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Dana Zeid, Joshua Carter, Marc A Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug dependencies are associated with different social stigmas, and some studies suggest they might exhibit different clinical presentations. Further, the treatments for each vary considerably. Alcohol versus drug use problems were compared in terms of attachment patterns and related clinical treatment issues in two interlocking studies using converging logic and designs. METHODS: In Study 1, alcohol versus drug dependence was defined in terms of a known groups design...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
H Rajabi, N Ghoroubi, K Stamm, E Appel, S N Gorb
Dragonfly wings are highly specialized locomotor systems, which are formed by a combination of several structural components. The wing components, also known as structural elements, are responsible for the various aspects of the wing functionality. Considering the complex interactions between the wing components, modelling of the wings as a whole is only possible with inevitable huge oversimplifications. In order to overcome this difficulty, we have recently proposed a new approach to model individual components of complex wings comparatively...
July 21, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Rabia Khan, Roger Junges, Heidi A Åmdal, Tsute Chen, Donald A Morrison, Fernanda C Petersen
Natural transformation is used by bacteria to take up DNA from their surroundings and incorporate it into their genomes. Streptococci do so during a transient period of competence, triggered by pheromones that they produce, secrete and sense under conditions influenced by the environment. In Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus suis, and species of the bovis, salivarius and pyogenic groups of streptococci, the pheromone XIP is sensed by the intra-cellular regulator ComR, that in turn activates the transcription of comS, encoding the XIP precursor, and of sigX, encoding the only known alternative sigma factor in streptococci...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaoxiong Li, Jason Y C Lim, Paul D Beer
A family of cationic halogen bonding [2]rotaxanes have been synthesised via an active-metal template synthetic strategy. (1)H NMR spectroscopic anion titration investigations reveal these interlocked host systems recognize halides selectively over oxoanions in aqueous-organic solvent media. Furthermore, systematically modulating the rigidity and size of the rotaxanes' anion binding cavities via metal complexation, as well as by varying the number of halogen bond-donor groups in the axle component, was found to dramatically influence halide anion selectivity...
July 20, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Long Pu, Rohit Saraf, Vivek Maheshwari
Hierarchical nanostructures are tailored and used routinely in nature to accomplish tasks with high performance. Their formation in nature is accomplished without the use of any patterning process. Inspired by the performance of such structures, we have combined 2-D nanosheets with 1-D nanorods for functioning as electronic skin. These structures made in high density without any patterning process can be easily assembled over large areas. They can sense pressures as low as 0.4 Pa, with a response time in milliseconds...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
In Tae Hong, Chi Hoon Oh, Young Suk Sim, Soo Hong Han
PURPOSE: For patients with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury, we performed an extensor tendon realignment and direct repair technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after direct repair of the sagittal band in patients with MCP extensor tendon subluxation caused by finger flicking injury and to introduce the repair technique. METHODS: A total of 26 patients with a mean age of 39...
July 18, 2017: Der Orthopäde
James Barger, Austin T Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: JBJS Reviews
Peng Yu, Hui He, Yuanfang Luo, Demin Jia, Alain Dufresne
Novel hybrid elastomer/regenerated chitin (R-chitin) composites were developed, for the first time, by introducing chitin solution (dissolved in alkaline/urea aqueous solution at low temperature) into rubber latex, and then co-coagulating using ethanol as the co-coagulant. During the rapid co-precipitation process, the chitin solution showed rapid coagulant-induced gelation and a porous chitin phase was generated, while the rubber latex particles were synchronously demulsificated to form the rubbery phase. The two phases interlaced and interpenetrated simultaneously to form an Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) structure, which was evidenced by SEM observation...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Emilio M Pérez
In the last five years, we have developed synthetic methods towards encapsulation of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into organic macrocycles, to form rotaxane-type molecules. These are the first examples of mechanically interlocked SWNTs derivatives (MINTs). In this article, I discuss our motivation to continue developing chemistry of SWNTs at a time well past their hype. We explain our synthetic strategy and characterization methodology in detail, stressing the general aspects. In particular, we emphasize the importance of adequate control experiments and bulk spectroscopic and analytical data to determine the structure of SWNT derivatives, as opposed to relying only (or mostly) on microscopy...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Olga Sayanova, Virginie Mimouni, Lionel Ulmann, Annick Morant-Manceau, Virginie Pasquet, Benoît Schoefs, Johnathan A Napier
Diatoms are responsible for up to 40% of the carbon fixation in our oceans. The fixed carbon is moved through carbon metabolism towards the synthesis of organic molecules that are consumed through interlocking foodwebs, and this process is strongly impacted by the abiotic environment. However, it has become evident that diatoms can be used as 'platform' organisms for the production of high valuable bio-products such as lipids, pigments and carbohydrates where stress conditions can be used to direct carbon metabolism towards the commercial production of these compounds...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Muhammad Qaisar Shah, Muhammad Shoib Zardad, Alamzeb Khan, Sajjad Ahmed, Abdus Saboor Awan, Taj Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of nonunion, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Peixia Cheng, Peng Yin, Peishan Ning, Lijun Wang, Xunjie Cheng, Yunning Liu, David C Schwebel, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Guoqing Hu, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
Chuan Gao, Zhou-Lin Luan, Qi Zhang, Si-Jia Rao, Da-Hui Qu, He Tian
A novel braided hetero[2](3)rotaxane is demonstrated by integrating the braided structure and mechanically interlocked rotaxane, in which a heterotritopic linear tris(dialkylammonium) guest penetrates a heterotritopic tris(crown ether) host, resulting in the formation of braided pseudohetero[2](3)rotaxane with different crossing and threading points. Then a braided hetero[2](3)rotaxane is constructed through the "CuAAC" click reaction.
July 11, 2017: Organic Letters
Chuhan Zong, Michelle J Wu, Jason Z Qin, A James Link
Mechanically interlocked molecules that change their conformation in response to stimuli have been developed by synthetic chemists as building blocks for molecular machines. Here we describe a natural product, the lasso peptide benenodin-1, which exhibits conformational switching between two distinct threaded conformers upon actuation by heat. We have determined the structures of both conformers and have characterized the kinetics and energetics of the conformational switch. Single amino acid substitutions to benenodin-1 generate peptides that are biased to a single conformer, showing that the switching behavior is potentially an evolvable trait in these peptides...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
D Pedreira De Oliveira, L Ottria, M Gargari, V Candotto, F J Silvestre, D Lauritano
Bone is a complexly structured tissue and hierarchically organized from macro to nano levels of dimensions. Biomaterial devices developed to replace and interact with bone tissues have been designed from the macro to nano perspective to provide suitable performance in acquiring primary and biological stability. Macro level designed features provide mechanical interlock and primary stability to implants inside the bone. Surface micro and nano structures influence cells behavior to promote the secondary or biological stability, reaching successful osseointegration...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Xiaozhuang Zhou, Guoqiang Ma, Huaixia Zhao, Jiaxi Cui
Gelation-mediated phase separation is applied to prepare immiscible polymer bilayer films with an interlocking interface structure. Polymer systems consisting of copolymer of urea and polydimethylsiloxane and epoxy are selected to demonstrate the feasibility. When the epoxy fraction exceeds 25 wt%, well-defined bilayer structures self-form by a one-pot casting method in which the phase separation state is fixed by an evaporation-induced gelation. Microscopy studies of the resulting bilayers clearly reveal that interlocking structures form during the bilayer films construct...
July 10, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Yuki Sugiura, Kanji Tsuru, Kunio Ishikawa
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO3Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO3. The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO3Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Keren Gueta
RATIONALE: Despite the benefits and availability of drug treatment in Western countries, research has shown low utilisation rates, especially by mothers. Studies have indicated internal barriers (e.g., shame) and external/structural barriers (e.g., poverty) to women's utilisation of drug treatment, but little is known about the interrelated axes of marginalization that create such barriers and, even less, facilitators of treatment. A promising avenue for examining this path may be the theoretical perspective of intersectionality, which has often been used to illustrate how women's experiences are shaped by gender in conjunction with other factors, including class, age, and race...
June 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Bastian Dumslaff, Anna Naima Reuss, Manfred Wagner, Xinliang Feng, Akimitsu Narita, George Fytas, Klaus Müllen
While trying to cluster as many phenylene units as possible in a given space, we proceed to the 3D world of benzene-based molecules by employing covalently interlocked cyclohexa-m-phenylenes as present in the unique paddlewheel shaped polyphenylene reported in this work (10). A precursor was conceived, in which freely rotating m-chlorophenylene units provide sufficient solubility along with the necessary proximity for the final ring closure toward 10. The assembly of its solubilized tert-butyl derivatives to supramolecular carbon nanostructures is subsequently monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS), revealing the dimension of the initially formed aggregates as well as the amorphous character of the solid state...
July 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Aurèle Piazza, Xiaojie Cui, Michael Adrian, Frédéric Samazan, Brahim Heddi, Anh-Tuan Phan, Alain G Nicolas
G-quadruplexes (G4) are polymorphic four-stranded structures formed by certain G-rich nucleic acids in vitro, but the sequence and structural features dictating their formation and function in vivo remains uncertain. Here we report a structure-function analysis of the complex hCEB1 G4-forming sequence. We isolated four G4 conformations in vitro, all of which bear unusual structural features: Form 1 bears a V-shaped loop and a snapback guanine; Form 2 contains a terminal G-triad; Form 3 bears a zero-nucleotide loop; and Form 4 is a zero-nucleotide loop monomer or an interlocked dimer...
June 29, 2017: ELife
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