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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913605/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-early-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-survivors
#1
Maurizio Delvecchio, Paola Muggeo, Mariantonietta Monteduro, Giuseppe Lassandro, Chiara Novielli, Federica Valente, Emanuela Salinaro, Annapaola Zito, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Nicola Santoro, Paola Giordano, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in childhood ALL and if it is associated with early cardiovascular dysfunction. METHODS: In total, 53 childhood ALL survivors and 34 controls underwent auxological evaluation, biochemical assay, liver, heart and vascular ultrasound study. RESULTS: NAFLD was more frequent in ALL patients than in controls (39...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913299/the-inhibitory-effect-of-beta-lapachone-on-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#2
Dong Ryun Gu, Joon No Lee, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung Jin Kim, Min Seuk Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
β-lapachone (β-L) is a substrate of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 reduces quinones to hydroquinones using NADH as an electron donor and consequently increases the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio. The activation of NQO1 by β-L has beneficial effects on several metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, hypertension, and renal injury. However, the effect of β-L on bone metabolism remains unclear. Here, we show that β-L might be a potent inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#5
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#6
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906721/preoperative-evaluation-and-preparation-of-the-morbidly-obese-patient
#7
Andreas B Böhmer, Frank Wappler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to familiarize with the most current findings regarding preoperative evaluation and preparation of morbidly obese patients prior to elective, noncardiac surgery. In the light of the increasing number of surgical patients being morbidly obese, the knowledge of evidence-based preoperative evaluation strategies is profound for a rational approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative evaluation should be carried out with sufficient time before the day of surgery to allow modification of the perioperative management...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#8
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906428/the-epidemiology-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-connection-with-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-endothelial-dysfunction
#9
A Federico, M Dallio, M Masarone, M Persico, C Loguercio
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a predominant hepatopathy worldwide and a component of metabolic syndrome. It represents a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, independently of the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity. For this reason, nowadays an epidemiological analysis and a research of the causes that correlate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular pathologies, are extremely useful. There are important epidemiological variations in relation to various geographical areas, and depending on different population groups, the prevalence of this pathology changes...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905531/a-indicator-of-visceral-adipose-dysfunction-to-evaluate-metabolic-health-in-adult-chinese
#10
Ming-Feng Xia, Ying Chen, Huan-Dong Lin, Hui Ma, Xiao-Ming Li, Qiqige Aleteng, Qian Li, Dan Wang, Yu Hu, Bai-Shen Pan, Xue-Jun Li, Xiao-Ying Li, Xin Gao
Visceral adipose dysfunction is a major cause of metabolic disorders. However, there is lack of a clinical index for prediction of visceral fat dysfunction in Asians. The present study aims to establish a visceral adiposity index for evaluation of metabolic health status in Chinese, the largest Asian ethnic group. 485 subjects were recruited from Lianqian Community, Xiamen and received abdominal computed tomography(CT) for visceral fat area. A Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was created using multivariate linear regression analyses, and was further validated in 6495 subjects recruited from Changfeng Community, Shanghai...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904608/arnebia-euchroma-ointment-can-reduce-abdominal-fat-thickness-and-abdominal-circumference-of-overweight-women-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Mansour Siavash, Mohsen Naseri, Mojgan Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903988/metabolic-syndrome-in-relation-to-risk-of-meningioma
#12
Corinna Seliger, Christoph R Meier, Claudia Becker, Susan S Jick, Martin Proescholdt, Ulrich Bogdahn, Peter Hau, Michael F Leitzmann
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is a frequent primary intracranial tumor, the etiology of which is potentially related to adiposity. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasingly common disease characterized by having at least three of the following conditions: central adiposity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Only one prior study investigated MetS in relation to meningioma risk and found a positive association between the two. RESULTS: Among 2,027 cases and 20,269 controls, body mass index was positively associated with meningioma (p-value for trend < 0...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903953/sociocultural-characteristic-lifestyle-and-metabolic-risk-factors-among-a-sample-of-kuwaiti-male-university-students
#13
Maha Al-Sejari
In the past six decades, the Kuwaiti population has been exposed to rapid transformation in the quality of diet intake, daily activities, and career types. This major socioeconomic shift was accompanied by the introduction of both communicable and noncommunicable chronic diseases afflicting people of all ages. This article aims to detect a relationship between sociocultural characteristics-such as physical activity, dietary habits, and smoking-and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 262 male university students in Kuwait; participants were selected by using a convenient nonrandom opportunistic sample...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903155/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-tumor-microenvironment-and-inflammation
#14
Neil M Iyengar, Ayca Gucalp, Andrew J Dannenberg, Clifford A Hudis
Purpose There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Methods We review recent findings regarding obesity-associated alterations in the microenvironment and the local and systemic mechanisms through which these changes support tumor growth. Results Locally, hyperadiposity is associated with altered adipose tissue function, adipocyte death, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Most individuals who are obese harbor inflamed adipose tissue, which resembles chronically injured tissue, with immune cell infiltration and remodeling...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901631/11-oxygenated-c19-steroids-are-the-predominant-androgens-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Michael W O'Reilly, Punith Kempegowda, Carl Jenkinson, Angela E Taylor, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Wiebke Arlt
CONTEXT: Androgen excess is a defining feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but the exact origin of hyperandrogenemia remains a matter of debate. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the 11-oxygenated C19 steroid pathway to androgen metabolism in humans. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of 11-oxygenated androgens to the androgen excess phenotype in women with PCOS. METHODS: 114 women with PCOS and 49 healthy controls underwent measurement of serum androgens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900261/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system-for-treating-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#16
Ibrahim Knani, Brian J Earley, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Rivka Hadar, Asaad Gammal, Resat Cinar, Harry J Hirsch, Yehuda Pollak, Itai Gross, Talia Eldar-Geva, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Joan C Han, Andrea M Haqq, Varda Gross-Tsur, Rachel Wevrick, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: Extreme obesity is a core phenotypic feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Among numerous metabolic regulators, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is critically involved in controlling feeding, body weight, and energy metabolism, and a globally acting cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockade reverses obesity both in animals and humans. The first-in-class CB1R antagonist rimonabant proved effective in inducing weight loss in adults with PWS. However, it is no longer available for clinical use because of its centrally mediated, neuropsychiatric, adverse effects...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899485/circulating-microrna-122-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-new-onset-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Peter Willeit, Philipp Skroblin, Alexander R Moschen, Xiaoke Yin, Dorothee Kaudewitz, Anna Zampetaki, Temo Barwari, Meredith Whitehead, Cristina M Ramírez, Leigh Goedeke, Noemi Rotllan, Enzo Bonora, Alun D Hughes, Peter Santer, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Herbert Tilg, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is abundant in the liver and involved in lipid homeostasis, but its relevance to the long-term risk of developing metabolic disorders is unknown. We therefore measured circulating miR-122 in the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (n=810; survey year: 1995). Circulating miR-122 was associated with prevalent insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and an adverse lipid profile. Among 92 plasma proteins and 135 lipid subspecies quantified with mass spectrometry, it correlated inversely with zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein and positively with afamin, complement-factor H, VLDL-associated apolipoproteins, and lipid subspecies containing monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899484/lack-of-cul4b-in-adipocytes-promotes-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-insulin-sensitivity
#18
Peishan Li, Yu Song, Wenying Zan, Liping Qin, Shuang Han, Baichun Jiang, Hao Dou, Changshun Shao, Yaoqin Gong
Obesity and obesity-associated diseases are linked to dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signaling pathway. Identification of the factors that regulate PPARγ expression and activity is crucial for combating obesity. However, the ubiquitin E3 ligases that target PPARγ for proteasomal degradation have been rarely identified and their functions in vivo have not been characterized. Here we report that CUL4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) negatively regulates PPARγ by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#19
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899022/alterations-of-specific-lipid-groups-in-serum-of-obese-humans-a-review
#20
REVIEW
A Mika, T Sledzinski
Obesity is a major contributor to the dysfunction of liver, cardiac, pulmonary, endocrine and reproductive system, as well as a component of metabolic syndrome. Although development of obesity-related disorders is associated with lipid abnormalities, most previous studies dealing with the problem in question were limited to routinely determined parameters, such as serum concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Many authors postulated to extend the scope of analysed lipid compounds and to study obesity-related alterations in other, previously non-examined groups of lipids...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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