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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805978/obeticholic-acid-a-selective-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-regulates-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-sandwich-cultured-human-hepatocytes
#1
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jonathan P Jackson, Robert L St Claire, Kimberly Freeman, Kenneth R Brouwer, Jeffrey E Edwards
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a master regulator of bile acid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and cellular membrane transport. Impairment of bile acid efflux due to cholangiopathies results in chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal elevation of intrahepatic and systemic bile acid levels. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a potent and selective FXR agonist that is 100-fold more potent than the endogenous ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). The effects of OCA on genes involved in bile acid homeostasis were investigated using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691284/performance-characteristics-of-serum-c4-and-fgf19-measurements-to-exclude-the-diagnosis-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-in-ibs-diarrhoea-and-functional-diarrhoea
#2
P Vijayvargiya, M Camilleri, P Carlson, A Lueke, J O'Neill, D Burton, I Busciglio, L Donato
BACKGROUND: The serum biomarkers, elevated 7αC4 (C4) and decreased FGF19, have been proposed as screening tests for bile acid diarrhoea. AIM: To analyse prevalence, specificity and reproducibility of fasting C4 and FGF19 in identifying bile acid diarrhoea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhoea or functional diarrhoea (summarised as IBS-D). METHODS: We prospectively studied fasting serum C4 and FGF19 in 101 IBS-D patients; we reviewed data from 37 of the 101 patients with prior fasting serum C4 and FGF19 and from 30 of the 101 patients with prior faecal bile acids per 48 hours...
September 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685531/impact-of-rantes-from-jawbone-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J Lechner, K Huesker, V Von Baehr
This study elucidates the question of whether chronic inflammation in the jawbone contributes to the development of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Fatty degenerative osteonecrosis in jawbone (FDOJ) may contribute to CFS by induction of inflammatory mediators. We examined seven cytokines by multiplex analysis in jawbone samples from two groups of patients. In order to clarify neurological interrelations, specimens from 21 CFS patients were analyzed from areas of previous surgery in the retromolar wisdom tooth area...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650457/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-regulates-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-mice
#4
Bérengère Benoit, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Martina Castelli, Stéphanie Chanon, Aurélie Vieille-Marchiset, Christine Durand, Nadia Bendridi, Sandra Pesenti, Pierre-Axel Monternier, Anne-Cécile Durieux, Damien Freyssenet, Jennifer Rieusset, Etienne Lefai, Hubert Vidal, Jérôme Ruzzin
The endocrine-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has recently emerged as a potential target for treating metabolic disease. Given that skeletal muscle is a key metabolic organ, we explored the role of FGF19 in that tissue. Here we report a novel function of FGF19 in regulating skeletal muscle mass through enlargement of muscle fiber size, and in protecting muscle from atrophy. Treatment with FGF19 causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice, while physiological and pharmacological doses of FGF19 substantially increase the size of human myotubes in vitro...
August 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569359/early-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-obesity-related-cytokines-and-bile-acid-metabolism-in-morbidly-obese-japanese-patients
#5
Hideharu Shimizu, Fumihiko Hatao, Kazuhiro Imamura, Kijuro Takanishi, Motoyoshi Tsujino
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has wide-ranging positive effects on adipocytokine metabolism, bile acid profile, and chronic low-grade inflammation related to obesity. However, the early temporal changes in these markers following LSG have not been well investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the early effects of LSG on adipocytokines, bile acid profile, and inflammatory markers. METHODS: This was a nonrandomized prospective study examining morbidly obese Japanese patients undergoing LSG...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522899/the-metabolic-syndrome-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-an-evaluation-of-large-panels-of-plasma-protein-markers-using-repeated-prediagnostic-samples
#6
Sophia Harlid, Robin Myte, Bethany Van Guelpen
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a set of metabolic risk factors including obesity, dysglycemia, and dyslipidemia, is associated with increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A putative biological mechanism is chronic, low-grade inflammation, both a feature of MetS and a CRC risk factor. However, excess body fat also induces a proinflammatory state and increases CRC risk. In order to explore the relationship between MetS, body size, inflammation, and CRC, we studied large panels of inflammatory and cancer biomarkers...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462123/resistance-exercise-reduced-the-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-mice
#7
Jin-Soo Kim, Dong Hyun Yoon, Hee-Jae Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) protein level has been shown to be elevated in aged mice muscle compared to adult mice. It activates the satellite cell quiescence, which leads to satellite cell depletion and may accelerate aging process. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle FGF-2 protein level in aged mice. METHODS: This study included eight young adult control C57BL/6 male mice (age 12 weeks, YCON group) and 14 aged C57BL/6 male mice (age 19 months), randomly divided into two groups (old control, OCON, n = 7; old resistance exercise, ORT, n = 7)...
September 2016: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453334/different-immune-signature-in-youths-experiencing-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-compared-to-untreated-obese-patients
#8
Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Giangennaro Coppola, Marco Carotenuto, Raffaella Iuliano, Claudia Tiano, Anna Rita Montesanto, Vittoria D'Esposito, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Pietro Formisano, Carmela Bravaccio
OBJECTIVES: To assess cytokine and chemokine levels in youth experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) compared to obese patients, hypothesizing a different "immune signature" between the two kinds of obesity. METHODS: We compared a group of youth experiencing AIWG (N 19, mean age 159 months, mean body mass index [BMI] z-score 1.81) and an age-, gender-, and BMI-matched group of untreated obese patients (N 19, mean age 147 months, mean BMI z-score 2) for a wide range of cytokines and chemokines by using a multiplex ELISA test...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445152/multiplexed-gene-expression-profiling-identifies-the-fgfr4-pathway-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#9
Changhoon Yoo, Jihoon Kang, Deokhoon Kim, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Seung-Mo Hong, Jung Jin Hwang, Seong-Yun Jeong, Shin Hwang, Ki-Hun Kim, Young-Joo Lee, Klaus P Hoeflich, Oleg Schmidt-Kittler, Stephen Miller, Eun Kyung Choi
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) pathway is an essential regulatory component of bile acid synthesis, and its relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported. We investigated the gene expression and clinical significance of FGFR4 and related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (range 30-78) and 34 patients (74%) were male. Six patients (13%) had hepatitis B virus infection, with or without liver cirrhosis...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403017/effects-of-different-fresh-gas-flows-with-or-without-a-heat-and-moisture-exchanger-on-inhaled-gas-humidity-in-adults-undergoing-general-anaesthesia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#10
José R C Braz, Mariana G Braz, Yoko Hayashi, Regina H G Martins, Marluci Betini, Leandro G Braz, Regina El Dib
BACKGROUND: The minimum inhaled gas absolute humidity level is 20 mgH2O l for short-duration use in general anaesthesia and 30 mgH2O l for long-duration use in intensive care to avoid respiratory tract dehydration. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to compare the effects of different fresh gas flows (FGFs) through a circle rebreathing system with or without a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) on inhaled gas absolute humidity in adults undergoing general anaesthesia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials...
August 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402487/circulating-klotho-associates-with-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-during-hemodialysis
#11
Christophe Marçais, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Jocelyne Drai, Emmanuelle Dantony, Marie-Christine Carlier, Emilie Blond, Leslie Genet, François Kuentz, Dominique Lataillade, Eric Legrand, Xavier Moreau-Gaudry, Guillaume Jean, Denis Fouque
Background: Klotho gene was identified as an aging suppressor. In animals klotho over-expression extends lifespan and defective klotho results in rapid aging and early death. The kidney is the main contributor to circulating klotho levels and during chronic kidney disease, renal klotho gene expression is drastically reduced in animals and humans as well. Objective: We aimed to determine the consequences of a serum klotho defect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during chronic dialysis...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315901/the-effect-of-sitagliptin-on-lipid-metabolism-of-fatty-liver-mice-and-related-mechanisms
#12
Bilin Xu, Tian Shen, Lin Chen, Juan Xia, Cuiping Zhang, Hongping Wang, Ming Yu, Tao Lei
BACKGROUND In clinics, patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been shown to receive significant improvements in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and liver function after sitagliptin treatment, although the mechanism of drug action remains poorly understood. This study investigated the possible mechanism of sitagliptin on lipid metabolism of NAFLD mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male C57/BL6 mice were induced for NAFLD via 16 weeks of a high-fat diet, and were treated with 15 mg/kg/day sitagliptin for 16 consecutive weeks...
March 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293196/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-is-associated-with-liver-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-non-diabetic-men
#13
Daniel L T Chen, Rachael Brown, Carsten Liess, Anne Poljak, Aimin Xu, Jialiang Zhang, Michael Trenell, Arthur Jenkins, Donald Chisholm, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Vaughan G Macefield, Jerry R Greenfield
Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275113/potential-mechanisms-of-effects-of-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-protein-isolate-therapy-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Sean C Harrington, Deborah Eckert, Jessica O'Neill, Duane Burton, Jun Chen, Audrey L Shaw, Andres Acosta
Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), an oral nutritional therapy, is efficacious in diverse diarrheal diseases. In an open-label study in 15 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D), we evaluated effects of SBI (5.0 g, twice a day) for 8 weeks on safety, on bowel function and abdominal pain, tryptophan metabolism (K:T ratio), intestinal permeability ((13)C-mannitol and lactulose excretion), bile acid synthesis (fasting serum FGF-19 and C4), duodenal and stool microbiome, and the expression of 90 genes related to inflammation, immune function, and tight junctions in duodenal mucosa...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252047/inhibition-of-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-by-heavy-chain-hyaluronan-pentraxin-3
#15
Hua He, Ajay E Kuriyan, Chen-Wei Su, Megha Mahabole, Yuan Zhang, Ying-Ting Zhu, Harry W Flynn, Jean-Marie Parel, Scheffer C G Tseng
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mediated by proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Because heavy chain-hyaluronic acid/pentraxin 3 (HC-HA/PTX3) purified from human amniotic membrane exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring actions, we hypothesized that HC-HA/PTX3 could inhibit these PVR-related processes in vitro. In this study, we first optimized an ARPE-19 cell culture model to mimic PVR by defining cell density, growth factors, and cultivation time...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249286/impact-of-fibroblast-growth-factors-19-and-21-in-bariatric-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Ashley Patton, Farooq H Khan, Rohit Kohli
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective therapeutic intervention for obesity, which is an abnormal health condition that is prevalent worldwide. Metabolic improvements that precede weight loss after bariatric surgery may be mediated, in part, through the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 signaling pathways. Both FGF15/19 and FGF21 are hormone-like members of the FGF family and exert their metabolic effects in an endocrine manner. Enhanced bile acid recycling after bariatric surgery leads to increased circulating levels of FGF15/19 in the distal small intestine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249259/fibroblast-growth-factor-15-19-in-hepatocarcinogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, M Ujue Latasa, Raquel Urtasun, Marina Bárcena-Varela, Maria Elizalde, Maddalen Jiménez, Carlos M Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Fernando J Corrales, Maite G Fernández-Barrena, Carmen Berasain, Matías A Avila
BACKGROUND: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplastic disease with a very bad prognosis and increasing worldwide incidence. HCCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only agent that has shown some clinical efficacy. It is therefore important to identify key molecular mechanisms driving hepatocarcinogenesis for the development of more efficacious therapies. However, HCCs are heterogeneous tumors and different molecular subclasses have been characterized...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202005/impact-of-gut-hormone-fgf-19-on-type-2-diabetes-and-mitochondrial-recovery-in-a-prospective-study-of-obese-diabetic-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#18
Lucia Martinez de la Escalera, Ioannis Kyrou, Jana Vrbikova, Voitech Hainer, Petra Sramkova, Martin Fried, Milan K Piya, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#19
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164555/continuous-hemodiafiltration-with-an-an69st-hemofilter-an69st-chdf-as-fgf-23-lowering-therapy
#20
Masafumi Yamato, Yusuke Minematsu, Yuta Ikemiya, Junichi Shibata, Junya Fujii, Takumi Minato, Sachie Miyagawa, Kaori Takaori, Yoko Tomiyama, Ikue Nagayama, Akira Wada, Takahito Ito, Hirotsugu Iwatani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is elevated not only in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also in acute illnesses such as acute kidney injury, septic shock, and acute heart failure. FGF-23 would be not only a simple biomarker but also a direct toxic factor in acute illness. Therefore, lowering circulating FGF-23 levels in clinical practice would be an exciting and valuable interventional strategy. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) is often performed for the treatment of the aforementioned acute illnesses...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
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