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C Riekel, M Burghammer, I Snigirev, M Rosenthal
We determined stress-induced deformations and the thermal stability of nanorod-shaped tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) capsids in coffee-ring structures by X-ray nanodiffraction. The hexagonal capsids lattice transforms under compression in the outer boundary zone of the coffee-ring into a tetragonal lattice. The helical pitch of the nanorods increases by about 2.5% across the outer boundary zone while the lateral distance between nanorods decreases continuously across the whole coffee-ring structure by about 2% due to compressive forces...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Silvana Sant Anna de Souza, Carolina Moura Catta-Preta, João Marcelo P Alves, Danielle P Cavalcanti, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo, Wanderley De Souza, Rosane Silva, Maria Cristina M Motta
In trypanosomatids, the kinetoplast is the portion of the single mitochondrion that is connected to the basal body and contains the kDNA, a network composed by circular and interlocked DNA. The kDNA packing is conducted by Kinetoplast Associated Proteins (KAPs), which are similar to eukaryotic histone H1. In symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids (SHTs) such as Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis, a ß-proteobacterium co-evolves with the host in a mutualistic relationship. The prokaryote confers nutritional benefits to the host and affects its cell structure...
2017: PloS One
Rui Xiong, Ho Shin Kim, Shuaidi Zhang, Sunghan Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Ruilong Ma, Yaroslava G Yingling, Canhui Lu, Vladimir V Tsukruk
The construction of multilength scaled hierarchical nanostructures from diverse natural components is critical in the progress toward all-natural nanocomposites with structural robustness and versatile added functionalities. Here, we report a spontaneous formation of peculiar "shish kebab" nanostructures with the periodic arrangement of silk fibroin domains along straight segments of cellulose nanofibers. We suggest that the formation of these shish kebab nanostructures is facilitated by the preferential organization of heterogeneous (β-sheets and amorphous silk) domains along the cellulose nanofiber driven by modulated axial distribution of crystalline planes, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions as suggested by all-atom molecular dynamic simulations...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Lauren F Lichty, Eylin Palamaro-Munsell
Discussions of community psychology (CP) ethics often examine how we might best uphold CP values in community-based practice. However, for many community psychologists in faculty positions, our main domain of practice is the undergraduate classroom. Teaching is essential to the growth and sustainability of our field as prospective students tend to discover CP during their undergraduate studies. University-based work is also a key site of CP practice. Universities are contested spaces where interlocking forms of oppression manifest in many ways, including teaching (e...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
Doris Corkin, Jodie Kenny
There are several interlocking elements integral to the delivery of safe patient care, including clinical governance, efficient communication, teamwork, risk assessment, inter-professional education and effective leadership. Each element can be challenging to understand, develop, or act on, but it is essential that nurses use these as opportunities to ensure their specialty or service delivers safe and high-quality care. This article discusses each of these elements and its relationship to quality patient care, with specific reference to the role of children's nurses...
October 30, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Jing Min Chen, Qian Kun Zhou, Yi Xuan Hou, Dong Liu
With the rapid development of modern industry, water pollution has become an intractable environmental issue facing humans worldwide. In particular, the organic dyes discharged into natural water from dyestuffs, dyeing and the textile industry are the main sources of pollution in wastewater. To eliminate these types of pollutants, degradation of organic contaminants through a photocatalytic technique is an effective methodology. To exploit more crystalline photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes, two coordination polymers, namely catena-poly[[(3,5-dicarboxybenzene-1-carboxylato-κO(1))silver(I)]-μ-trans-1-(pyridin-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethene-κ(2)N:N'], [Ag(C9H5O6)(C12H10N2)]n or [Ag(H2BTC)(3,4'-bpe)]n, (I), and poly[[(μ3-5-carboxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylato-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(3):O(3))[μ-trans-1-(pyridin-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethene-κ(2)N:N']cadmium(II)] monohydrate], {[Cd(C9H4O6)(C12H10N2)]·H2O}n or {[Cd(HBTC)(3,4'-bpe)]·H2O}n, (II), have been prepared by the hydrothermal reactions of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) and trans-1-(pyridin-3-yl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (3,4'-bpe) in the presence of AgNO3 or Cd(NO3)2·4H2O, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Henry J Lin, Jennifer Lehoang, Isabel Kwan, Anita Baghaee, Priya Prasad, Stephanie J Ha-Chen, Tanesha Moss, Jeremy D Woods
The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and various intermediate metabolites. Model building with these familiar toys can be a helpful, hands-on exercise for learning-or re-learning-biochemical pathways...
November 6, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Kushan L Gunawardhana, Paul E Hardin
In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Qian Wang, Zongpeng Wang, Zhe Li, Junyan Xiao, Hangyong Shan, Zheyu Fang, Limin Qi
Self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals into complex superstructures offers notable opportunities to create functional devices and artificial materials with unusual properties. Anisotropic nanoparticles with nonspherical shapes, such as rods, plates, polyhedra, and multipods, enable the formation of a diverse range of ordered superlattices. However, the structural complexity and tunability of nanocrystal superlattices are restricted by the limited geometries of the anisotropic nanoparticles available for supercrystal self-assembly...
October 2017: Science Advances
Yoshihiro Abe, Susumu Tokunaga, Takuro Moriya
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and complications of volar and dorsal plating for the management of intra-articular distal radius fractures, with special regard to indications for dorsal plating. Furthermore, we examine the rationale for choosing dorsal plating and its frequency of use. METHODS: Clinical assessments included range of motion measurements at the wrist; grip strength; the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score; and the Gartland and Werley score...
November 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Natacha Rosa, Miguel Marta, Mário Vaz, S M O Tavares, Ricardo Simoes, Fernão D Magalhães, Antonio Torres Marques
Combining contributions from engineering and medicine, we highlight the biomechanical turning points in the historical evolution of the intramedullary nailing stabilization technique and discuss the recent innovations concerning increase in bone-implant system stability. Following the earliest attempts, where stabilization of long bone fractures was purely based on intuition, intramedullary nailing evolved from allowing alignment and translational control through press-fit fixation to current clinical widespread acceptance marked by the mechanical linkage between nail and bone with interlocking screws that allow alignment, translation, rotation, and length control...
November 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Qiang Xu, Xin Li, Jie Zhang, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang, TianBao Ma
Nanoscale wear is one of the key factors hindering the performance and lifetime of micro- and nanosystems, such as the scanning tip wear in atomic force microscopy (AFM), the head-disk interface in magnetic storage system, and the moving components in micro- or nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Here, we propose to construct the graphene/graphene interfacial architecture to suppress the nanoscale wear. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the atomic roughness of the sliding surfaces with either stepped or amorphous structure can lead to strong inhomogeneity of the local contact pressure distribution...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenfeng Yang, Dan Qiao, Yuanfei Ren, Yvjin Dong, Yaohua Shang, Tiehui Zhang
OBJECTIVE: In this work, we attempted to develop a modified single-knot Kessler-loop lock suture technique and compare the biomechanical properties associated with this single-knot suture technique with those associated with the conventional modified Kessler and interlock suture techniques. METHODS: In this experiment, a total of 18 porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were harvested and randomly divided into three groups. The tendons were transected and then repaired using three different techniques, including modified Kessler suture with peritendinous suture, interlock suture with peritendinous suture, and modified Kessler-loop lock suture with peritendinous suture...
October 2017: Clinics
Yun Kee Jo, Bong-Hyuk Choi, Chang Sup Kim, Hyung Joon Cha
Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been utilized to construct bioactive nanostructures comprising surface topographic features and bioactivity that enhances the activity of bone cells onto titanium-based implants. However, there have been no previous attempts to create microrough surfaces based on SiNP nanostructures even though microroughness is established as a characteristic that provides beneficial effects in improving the biomechanical interlocking of titanium implants. Herein, a protein-based SiNP coating is proposed as an osteopromotive surface functionalization approach to create microroughness on titanium implant surfaces...
October 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
Tze-Hong Wong, Meng-Shiue Lee, Sung-Yueh Wu, Wensyang Hsu, Tien-Kan Chung, Chia-Pei Wu, Pei-Jung Hsu, Yuh-Shyong Yang
Interlocking nailing is a common surgical operation to stabilize fractures in long bones. One of the difficult parts of the surgery is how to locate the position and direction of a screw hole on the interlocking nail, which is invisible to the naked eye after insertion of the nail into the medullary canal. Here, we propose a novel two-stage targeting process using two passive magnetic devices to locate the position and direction of the screw hole without radiation for the locking screw procedure. This involves a ring-shape positioning magnet inside the nail to generate a magnetic field for targeting...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Alan Tai-Wai Li, Kenneth Po-Lun Fung, Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong
Racialized diasporic communities in Canada experience disproportionate burden of HIV infection. Their increased vulnerabilities are associated with interlocking challenges, including barriers in accessing resources, migration and settlement stress, and systemic exclusion. Further, people living with HIV (PLHIV) in these diasporic communities face stigma and discrimination in both mainstream Canadian society as well as their own ethno-racial communities. HIV stigma negatively impacts all aspects of HIV care, from testing to disclosure to treatment and ongoing care...
October 24, 2017: AIDS Care
Mathias Centola, Julián Valero, Michael Famulok
DNA is a versatile construction material for the bottom-up assembly of structures and functional devices in the nanoscale. Additionally, there are specific sequences called DNAzymes that can fold into tertiary structures that display catalytic activity. Here we report the design of an interlocked DNA nanostructure that is able to fine-tune the oxidative catalytic activity of a split DNAzyme in a highly controllable manner. As scaffold, we employed a double-stranded DNA rotaxane for its ability to undergo programmable and predictable conformational changes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yojana J P Carreón, Jorge González-Gutiérrez, M I Pérez-Camacho, Hilda Mercado-Uribe
Patterns formed by the evaporation of a drop containing biological molecules have provided meaningful information about certain pathologies. In this context, several works propose the study of protein solutions as a model to understand the formation of deposits of biological fluids. Generally, dry droplets of proteins in a saline solution create complex aggregates. Here, we present an experimental study on the formation of patterns produced by the evaporation of droplet suspensions containing a protein binary mixture...
October 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nicholas Henley Evans
Molecular chirality provides a key challenge in host-guest recognition and other related chemical applications such as asymmetric catalysis. For a molecule to act as an efficient enantioselective receptor requires multi-point interactions between host and chiral guest, which may be achieved by an appropriate chiral 3D scaffold. As a consequence of their interlocked structure, catenanes and rotaxanes may present such a 3D scaffold, and can be chiral by inclusion of a classical chiral element and/or as a consequence of the mechanical bond...
October 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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