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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849035/continuous-exposure-to-non-lethal-doses-of-sodium-iodate-induces-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-dysfunction
#1
Xiao-Yu Zhang, Tsz Kin Ng, Mårten Erik Brelén, Di Wu, Jian Xiong Wang, Kwok Ping Chan, Jasmine Sum Yee Yung, Di Cao, Yumeng Wang, Shaodan Zhang, Sun On Chan, Chi Pui Pang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is the major cause of irreversible blindness and visual impairment in elderly population. We previously established a RPE degeneration model using an acute high dose sodium iodate to induce oxidative stress. Here we report findings on a prolonged treatment of low doses of sodium iodate on human RPE cells (ARPE-19). RPE cells were treated continuously with low doses (2-10 mM) of sodium iodate for 5 days...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803896/roles-of-fgf-signals-in-heart-development-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Itoh, Hiroya Ohta, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Morichika Konishi
The heart provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and assists in the removal of metabolic waste through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. It is the first organ to form during embryonic morphogenesis. FGFs with diverse functions in development, health, and disease are signaling proteins, mostly as paracrine growth factors or endocrine hormones. The human/mouse FGF family comprises 22 members. Findings obtained from mouse models and human diseases with FGF signaling disorders have indicated that several FGFs are involved in heart development, health, and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750286/secretion-profile-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-during-wound-healing
#3
Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Elaine D Por, Ramesh R Kaini, Heuy-Ching Wang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the secretion profile of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPS-RPE) during wound healing. iPS-RPE was used to develop an in vitro wound healing model. We hypothesized that iPS-RPE secretes cytokines and growth factors which act in an autocrine manner to promote migration and proliferation of cells during wound healing. Methods: iPS-RPE was grown in transwells until fully confluent and pigmented...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721584/the-three-sisters-of-fate-in-multiple-sclerosis-klotho-clotho-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-lachesis-and-vitamin-d-atropos
#4
Hamit Yasar Ellidag, Necat Yilmaz, Fatma Kurtulus, Ozgur Aydin, Esin Eren, Ayca Inci, Suleyman Dolu, Fatma Demet Arslan Ince, Özlem Giray, Aylin Yaman
BACKGROUND: The klotho (Klt)-fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-vitamin D axis is the main component of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolisms; on the contrary, it is also secreted from the choroid plexus (CP). PURPOSE: This study is aimed at evaluating serum soluble Klt (sKlt), FGF-23, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Thirty-two relapsing-remitting MS patients (11 males and 21 females; mean age 38...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699175/regulation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-fibrogenesis-by-fibroblast-growth-factors
#5
Justin D Schumacher, Grace L Guo
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679852/the-relationship-of-novel-plasma-proteins-in-the-early-neonatal-period-with-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#6
Anne M Lynch, Brandie D Wagner, Naresh Mandava, Alan G Palestine, Peter M Mourani, Emily A McCourt, Scott C N Oliver, Steven H Abman
Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development. Proteins from the insulin-like growth factor pathway are related to ROP. However, there is a paucity of research on the role of other proteins in ROP. The aim of this study was to identify plasma proteins related to clinically significant ROP. Methods: We measured 1121 plasma proteins in the early neonatal period in infants at risk for ROP using an aptamer-based proteomic technology...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646933/current-and-upcoming-pharmacotherapy-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yaron Rotman, Arun J Sanyal
Given the high prevalence and rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the absence of approved therapies is striking. Although the mainstay of treatment of NAFLD is weight loss, it is hard to maintain, prompting the need for pharmacotherapy as well. A greater understanding of disease pathogenesis in recent years was followed by development of new classes of medications, as well as potential repurposing of currently available agents. NAFLD therapies target four main pathways. The dominant approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation and the resultant metabolic stress...
September 19, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589928/obeticholic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-primary-biliary-cirrhosis
#8
David E J Jones
INTRODUCTION: There is significant unmet need in Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) in patients under-responsive to the only approved therapy Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) who are at increased risk of progressing to end-stage liver disease. Obeticholic Acid (OCA) is a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist which has been evaluated as a second line therapy in PBC and has recently been licenced by the FDA. AREAS COVERED: The pharmacology and biology of OCA as an FXR agonist and its clinical benefits...
September 2, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580383/alterations-in-enterohepatic-fgf15-signaling-and-changes-in-bile-acid-composition-depend-on-localization-of-murine-intestinal-inflammation
#9
Monika Rau, Bruno Stieger, Maria J Monte, Johannes Schmitt, Daniel Jahn, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Tina Raselli, Jose J G Marin, Beat Müllhaupt, Gerhard Rogler, Andreas Geier
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 is part of the gut-liver crosstalk accounting for bile acid (BA) metabolism regulation. Dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 signaling is observed in different pathological conditions, for example, in gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To understand the molecular bases, we analyzed the enterohepatic regulation of Fgf15-mediated pathway in 2 different inflammatory bowel disease mouse models. METHODS: Target genes of the BA-farnesoid-X-receptor (Fxr)-Ffg15 axis were quantified by RT-PCR or western blotting in gut and liver of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated and IL10 mice...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521506/new-pharmacologic-agents-that-target-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-kidney-disease
#10
Giovanni Musso, Franco De Michieli, Daria Bongiovanni, Renato Parente, Luciana Framarin, Nicola Leone, Mara Berrutti, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Elena Paschetta
Epidemiologic data show an association between the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the incidence and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD); furthermore, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related cirrhosis has a higher risk of renal failure, a greater necessity for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation, and a poorer renal outcome than cirrhosis of other etiologies even after simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. These data suggest that NASH and CKD share common proinflammatory and profibrotic mechanisms of progression, which are targeted incompletely by current treatments...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452603/serum-bile-acids-and-glp-1-decrease-following-telemetric-induced-weight-loss-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Ronald Biemann, Marina Penner, Katrin Borucki, Sabine Westphal, Claus Luley, Raik Rönicke, Kathleen Biemann, Cornelia Weikert, Anke Lux, Nikolai Goncharenko, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Jochen G Schneider, Berend Isermann
Bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as metabolic regulators, potentially improving insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery. However, physiological relevance of such observations remains unknown. Hence, we analysed serum BA composition and associated gut-derived hormone levels following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 74 non-smoking men (45-55 yr) with MetS were randomised to a lifestyle-induced weight loss program (supervision via telemonitoring) or to a control arm...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440690/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-and-phosphorus-related-factors-in-young-japanese-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Sanae Ito, Hiromi Ishida, Kazuhiro Uenishi
Phosphorus homeostasis is determined by dietary intake, intestinal absorption, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is considered to be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in both patients with chronic kidney diseases and healthy subjects. However, the number of studies evaluating serum FGF-23 concentrations in healthy subjects is limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum FGF-23 concentrations and phosphorus related factors in 182 young Japanese women (mean age, 19...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382436/fgf19-functions-as-autocrine-growth-factor-for-hepatoblastoma
#13
David J Elzi, Meihua Song, Barron Blackman, Susan T Weintraub, Dolores López-Terrada, Yidong Chen, Gail E Tomlinson, Yuzuru Shiio
Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children, accounting for over 65% of all childhood liver malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is distinct from adult liver cancer in that it is not associated with hepatitis virus infection, cirrhosis, or other underlying liver pathology. The paucity of appropriate cell and animal models has been hampering the mechanistic understanding of hepatoblastoma pathogenesis. Consequently, there is no molecularly targeted therapy for hepatoblastoma. To gain insight into cytokine signaling in hepatoblastoma, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the proteins secreted from Hep293TT hepatoblastoma cell line we established and identified the specific secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a growth factor for liver cells...
March 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353029/notch-signaling-activation-is-associated-with-patient-mortality-and-increased-fgf1-mediated-invasion-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity
#14
Alice N Weaver, M Benjamin Burch, Tiffiny S Cooper, Deborah L Della Manna, Shi Wei, Akinyemi I Ojesina, Eben L Rosenthal, Eddy S Yang
UNLABELLED: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer subtype that lacks validated prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers, and human papillomavirus status has not proven beneficial in predicting patient outcomes. A gene expression pathway analysis was conducted using OSCC patient specimens to identify molecular targets that may improve management of this disease. RNA was isolated from 19 OSCCs treated surgically at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB; Birmingham, AL) and evaluated using the NanoString nCounter system...
September 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302208/vitamin-d3-supplementation-bone-health-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-results-of-an-open-label-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Diana R Mager, Stephanie T Jackson, Michelle R Hoffmann, Kailash Jindal, Peter A Senior
BACKGROUND: Adults with diabetes (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency, suboptimal bone health and reduced quality of life (QoL) due to limited sunlight exposure, poor vitD intake and CKD. AIMS: This open-labeled, randomized clinical trial, compared the impact of daily (2000 IU/D) verses monthly (40,000 IU/month) vitD3 supplementation over six months on markers of vitD status, bone health and QoL in adults with DM and CKD (stages: 1-4)...
June 2, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270475/postprandial-plasma-concentrations-of-individual-bile-acids-and-fgf-19-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
David P Sonne, F Samuel van Nierop, Willem Kulik, Maarten R Soeters, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163928/impaired-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#17
Ling Zhang, Wieger Voskuijl, Marialena Mouzaki, Albert K Groen, Jennifer Alexander, Celine Bourdon, Alice Wang, Christian J Versloot, Valeria Di Giovanni, Ronald J A Wanders, Robert Bandsma
OBJECTIVE: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years and is associated with hepatic steatosis. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and participate in dietary fat digestion, regulation of energy expenditure, and immune responses. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SAM is associated with clinically relevant changes in bile acid homeostasis. DESIGN: An initial discovery cohort with 5 healthy controls and 22 SAM-patients was used to identify altered bile acid homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148532/roles-of-fgfs-as-paracrine-or-endocrine-signals-in-liver-development-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Itoh, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Morichika Konishi
The liver plays important roles in multiple processes including metabolism, the immune system, and detoxification and also has a unique capacity for regeneration. FGFs are growth factors that have diverse functions in development, health, and disease. The FGF family now comprises 22 members. Several FGFs have been shown to play roles as paracrine signals in liver development, health, and disease. FGF8 and FGF10 are involved in embryonic liver development, FGF7 and FGF9 in repair in response to liver injury, and FGF5, FGF8, FGF9, FGF17, and FGF18 in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018117/dissecting-molecular-mechanisms-in-bile-acid-diarrhea
#19
COMMENT
Michael Camilleri
It was previously demonstrated that patients with bile acid (BA) diarrhea have low fasting serum levels of the ileal hormone--fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19). In this paper, the authors demonstrate a positive correlation between ileal transcripts of FGF-19 and (75)SeHCAT retention, providing further evidence of FGF-19 deficiency as an explanation for BA diarrhea. Variants in KLB and FGFR4 genes (that determine the functional re-uptake of BA in the portal circulation by hepatocytes) are also demonstrated to be associated with (75)SeHCAT retention, confirming a second potential mechanism for the development of BA diarrhea...
March 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931208/regulation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-19-and-21-on-metabolism-in-the-fed-or-fasted-state
#20
Dandan Guan, Lidan Zhao, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jie Yu
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 are two atypical members of FGF19 subfamily that function as hormones. Exogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 have pharmacological effects, and endogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 play vital roles in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Recent reports have expanded the effects of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, the regulations of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on metabolism are different. FGF15/19 is mainly secreted from the small intestine in response to feeding, and FGF21 is secreted from the liver in response to extended fasting and from the liver and adipose tissue in response to feeding...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
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