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Yue Lou, Hai-Sheng Zhou, Yu Han, Qiu-Ye Zeng, Jun Zhu, Zhong-Nan Yang
Tapetum development and pollen production are regulated by a complex transcriptional network that consists of a group of tapetum-specific Arabidopsis transcription factors (TFs). Among these TFs, DEFECTIVE IN TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION 1 (TDF1) encodes an R2R3 MYB factor, and ABORTED MICROSPORE (AMS) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor. However, knowledge regarding the regulatory role of TDF1 in anther development remains limited. Here, we discovered that TDF1 directly regulates AMS via an AACCT cis-element...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
Birgit Möller, Yvonne Poeschl, Romina Plötner, Katharina Bürstenbinder
Pavement cells (PCs) are the most frequently occurring cell type in the leaf epidermis and play important roles in leaf growth and function. In many plant species, PCs form highly complex jigsaw puzzle shaped cells with interlocking lobes. Understanding of their development is of high interest for plant science research because of their importance for leaf growth and hence for plant fitness and crop yield. Studies of PC development, however, are limited because robust methods are lacking that enable automatic segmentation and quantification of PC shape parameters suitable to reflect their cellular complexity...
September 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
Lee Djumas, George P Simon, Yuri Estrin, Andrey Molotnikov
Structural hierarchy is known to enhance the performance of many of Nature's materials. In this work, we apply the idea of hierarchical structure to topologically interlocked assemblies, obtained from measurements under point loading, undertaken on identical discrete block ensembles with matching non-planar surfaces. It was demonstrated that imposing a hierarchical structure adds to the load bearing capacity of topological interlocking assemblies. The deformation mechanics of these structures was also examined numerically by finite element analysis...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yasuyuki Yamada, Ryohei Ito, Sayaka Ogino, Tatsuhisa Kato, Kentaro Tanaka
A multiply interlocked catenane with a novel molecular topology was synthesized; a phthalocyanine bearing four peripheral crown ethers was quadruply interlocked with a cofacial porphyrin dimer bridged with four alkylammonium chains. The supramolecular conjugate has two nanospaces surrounded by a porphyrin, a phthalocyanine, and four alkyl chains to accommodate guest molecules. Because the phthalocyanine is movable along the alkyl chains, it acts as an adjustable wall, permitting the invasion of large molecules to the nanospaces without spoiling the affinity of the association...
September 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
C N Novoa-Parra, D Montaner-Alonso, J Morales-Rodríguez
The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months...
September 4, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Emeline Hanozin, Benoit Mignolet, Denis Morsa, Damien Sluysmans, Anne-Sophie Duwez, J Fraser Stoddart, Françoise Remacle, Edwin De Pauw
At the interface between foldamers and mechanically interlocked molecules, oligorotaxanes exhibit a spring-like folded secondary structure with remarkable mechanical and physicochemical properties. Among these properties, the ability of oligorotaxanes to act as molecular switches through controlled modulations of their spatial extension over (un)folding dynamics is of particular interest. The present study aims to assess and further characterize this remarkable feature in the gas phase using mass spectrometry tools...
September 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Mirosław Salamończyk, Nataša Vaupotič, Damian Pociecha, Cheng Wang, Chenhui Zhu, Ewa Gorecka
Periodic structures of phases with orientational order of molecules but homogenous electron density distribution: a short pitch cholesteric phase, blue phase and twist-bend nematic phase, were probed by resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSoXS) at the carbon K-edge. The theoretical model shows that in the case of a simple heliconical nematic structure, two resonant signals corresponding to the full and half pitch band should be present, while only the full pitch band is observed experimentally. This suggests that the twist-bend nematic phase has a complex structure with a double-helix built of two interlocked, shifted helices...
September 5, 2017: Soft Matter
Saúl A Apóstol-González
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the results of treatment of subtrochanteric fracture with interlocked intramedullary nail and describe a technical for accurate and secure verification of distal locking position when we do surgery without arc-C. METHODS: A case series where was reviewed the results in 49 patients with subtrochanteric fracture and treated locking intramedullary nailing. The AO and Russell-Taylor Classification were used. The statistic procedure was done with SPSS program...
August 30, 2017: Injury
Kerstin Junker, Yasen Mutafchiev
Ingwenascaris n. g. (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) is established to accommodate Ingwenascaris sprenti n. g., n. sp., described from the stomach of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) in South Africa, based on light and scanning electron microscopy studies of its morphology. The new genus can be distinguished from other heterocheilid genera through a combination of its characters, including the pronounced asymmetry of each subventral lip due to an alate ventral margin and a non-alate margin facing the dorsal lip, the presence of continuous ridges of triangular denticles along the free labial margins, the lack of interlocking processes or a rostral plate, interlabia being indistinct or represented by small lateral interlabia between the dorsal and ventral lips only, the absence of prominent interlabial longitudinal cuticular ridges, the presence of lateral alae that are fused with the subventral lips, the presence of lateral caudal alae in both sexes, spicules of males that are composed of handle and alate blade, the presence of a gubernaculum, the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae and the position of the vulva near the anterior and middle third of the body in females...
September 1, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
Caitlin A Bishop, Sara Liu, Amanda N Stephens, Michael Fitzharris
BACKGROUND: Drink-driving and alcohol-related crashes are a significant problem globally. Alcohol interlocks are used to prevent drivers with a blood alcohol concentration above a pre-determined level from starting their vehicle, making the technology highly effective in preventing drink-drive episodes. While alcohol interlocks are commonly used in drink-drive offender groups, their broader use as a preventative road safety strategy is considered increasingly feasible. In this context it is important to understand attitudes towards the technology, and to investigate whether these attitudes vary according to alcohol consumption patterns as this influences the acceptability of a broad-based preventative alcohol interlock program...
August 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Huang Cui, Yu Jia, Meng Shaofeng, Gao Biyun
Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of repeated sintering and variation in thickness on the color and microstructure of dental lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic veneers. Methods A total of 24 computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) veneers was fabricated using the IPS e.max-CAD LS2 and then randomly divided into four groups (S0, S1, S2, S3; n=6). Each group was sintered 0, 1, 2, 3 times individually according to the manufacturer's recommendation. The color parameters (L, C, H, a, b values) of all the specimens were measured by a Vita easyshade dental colorimeter...
August 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Jack Emerson-King, Richard C Knighton, Matthew R Gyton, Adrian B Chaplin
In the context of advancing the use of metal-based building blocks for the construction of mechanically interlocked molecules, we herein describe the preparation of late transition metal containing [2]rotaxanes (1). Capture and subsequent retention of the interlocked assemblies are achieved by the formation of robust and bulky complexes of rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) through hydrogenation of readily accessible rhodium(i) and iridium(i) complexes [M(COD)(PPh3)2][BAr(F)4] (M = Rh, 2a; Ir, 2b) and reaction with a bipyridyl terminated [2]pseudorotaxane (3·db24c8)...
September 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Janning F Herrmann, Florian Kretschmer, Stephanie Hoeppener, Christiane Höppener, Ulrich S Schubert
Gold-polymer hybrid nanoparticles attract wide interest as building blocks for the engineering of photonic materials and plasmonic (active) metamaterials with unique optical properties. In particular, the coupling of the localized surface plasmon resonances of individual metal nanostructures in the presence of nanometric gaps can generate highly enhanced and confined electromagnetic fields, which are frequently exploited for metal-enhanced light-matter interactions. The optical properties of plasmonic structures can be tuned over a wide range of properties by means of their geometry and the size of the inserted nanoparticles as well as by the degree of order upon assembly into 1D, 2D, or 3D structures...
August 21, 2017: Small
R O Dias, C Cardoso, A C Pimentel, T F Damasceno, C Ferreira, W R Terra
Most insects have a gut lined with a peritrophic membrane (PM) consisting of chitin and proteins, mainly peritrophins that have chitin-binding domains. The PM is proposed to originate from mucus-forming mucins (Mf-mucins), which acquired a chitin-binding domain that interlocked with chitin, replacing mucus in function. We evaluated the expression of Mf-mucins and peritrophins by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) throughout the midgut of four distantly related insects. Mf-mucins were identified as proteins with high o-glycosylation and a series of uninterrupted Pro/Thr/Ser residues...
August 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
J Willems, P W van Egmond
A 59-year-old woman was seen at the ER with a painful right knee locked in extension. This was caused by unloaded hyperextension in bed. Interlocking patellofemoral osteophytes and a superior patella dislocation tilted away from the femur were seen on the X-ray, which are both pathognomonic signs of a superior dislocation of the patella.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ki-Chul Park, Chang-Wug Oh, Joon-Woo Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon Park, Jong-Keon Oh, Il-Hyung Park, Hee-Soo Kyung, Jeong Heo
INTRODUCTION: Exchange nailing is most acceptable for treating hypertrophic non-union of the long bones, requiring the removal of previously fixed implant. However, its main effect of mechanical stabilization is controversial in non-isthmal area. We hypothesized that minimally invasive plate augmentation over the non-union site may have a better option, without the need of bone grafting or removing pre-existing implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with hypertrophic non-union of the long bones between 2010 and 2014 on radiography who previously underwent intramedullary (IM) nailing or plate osteosynthesis for long-bone fractures were included...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Moumita Khamrai, Sovan Lal Banerjee, Patit P Kundu
In this investigation, we prepare a self-healable polyelectrolyte film via crosslinking the cationically charged chitosan (Cts) with anionically modified bacterial cellulose (BC), which is a green source of nano-filler. This polyelectrolyte film is able to show dynamic self-healing activity at physiological pH condition via adapting ionic interaction, a state of non-covalent bond. BC was prepared using Glucanoacetobacter xylinus (MTCC7795) bacteria and after that its surface was modified with anionic poly(acrylic acid) using "grafting from" technique...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Whitaik David Lee, Rahul Gawri, Robert M Pilliar, William L Stanford, Rita A Kandel
Integration of in vitro-formed cartilage on a suitable substrate to form tissue-engineered implants for osteochondral defect repair is a considerable challenge. In healthy cartilage, a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) act as an intermediary for mechanical force transfer from soft to hard tissue, as well as an effective interlocking structure to better resist interfacial shear forces. We have developed biphasic constructs that consist of scaffold-free cartilage tissue grown in vitro on, and interdigitated with, porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) substrates...
August 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
J Fraser Stoddart
Chemistry welcomes a new bond: The mechanical bond has endowed molecules with component parts whose movements can be controlled and monitored. In his Nobel Lecture, J. F. Stoddart describes how being able to template the formation of mechanically interlocked molecules has led to the design and synthesis of shuttles, switches, and machines at the nanoscale.
September 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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