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Keesha E Erickson, Oleksii S Rukhlenko, Richard G Posner, William S Hlavacek, Boris N Kholodenko
RAS is the most frequently mutated gene across human cancers, but developing inhibitors of mutant RAS has proven to be challenging. Given the difficulties of targeting RAS directly, drugs that impact the other components of pathways where mutant RAS operates may potentially be effective. However, the system-level features, including different localizations of RAS isoforms, competition between downstream effectors, and interlocking feedback and feed-forward loops, must be understood to fully grasp the opportunities and limitations of inhibiting specific targets...
March 5, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Atsushi Aoki, Kazuto Maruta, Norifumi Hosaka, Tadashi Omoto, Tomoaki Masuda, Takehiko Gokan
Objectives : Aneurysm shrinkage after EVAR is the strong factor of favorable outcomes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), and type II endoleaks is the risk factor of no aneurysm shrinkage or aneurysm enlargement in the long term. In this study, we evaluate the aortic side branches relate to early postoperative type II endoleak, and performed coil embolization for those vessels for prevention of type II endoleak. Methods : Patency and diameter of aortic side branches including inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and lumbar artery (LA) were evaluated in 56 consecutive patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were scheduled for EVAR...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Hyo-Jung Lee, Hong-Goo Lee, Yong-Bin Kwon, Ju-Young Kim, Yun-Seok Rhee, Jinmann Chon, Eun-Soek Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Chun-Woong Park
In this study, we prepared carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalers by mixing bosentan microparticles with carrier, prepared in three separate types of lactose. Spray-dried, milled and sieved lactose resulted in formulations with various shapes, surface morphology and particle size distributions. In the spray-dried lactose, the micronized bosentan particles were trapped and strongly interlocked in the rugged surface of spray-dried lactose, whereas in the milled and sieved lactose they exhibited lower binding affinity onto the smooth surface of carrier...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yudong Cao, Tie Li, Yang Gu, Hui Luo, Shuqi Wang, Ting Zhang
Inspired by the epidermal-dermal and outer microstructures of the human fingerprint, a novel flexible sensor device is designed to improve haptic perception and surface texture recognition, which is consisted of single-walled carbon nanotubes, polyethylene, and polydimethylsiloxane with interlocked and outer micropyramid arrays. The sensor shows high pressure sensitivity (-3.26 kPa-1 in the pressure range of 0-300 Pa), and it can detect the shear force changes induced by the dynamic interaction between the outer micropyramid structure on the sensor and the tested material surface, and the minimum dimension of the microstripe that can be discerned is as low as 15 µm × 15 µm (interval × width)...
March 5, 2018: Small
Megan E Cain, Job N Doornberg, Robin Duit, Jock Clarnette, Ruurd Jaarsma, Bhavin Jadav
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary-nails (IMN) are the treatment of choice for most tibial shaft fractures due to their minimally-invasive nature and non-demanding surgical technique. However, a potential iatrogenic pitfall is intra-articular interlocking screw positioning within the proximal (PTFJ) and distal (DTFJ) tibiofibular joints that may go unrecognized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of intra-articular screw penetration of the PTFJ and DTFJs after interlocking of IMN for tibial fractures...
March 1, 2018: Injury
Leo Nherera, Paul Trueman, Alan Horner, Tracy Watson, Alan J Johnstone
BACKGROUND: Intertrochanteric hip fractures are common and devastating injuries especially for the elderly. Surgical treatment is the optimal strategy for managing intertrochanteric fractures as it allows early rehabilitation and functional recovery. The relative effects of internal fixation strategies for intertrochanteric fracture after operation remain limited to relatively small studies which create uncertainty in attempts to establish evidence-based best practice. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the clinical effectiveness of two commonly used intramedullary devices: a twin screw integrated cephalomedullary nail (InterTAN) versus a single screw cephalomedullary nail (proximal femoral nail antirotation) in patients with intertrochanteric fractures...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Jiayu Liu, Michael Borst
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each permeable pavement infiltrate, surface runoff from traditional asphalt, and rainwater were analyzed in duplicate for 22 metals (total and dissolved) for 6 years. In more than 99% of the samples, the concentration of barium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel and zinc, and in 60%-90% of the samples, the concentration of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and antimony in infiltrates from all three permeable pavements met both the groundwater effluent limitations (GEL) and maximum contaminant levels (MCL)...
February 21, 2018: Water Research
Wenjie Zheng, Xingsheng Jin, Yoichi Azuma, Qiongying Wang, Kazunori Miyata, Xing Xu
The tail club knob is a highly specialized structure thought to characterize a subgroup of the ankylosaurine ankylosaurians, and the oldest documented tail club knob in the fossil record occurred in the Campanian ankylosaurine Pinacosaurus. Here we report a new ankylosaurid Jinyunpelta sinensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Albian-Cenomanian Liangtoutang Formation, Jinyun County, Zhejiang, China. This is the first definitive and the best preserved ankylosaurid dinosaur ever found in southern China. Jinyunpelta possesses unique cranial features differs from other ankylosaurs including two paranasal apertures level with and posterior to the external naris, a triangular fossa on the anterodorsal edge of the maxilla, an antorbital fossa in the junction between the maxilla, lacrimal and jugal, and an anterior process of the prearticular that lies ventral to the splenial...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Irina Trofimova
This paper applies evolutionary and functional constructivism approaches to the discussion of psychological taxonomies, as implemented in the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). FET asserts that neurochemical systems developed in evolution to regulate functional-dynamical aspects of construction of actions: orientation, selection (integration), energetic maintenance, and management of automatic behavioural elements. As an example, the paper reviews the neurochemical mechanisms of interlocking between emotional dispositions and performance capacities...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ryan S Wible, Chidambaram Ramanathan, Carrie Hayes Sutter, Kristin M Olesen, Thomas W Kensler, Andrew C Liu, Thomas R Sutter
Diurnal oscillation of intracellular redox potential is known to couple metabolism with the circadian clock, yet the responsible mechanisms are not well understood. We show here that chemical activation of NRF2 modifies circadian gene expression and rhythmicity, with phenotypes similar to genetic NRF2 activation. Loss of Nrf2 function in mouse fibroblasts, hepatocytes and liver also altered circadian rhythms, suggesting that NRF2 stoichiometry and/or timing of expression are important to timekeeping in some cells...
February 26, 2018: ELife
Maximilian Gertler, Sven Loik, Christian Kleine, Alexa Matuschek, Norbert Gresser, Mario di Gennaro, Andreas Fabricius, Thomas Kratz, August Stich, Joost Butenop
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the German government mandated the German Red Cross (GRC) and the German Armed Forces to support the international efforts to stop the epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West-Africa. The GRC requested specific training from the Medical Mission Institute Wuerzburg (MI). OBJECTIVES: We describe and discuss the development, strategy, results, and evaluation of the program to formulate conclusions and recommendations for similar emergencies...
February 26, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Hu Zhan, J Anthony Tyson
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a high etendue imaging facility that is being constructed atop Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. It is scheduled to begin science operations in 2022. With an 8.4m (6.5m effective) aperture, a novel three-mirror design achieving a seeing-limited 9.6deg^2 field of view, and a 3.2 Gigapixel camera, the LSST has the deep-wide-fast imaging capability necessary to carry out an 18,000deg^2 survey in six passbands (ugrizy) to a coadded depth of r~27.5 over 10 years using 90% of its observational time...
February 23, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Rundong Zhao, Yan-Ling Zhao, Fei Qi, Klaus E Hermann, Rui-Qin Zhang, Michel A Van Hove
While molecular machines play an increasingly significant role in nanoscience research and applications, there remains a shortage of investigations and understanding of the molecular gear (cogwheel), which is an indispensable and fundamental component to drive a larger correlated molecular machine system. Employing ab initio calculations, we investigate model systems consisting of molecules adsorbed on metal or graphene surfaces, ranging from very simple triple-arm gears such as PF3 and NH3 to larger multi-arm gears based on carbon rings...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Efrain Farias, Mayron Lichterman, Mark Yuhas, Sunil M Thirkannad
We describe a technique of interlocking Kirschner wires to improve stability after fixation of fractures of the hand. This enables immediate mobilization of the injured fingers thus reducing the need for prolonged postoperative physical therapy and consequently diminishing chances of posttraumatic stiffness. This study analyzes outcomes in 83 fractures in 70 patients including 26 metacarpal and 57 phalangeal fractures. The technique has proven to be simple, versatile, and cost-effective. Patient compliance and satisfaction has been high and results have been gratifying...
March 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Dirk Dietzel, Astrid S de Wijn, Matthias Vorholzer, Andre Schirmeisen
Superlubricity, or alternatively termed structural (super)lubrictiy, is a concept where ultra-low friction is expected at the interface between sliding surfaces if these surfaces are incommensurate and thus unable to interlock. In this work, we now report on sudden, reversible, friction changes that have been observed during AFM-based nanomanipulation experiments of gold nanoparticles sliding on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite. These effects can be explained by rotations of the gold nanoparticles within the concept of structural superlubricity, where the occurrence of ultra-low friction can depend extremely sensitively on the relative orientation between the slider and the substrate...
February 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Sato Honma
The circadian nature of physiology and behavior is regulated by a circadian clock that generates intrinsic rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. The mammalian circadian system is composed of a hierarchical multi-oscillator structure, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulating the peripheral clocks found throughout the body. In the past two decades, key clock genes have been discovered in mammals and shown to be interlocked in transcriptional and translational feedback loops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Yadong Sun, Jiyou Gu, Haiyan Tan, Yanhua Zhang, Pengfei Huo
Starch-based adhesives were prepared by esterification modification with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA) and polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI) as a crosslinking agent. DDSA modified starch (DMS) adhesives could significantly enhance the viscosity and adhesion strength of starch adhesives, making it beneficial to be applied in the field of plywood industry. This paper investigated the physicochemical properties of starch modified by dodecenyl succinic anhydride. Solid content, viscosity, adhesion, structural change and morphological features were characterized in detail...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Donna Cormack, James Stanley, Ricci Harris
BACKGROUND: The complex ways in which experiences of discrimination are patterned in society, including the exposure of communities to multiple overlapping forms of discrimination within social systems of oppression, is increasingly recognised in the health sciences. However, research examining the impacts on health and contribution to racial/ethnic health inequities remains limited. This study aims to contribute to the field by exploring the prevalence and patterning of experience of multiple forms of discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand, and associations with health and wellbeing...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Wen Wang, Jyun-Ting Lin, Yen-Shuo Su, Lin I
We numerically investigate the micro-structure and motion of 2D liquids composed of dense short spherocylinders, by reducing shape aspect ratio from 3. It is found that, reducing shape aspect ratio from 3 causes smooth transition from heterogeneous structure composed of crystalline ordered domains with good tetratic alignment order to those with good hexagonal bond-orientational order at aspect ratio equaling 1.35. In the intermediate regime, both structural orders are strongly deteriorated, and translational hopping rate reaches the maximum due to the poor particle interlocking of disordered structure...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Valentina Beatini, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Alessandro Tasora
The observation of old construction works confirms that masonry domes can withstand tensile hoop stresses, at least up to a certain level. Here, such tensile resistance, rather than a priori assumed as a property of the bulk material, is attributed to the contact forces that are developed at the interfaces between interlocked blocks under normal pressure, specified by Coulomb's friction law. According to this rationale, the aspect ratio of the blocks, as well as the bond pattern, becomes of fundamental importance...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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