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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432442/smokeless-tobacco-products-harbor-diverse-bacterial-microbiota-that-differ-across-products-and-brands
#1
Eoghan M Smyth, Prachi Kulkarni, Emma Claye, Stephen Stanfill, Robert Tyx, Cynthia Maddox, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amy R Sapkota
Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e...
April 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411395/a-longitudinal-study-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-and-mortality-in-the-united-states
#2
David S Timberlake, Dmitriy Nikitin, Norman J Johnson, Sean F Altekruse
Few studies in the United States have examined longitudinally the mortality risks associated with use of smokeless tobacco (SLT). The sample of this study was composed of participants from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study who completed a single Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey between the years 1985 and 2011. Using survival methods, SLT use at the baseline survey was examined as a predictor of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortalities in models that excluded individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, cigars, or used pipes (final n=349,282)...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410775/don-t-throw-smokeless-tobacco-users-under-the-bus
#3
Jesse Elias, Yogi Hendlin, Benjamin W Chaffee, Pamela M Ling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392961/preparation-and-characterization-of-suvarna-bhasma-parada-marit
#4
Kapil Thakur, Ramacharya Gudi, Mahesh Vahalia, Shekhar Shitut, Shailesh Nadkarni
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to characterize Suvarna Bhasma Parada Marit by using the Ayurvedic test parameters, physico-chemical tests, and various instrumentation techniques. METHODS: Suvarna Bhasma, an Ayurvedic formulation manufactured as per Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar 5/8357 (BBR), has been studied using various instrumentation techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), laser particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and physico-chemical parameters, such as the loss on drying (LOD), loss on ignition (LOI), and acid insoluble Ash (AIA) were determined...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390232/media-exposure-and-tobacco-product-addiction-beliefs-findings-from-the-2015-health-information-national-trends-survey-hints-fda-2015
#5
Elisabeth A Donaldson, Allison C Hoffman, Izabella Zandberg, Kelly D Blake
BACKGROUND: Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes...
April 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387864/psychometric-properties-of-fagerstr%C3%A3-m-test-for-nicotine-dependence-for-smokeless-tobacco-users-ftnd-st
#6
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura Beebe
Introduction: Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is the most commonly used measure of dependence among tobacco users. Psychometric properties of FTND have been validated among cigarette smokers, but the reliability and validity of its variant for smokeless tobacco (ST) users (FTND-ST) is not well documented. The objective of the present study is to evaluate reliability, construct validity, and structure model of FTND-ST. Methods: Data from 95 exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma were used for this study...
April 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385093/cigarette-graphic-warning-labels-increase-both-risk-perceptions-and-smoking-myth-endorsement
#7
Abigail T Evans, Ellen Peters, Abigail B Shoben, Louise R Meilleur, Elizabeth G Klein, Mary Kate Tompkins, Martin Tusler
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. DESIGN: 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks...
April 7, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369902/oral-health-behavior-and-factors-associated-with-poor-oral-status-in-qatar-results-from-a-national-health-survey
#8
Sohaila Cheema, Patrick Maisonneuve, Mohamed Hamad Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed Al-Thani, Amit Abraham, Ghanim Ali Al-Mannai, Abdulla Asad Al-Emadi, Walaa Fattah Al-Chetachi, Badria Ali Almalki, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ahmad Omar Haj Bakri, Albert Lowenfels, Ravinder Mamtani
OBJECTIVES: Oral health is a crucial determinant of quality of life. We aimed to determine oral health condition and factors associated with poor oral status in the adult national population of Qatar. METHODS: We used data from the World Health Organization supported STEPS (STEPwise approach to Surveillance) Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar in 2012. A total of 2,496 Qataris (1,053 men, 1,443 women) answered the national survey. The Rao-Scott Chi-Square test was used to analyze oral health characteristics and multinomial logistic regression to assess risk factors...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363718/adolescent-tobacco-use-in-urban-versus-rural-areas-of-the-united-states-the-influence-of-tobacco-control-policy-environments
#9
Michael F Pesko, Adam M T Robarts
PURPOSE: Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356689/an-epidemiological-survey-in-hospital-setup-in-lucknow-district-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Uma Shanker Pal, Mayank Singh, Lakshya Kumar, Pankaj Verma, R K Singh, Shailendra Kumar, G G Agarwal, Akash Asthana
INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer reported globally which includes lip, tongue, mouth, and throat. Developing countries face several challenges to identify and remove potential risk factors. Chewing tobacco/pan masala is considered to be the most potential risk factor for oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical-epidemiological profile of oral cancer cases and potential risk factor associated with it...
July 2016: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348201/tobacco-product-use-among-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-adolescents
#11
Hongying Dai
OBJECTIVES: Sexual minority youth face health disparities and a high risk of substance abuse. This study sought to fully characterize the disparity of tobacco use and risk factors in this high-risk subpopulation. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the current use of various tobacco products (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and e-cigarettes) was compared according to sex and distinct sexual identities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure)...
March 27, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347865/efficacy-of-periimplant-mechanical-curettage-with-and-without-adjunct-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-smokeless-tobacco-product-users
#12
Zeyad H Al-Sowygh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345846/compliance-with-tobacco-promotion-and-sale-laws-in-school-neighbourhoods-in-india
#13
Aswini Y Balappanavar, Vikrant Mohanty, Abrar Hussain
Objective: Regulation of sale of tobacco has given sufficient attention in India and little information exists about the impact of bans near schools. Our study aim was to check the levels of tobacco promotion, advertising and sales in school neighborhoods’ of Central Delhi. Methods: Using multistage random sampling 15 schools were selected in Central Delhi. Areas 100 meters around each were mapped using a map tool and screened using a self designed questionnaire consisting of 26 questions, both closed and open ended, to determine the details of outlets, sales of tobacco and tobacco products, advertising, promotions, school roles, and children seeking tobacco...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345014/the-cigarette-and-smokeless-tobacco-markets-in-texas-relative-to-the-united-states
#14
Erin J Miller Lo, Daniel P Giovenco, Olivia A Wackowski, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) markets in Texas and the United States (US) as a whole. METHODS: Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2014 were obtained for Dallas, Houston, San Antonio/Austin, and the total US. Descriptive statistics highlighted market share differences in Texas compared to the US overall. RESULTS: Marlboro and Copenhagen dominated the cigarette (58.9%) and SLT markets (44.8%) in Texas and had substantially higher relative market shares in Texas than nationally (46...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339596/health-warning-labels-for-smokeless-tobacco-the-impact-of-graphic-images-on-attention-recall-and-craving
#15
Elizabeth G Klein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Cooper, Amy K Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. Methods: A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall)...
January 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338391/modifications-in-human-oral-fibroblast-ultrastructure-collagen-production-and-lysosomal-compartment-in-response-to-e-cigarette-fluids
#16
Silvia Sancilio, Marialucia Gallorini, Amelia Cataldi, Laura Sancillo, Rosa Alba Rana, Viviana di Giacomo
Background Many smokers have recently turned to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) because they have been marketed as a cheaper and safer smokeless alternative to traditional cigarettes, and a possible smoking cessation tool. Even though the safety of these electronic devices is still not fully known, there is evidence of their cytotoxicity on cells which belong to the oral cavity. In a previous paper the increase of reactive oxygen production and Bax expression, followed by the occurrence of apoptosis, were demonstrated in human gingival fibroblasts...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335762/oral-cancer-awareness-among-dental-patients-in-omdurman-sudan-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Tasneem Mohammed Babiker, Khansa Awad Alkareem Osman, Safa Abdelrawf Mohamed, Matab Abdalrhaman Mohamed, Hatim Mohammed Almahdi
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is a preventable disease. Its occurrence is mostly due to lifestyle. In Sudan, the use of smokeless tobacco (Toombak) has long been linked to oral cancer. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer may well aid in early diagnosis and treatment. This is bound to result in increasing survival rates, as well as reducing the oral cancer burden on the society. This study aimed to assess oral cancer awareness regarding knowledge of signs, symptoms, risk factors and sources of the information...
March 23, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333122/differences-in-the-bacteriome-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-with-different-oral-carcinogenicity-compositional-and-predicted-functional-analysis
#18
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Fahd Ali Alharbi, Mohammed Mahri, Tsute Chen
Smokeless tobacco (ST) products vary significantly in their oral carcinogenicity. Much is known about the differences in the chemical, but not the bacterial, constituents of these products. In this study, we explored the composition and function of the bacteriome in ST products from four countries using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA-based next generation sequencing. The bacterial load (16S rRNA copies/gram) was lowest in Swedish snus (3.4 × 10⁶) and highest in Yemeni shammah (6...
March 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#19
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318902/flavored-tobacco-product-use-in-youth-and-adults-findings-from-the-first-wave-of-the-path-study-2013-2014
#20
Andrea C Villanti, Amanda L Johnson, Bridget K Ambrose, K Michael Cummings, Cassandra A Stanton, Shyanika W Rose, Shari P Feirman, Cindy Tworek, Allison M Glasser, Jennifer L Pearson, Amy M Cohn, Kevin P Conway, Raymond S Niaura, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Andrew Hyland
INTRODUCTION: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013-2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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