicity across 45 US states included in the National Quitline Data Warehouse, a repository on non-identifiable data reported by state quitlines. Methods: During 2011 to 2013, we analyzed 1 220 171 records from the National Quitline Data Warehouse...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Elyse Phillips, Teresa W Wang, Corinne G Husten, Catherine G Corey, Benjamin J Apelberg, Ahmed Jamal, David M Homa, Brian A King
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elizabeth T Couch, Ellen F Darius, Margaret M Walsh, Benjamin W Chaffee
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools...
November 3, 2017: Health Education Research
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