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Maeve Leonard, Henry O'Connell, Olugbenga Williams, Fahad Awan, Chris Exton, Margaret O'Connor, Dimitrios Adamis, Colum Dunne, Walter Cullen, David J Meagher
OBJECTIVE: Efficient detection of neurocognitive disorders is a key diagnostic challenge. We explored how simple bedside tests of attention, vigilance and visuospatial function might assist in identifying delirium in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Performance on a battery of bedside cognitive tests was compared in elderly medical inpatients with DSM-IV delirium, dementia, comorbid delirium-dementia, and no neurocognitive disorder. RESULTS: 193 patients [mean age 79...
November 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Muhammad Imran Rahim, Andreas Weizbauer, Florian Evertz, Andrea Hoffmann, Manfred Rohde, Birgit Glasmacher, Henning Windhagen, Gerhard Gross, Jan-Marten Seitz, Peter P Mueller
Magnesium alloys are presently under investigation as promising biodegradable implant materials with osteoconductive properties. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, the potential contribution of soluble magnesium corrosion products to the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation was examined. However, no evidence for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation could be obtained when cultured mesenchymal precursor cells were differentiated in the presence of metallic magnesium or in cell culture medium containing elevated magnesium ion levels...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
William T Obremskey, Norele Cutrera, Christopher M Kidd
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Christopher Stone, Derrick Williams, Jeremy Price
The Extended Q-range Small-angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) instrument at the spallation neutron source (SNS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, incorporates a 69 m(3) detector vessel with a vacuum system which required an upgrade with respect to performance, ease of operation, and maintenance. The upgrade focused on improving pumping performance as well as optimizing system design to minimize opportunity for operational error. This upgrade provided the following practical contributions: •Reduced time required to evacuate from atmospheric pressure to 2 mTorr from 500 to 1000 min to 60-70 min•Provided turn-key automated control with a multi-faceted interlock for personnel and machine safety...
2016: MethodsX
Heather M Byers, Margaret P Adam, Amy LaCroix, Sarah E S Leary, Bonnie Cole, William B Dobyns, Heather C Mefford
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare, highly malignant, embryonal tumors most often occurring in children under age 3 years. Most are due to a somatic change in tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 followed by a second-hit, typically loss of heterozygosity, best detected on immunohistochemical staining. Despite the noteworthy genetic homogeneity of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, relatively little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms that lead to biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Xie Han, Guotao Liu, Sheng Hua Liu, Jun Yin
Supramolecular chemistry and self-assembly provide a valuable chance to understand the complicated topological structures on a molecular level. Two types of classical mechanically interlocked molecules, rotaxanes and catenanes, possess non-covalent mechanical bonds and have attracted more attention not only in supramolecular chemistry but also in the fields of materials science, nanotechnology and bioscience. In the past decades, the template-directed clipping reaction based on imine chemistry has become one of the most efficient methods for the construction of functionalized rotaxanes and catenanes...
September 20, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Wiroon Laupattarakasem, Pat Laupattarakasem
We describe a sliding knot that is ideally lockable by transforming the original simple figure-of-8 configuration into a true interlocking, low-profile knot with an α-α configuration that creates strong primary knot security when tying is finished. Reversed half-hitches on alternating posts for secondary knot security can be added, but to save surgical time, these are not obligatory. Three simple knot-tying methods are presented; the choice of which to use is based on the surgeon's preference. Pulling the loop limb simultaneously on both sides of the knot could trigger premature knot flipping...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Naveen Sharma, Avinash Mandloi, Ashish Agrawal, Shailendra Singh
INTRODUCTION: The clavicle, humerus and acromioclavicular (AC) joint separately are very commonly involved in traumatic injuries around the shoulder. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation with distal clavicle fracture is a well recognized entity in clinical practice. AC joint dislocation with mid shaft clavicle fracture is uncommon and only few cases have been reported in literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe an acromioclavicular dislocation with ipsilateral mid shaft clavicle, mid shaft humerus and coracoid process fracture...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
James E M Lewis, Joby Winn, Luca Cera, Stephen M Goldup
We present an operationally simple iterative coupling strategy for the synthesis of oligomeric homo- and hetero-[n]rotaxanes with precise control over the position of each macrocycle. The exceptional yield of the AT-CuAAC reaction, combined with optimized conditions that allow the rapid synthesis of the target oligomers, opens the door to the study of precision-engineered oligomeric interlocked molecules.
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Frances T Hakim, Sarfraz Memon, Ping Jin, Matin M Imanguli, Huan Wang, Najibah Rehman, Xiao-Yi Yan, Jeremy Rose, Jacqueline W Mays, Susan Dhamala, Veena Kapoor, William Telford, John Dickinson, Sean Davis, David Halverson, Haley B Naik, Kristin Baird, Daniel Fowler, David Stroncek, Edward W Cowen, Steven Z Pavletic, Ronald E Gress
Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) is the primary nonrelapse complication of allogeneic transplantation, understanding of its pathogenesis is limited. To identify the main operant pathways across the spectrum of CGVHD, we analyzed gene expression in circulating monocytes, chosen as in situ systemic reporter cells. Microarrays identified two interrelated pathways: 1) IFN-inducible genes, and 2) innate receptors for cellular damage. Corroborating these with multiplex RNA quantitation, we found that multiple IFN-inducible genes (affecting lymphocyte trafficking, differentiation, and Ag presentation) were concurrently upregulated in CGVHD monocytes compared with normal subjects and non-CGVHD control patients...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
F Greve, M Crönlein, M Beirer, C Kirchhoff, P Biberthaler, K F Braun
Anterior tibial pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication after interlocking screw insertion in tibial nailing. We present the case of a 28-year-old male patient with this complication with a 6-week delay after tibial nailing of a right tibial fracture type 42-A1 of the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification. On presentation to our emergency department, the patient's complaints were solemnly intermittent pain and occasional swelling of his proximal lower leg. Deep vein thrombosis, compartment syndrome, and implant dislocation were ruled out, and the patient was discharged after his symptoms improved without further intervention...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
Amanda N Stephens, Vanessa Beanland, Nimmi Candappa, Eve Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Bruce Corben, Michael G Lenné
Intersections are typically associated with a higher level of crash risk than other types of facilities on the road network. Standard cross-road intersections are particularly hazardous because by their very design, drivers may travel through at speeds that are incompatible with human biomechanical tolerance should a crash occur. Further, drivers are exposed to dangerous conflict angles, which are likely to result in serious injury. This paper examines the effectiveness of two new intersection designs aimed at restricting potentially dangerous conflict angles while reducing driver speeds through the intersection...
September 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kelong Zhu, V Nicholas Vukotic, Stephen J Loeb
For the purpose of developing higher level mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), such as molecular switches and machines, a new rotaxane system was designed in which both the 1,2-bis(pyridinium)ethane and benzimidazolium recognition templating motifs were combined. These two very different recognition sites were successfully incorporated into [2]rotaxane and [3]rotaxane molecular shuttles which were fully characterized by (1) H NMR, 2D EXSY, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and VT NMR analysis. By utilizing benzimidazolium as both a recognition site and stoppering group it was possible to create not only an acid/base switchable [2]rotaxane molecular shuttle (energy barrier 20...
September 26, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Anthony F De Giacomo, Paul Tornetta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary nailing of distal tibia fractures using modern techniques, without fibula fixation, in obtaining and maintaining alignment. DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Level-I academic trauma center. PATIENTS: One hundred thirty-two consecutive patients with distal tibia fractures. INTERVENTION: Intramedullary nail of distal tibia fracture, without fibula fixation, was performed in consecutive patients using modern reduction techniques...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
William B Miller
All eukaryotic organisms are holobionts representing complex collaborations between the entire microbiome of each eukaryote and its innate cells. These linked constituencies form complex localized and interlocking ecologies in which the specific microbial constituents and their relative abundance differ substantially according to age and environmental exposures. Rapid advances in microbiology and genetic research techniques have uncovered a significant previous underestimate of the extent of that microbial contribution and its metabolic and developmental impact on holobionts...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Konstantinos Chatzipanagis, Christoph G Baumann, Monica Sandri, Simone Sprio, Anna Tampieri, Roland Kröger
: We report the design, fabrication and application of a novel micro-electromechanical device coupled to a confocal Raman microscope that enables in situ molecular investigations of micro-fibers under uniaxial tensile load. This device allows for the mechanical study of micro-fibers with diameters in the range between 10 and 100μm and lengths of several hundred micrometers. By exerting forces in the mN range, the device enables an important force range to be accessed between that of atomic force microscopy and macroscopic stress-strain measurement devices...
September 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Peter Augat, Florian Hoegel, Daniel Stephan, Stephanie Hoffmann, Volker Buehren
Treatment of distal tibia shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing requires stable fixation of the distal fragment to prevent malunion. Angular stable locking for intramedullary nails pledge to provide increased mechanical stability. This study tested the hypothesis that intramedullary nails with angular stable interlocking screws would have increased construct stiffness, reduced fracture gap movement and enhanced fatigue failure compared to nails with conventional locking having the same diameter. Biomechanical experiments were performed on 24 human cadaveric tibiae which obtained a distal fracture and were fixed by three different techniques: conventional locking with 8- and 10-mm-diameter nails and angular stable locking with 8-mm nails...
September 22, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Selda Ulucanlar, Gary J Fooks, Anna B Gilmore
BACKGROUND: Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA's social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Ehsan Rezabeigi, Paula M Wood-Adams, Robin A L Drew
In this study, we produce highly porous (up to ∼91%) composite scaffolds of polylactic acid (PLA) containing 2 wt % sol-gel-derived 45S5 Bioglass(®) particles via nonsolvent induced phase separation at -23°C with no sacrificial phases involved. Before the incorporation of the bioglass with PLA, the particles are surface modified with a silane coupling agent which effectively diminishes agglomeration between them leading to a better dispersion of bioactive particles throughout the scaffold. Interestingly, the incorporation route (via solvent dichloromethane or nonsolvent hexane) of the surface modified particles in the foaming process has the greatest impact on porosity, crystallinity, and morphology of the scaffolds...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Hari Katepalli, Vijay T John, Anubhav Tripathi, Arijit Bose
Using fumed and spherical silica particles of similar hydrodynamic size, we investigated the effects of particle shape and inter-particle interactions on the formation, stability and rheology of bromohexadecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The interparticle interactions were varied from repulsive to attractive by modifying the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Optical microscope images revealed smaller droplet sizes for the fumed silica stabilized emulsions. All the emulsions remained stable for several weeks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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