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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103598/coronavirus-infections-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-tract-show-distinct-features-in-hospitalized-children
#1
Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
January 20, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103386/paraoxonase-1-activity-is-related-to-trichinella-spiralis-induced-hepatitis-in-rats
#2
Ayman Samir Farid, Eman Mohamed Fath, Shogo Mido, Nariaki Nonaka, Yoichiro Horii
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential adverse effects of a chronic zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis infection on hepatic inflammation and its relationship to paraoxonase (PON)-1 and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of T. spiralis infection on hepatic synthesis of PON1. METHODS: Wistar rats were infected with 2500 first-stage larvae of T. spiralis and serum PON1 and BuChE activities were evaluated...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103249/the-green-tea-catechin-epigallocatechin-gallate-ameliorates-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
Sabine Westphal, Aleixandria McGeary, Sandra Rudloff, Andrea Wilke, Olaf Penack
Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102839/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-suppresses-autophagy-and-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-antiviral-responses-via-degradation-of-atg5-atg12-by-3c-pro
#4
Xuxu Fan, Shichong Han, Dan Yan, Yuan Gao, Yanquan Wei, Xiangtao Liu, Ying Liao, Huichen Guo, Shiqi Sun
Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#5
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102638/farnesoid-x-receptor-ablation-sensitizes-mice-to-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis
#6
Yongdong Niu, Meishu Xu, Betty L Slagle, Haihua Huang, Song Li, Grace L Guo, Ganggang Shi, Wenxin Qin, Wen Xie
: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a hepatitis B virus protein that has multiple cellular functions, but its role in HCC pathogenesis has been controversial. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor with activities in anti-inflammation and inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, whether or how FXR can impact hepatitis B virus/HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102503/reducing-unintended-pregnancies-as-a-strategy-to-avert-zika-related-microcephaly-births-in-the-united-states-a-simulation-study
#7
Katherine A Ahrens, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Loretta Gavin, Susan Moskosky
Introduction There is increasing evidence that infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to severe brain abnormalities in infants exposed in utero. The objective of our analysis was to estimate the contribution of enhanced contraception access to averting ZIKV-related microcephaly births in the United States, alone and in combination with another possible strategy, anti-ZIKV vaccination. Methods We used Monte Carlo sampling techniques (n = 100,000 simulations) to estimate the number of microcephaly births expected under strategies of enhanced contraception only, vaccination only, both enhanced contraception and vaccination, and status quo (no intervention)...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102173/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-osteogenic-activity-promoted-by-selenium-doped-calcium-phosphate-coatings
#8
Cosme Rodriguez-Valencia, Paula Freixeiro, Julia Serra, Carlos Ferreiros, Pio Gonzalez, Miriam Lopez-Alvarez
Selenium is an essential trace element present in 25 selenoenzymes, playing critical roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as anti-oxidative defense and the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper characterizes selenium-doped calcium phosphate coatings and evaluates their effects on the osteogenic activity, the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and biofilm formation. To do so, the structure and elemental composition of the obtained coatings were analyzed, in addition to their thicknesses, and they were compared to pure calcium phosphate coatings...
January 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101910/a-practical-approach-to-vaccination-of-patients-with-autoimmune-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-in-australia
#9
REVIEW
Peter Kk Wong, Hanish Bagga, Claire Barrett, Paddy Hanrahan, Doug Johnson, Amel Katrib, Karin Leder, Mona Marabani, Peta Pentony, John Riordan, Ray White, Laurel Young
Autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are often complicated by infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The increased risk of infection is probably due to a combination of immunosuppressive effects of the AIIRD, comorbidities, and the use of immunosuppressive conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS) and more recently, targeted synthetic DMARDS and biologic DMARDS which block specific pro-inflammatory enzymes, cytokines or cell types...
January 19, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101036/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-hiv-infection
#10
Eunice Patarata, Vera Bernardino, Ana Martins, Rui Pereira, Conceição Loureiro, Maria Francisca Moraes-Fontes
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare condition characterized by emotional and behavioral disturbances, dyskinesias, and extrapyramidal signs. It occurs in young women of reproductive age and is classically described as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We present a 36-year-old, HIV-positive female who was admitted to the hospital in an acute confusional state, with a stiff posture, periods of motor agitation, and myoclonic jerks of the hands. Her mental state progressively deteriorated...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#11
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100853/antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-bioactive-phytochemicals-from-cranberry
#12
Monika Baranowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
In the rational human diet, the important role of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of bioactive phytochemicals, is emphasized. Among fruits particular attention, due to a number of documented health-promoting properties, is focused on cranberry. This fruit is characterized by the high content of antioxidant phenolic compounds, which may support the natural antioxidant defense system of the body in the prevention of damage caused by oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, cranberry is suggested for the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer, whose etiology is associated directly with oxidative stress...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100833/follicular-cd8-t-cells-accumulate-in-hiv-infection-and-can-kill-infected-cells-in-vitro-via-bispecific-antibodies
#13
Constantinos Petrovas, Sara Ferrando-Martinez, Michael Y Gerner, Joseph P Casazza, Amarendra Pegu, Claire Deleage, Arik Cooper, Jason Hataye, Sarah Andrews, David Ambrozak, Perla M Del Río Estrada, Eli Boritz, Robert Paris, Eirini Moysi, Kristin L Boswell, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Ilias Vagios, Manuel Leal, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Amaranta Rivero, Luz Alicia Gonzalez-Hernandez, Adrian B McDermott, Susan Moir, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Fernando Docobo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Daniel C Douek, Michael R Betts, Jacob D Estes, Ronald N Germain, John R Mascola, Richard A Koup
Cytolytic CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the control and elimination of virus-infected cells and are a major focus of HIV cure efforts. However, it has been shown that HIV-specific CD8 T cells are infrequently found within germinal centers (GCs), a predominant site of active and latent HIV infection. We demonstrate that HIV infection induces marked changes in the phenotype, frequency, and localization of CD8 T cells within the lymph node (LN). Significantly increased frequencies of CD8 T cells in the B cell follicles and GCs were found in LNs from treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals...
January 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100613/dynamic-modulation-of-expression-of-lentiviral-restriction-factors-in-primary-cd4-t-cells-following-siv-infection
#14
Andrew R Rahmberg, Premeela A Rajakumar, James M Billingsley, R Paul Johnson
: Although multiple restriction factors have been shown to inhibit HIV/SIV replication, little is known about their expression in vivo Expression of 45 confirmed and putative HIV/SIV restriction factors was analyzed in CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and jejunum in rhesus macaques, revealing distinct expression patterns in naïve and memory subsets. In both peripheral blood and jejunum, memory CD4+ T cells expressed higher levels of multiple restriction factors compared with naïve cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100608/herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-ul24-abrogates-dna-sensing-signal-pathway-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#15
Haiyan Xu, Chenhe Su, Angela Pearson, Christopher H Mody, Chunfu Zheng
: Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a newly identified DNA sensor that recognizes foreign DNA, including the genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Upon binding of viral DNA, cGAS produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which interacts with and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger the transcription of anti-viral genes such as type I interferons and production of inflammatory cytokines. HSV-1 UL24 is widely conserved among the herpesviruses family and is essential for efficient viral replication...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#16
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100196/exposure-to-hepatitis-c-virus-in-homeless-men-in-central-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Priscilla Martins Ferreira, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Christiane Moreira Souza, Lara Cristina da Cunha Guimarães, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima Barros, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Giovanni Rezza, Lila Spadoni, Sandra Maria Brunini
BACKGROUND: Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people...
January 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099857/a-systems-approach-reveals-mavs-signaling-in-myeloid-cells-as-critical-for-resistance-to-ebola-virus-in-murine-models-of-infection
#18
Mukta Dutta, Shelly J Robertson, Atsushi Okumura, Dana P Scott, Jean Chang, Jeffrey M Weiss, Gail L Sturdevant, Friederike Feldmann, Elaine Haddock, Abhilash I Chiramel, Sanket S Ponia, Jonathan D Dougherty, Michael G Katze, Angela L Rasmussen, Sonja M Best
The unprecedented 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) resulted in over 11,300 human deaths. Host resistance to RNA viruses requires RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling through the adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), but the role of RLR-MAVS in orchestrating anti-EBOV responses in vivo is not known. Here we apply a systems approach to MAVS(-/-) mice infected with either wild-type or mouse-adapted EBOV. MAVS controlled EBOV replication through the expression of IFNα, regulation of inflammatory responses in the spleen, and prevention of cell death in the liver, with macrophages implicated as a major cell type influencing host resistance...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099739/associations-between-hiv-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-among-maternal-deaths-in-south-africa-2011-2013
#19
Hannah M Sebitloane, Jagidesa Moodley, Benn Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. RESULTS: Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099530/nationwide-seropositivity-of-hepatitis-a-in-republic-of-korea-from-2005-to-2014-before-and-after-the-outbreak-peak-in-2009
#20
Kyung-Ah Kim, Anna Lee, Moran Ki, Sook-Hyang Jeong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epidemiologic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the South Korean population resulted in a peak outbreak of hepatitis in 2009. The aim of this study was to clarify the seropositivity of anti-HAV antibody (anti-HAV) and its demographic characteristics before and after the peak outbreak from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the anti-HAV data of all individuals from 1,795 medical institutions referred to a major central laboratory from January 2005 through December 2014, as a sentineal tool for monitoring annual variation of anti-HAV positivity...
2017: PloS One
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