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Pneumonia in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816919/enteral-nutrition-practices-in-critically-ill-children-requiring-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation
#1
Matthew K Leroue, Ryan J Good, Heather E Skillman, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the practice of providing enteral nutrition in critically ill children requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU within a quaternary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: PICU patients older than 30 days requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for greater than or equal to 24 hours from August 2014 to June 2015. Invasive mechanical ventilation prior to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and inability to receive enteral nutrition at baseline were additional exclusionary criteria...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815624/morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-undergoing-bronchoscopy-for-foreign-body-removal
#2
Christopher A Roberts, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Analyze morbidity and mortality among children undergoing bronchoscopy for foreign body removal. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective review using the American College of Surgeons Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2014 and 2015. METHODS: Patients were identified using Current Procedural Terminology code 31635. Demographics, time to surgery, operative times, hospitalization time, and complications were collected...
August 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815094/add-on-therapy-with-ertapenem-in-infections-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-pediatric-experience
#3
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Kamile Oktay Arıkan, Ayse Buyukcam, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ates Kara
Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant GNB is not well established due to the weakness of data. Patients presenting with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were treated with a combination treatment. Optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem in pediatric patients. We presented three cases who were successfully treated with addition of ertapenem to the combination treatment for bacteremia with multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#4
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#5
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813753/pre-guideline-trends-associated-with-chest-radiograph-usage-for-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-emergency-department-settings
#6
Eric W Jones, Benjamin Meyer, Aaron M Berg, Benson S Hsu
BACKGROUND: Health care spending in the U.S. totaled $3 trillion in 2014 and continues to increase rapidly. Minimizing waste through clinical guidelines is a promising strategy to reduce spending without compromising patient care. In 2011, clinical guidelines recommended against the use of chest X-ray (CXR) for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric ambulatory settings. However, use of CXR has not changed post-guideline. Thus, understanding the drivers of CXR utilization prior to guideline implementation could improve guideline adherence...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#7
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#8
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807096/a-five-year-surveillance-of-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-china-reveals-increased-predominance-of-ndm-1
#9
Fang Dong, Jie Lu, Yan Wang, Jin Shi, Jing Hui Zhen, Ping Chu, Yang Zhen, Shu Jing Han, Yong Li Guo, Wen Qi Song
OBJECTIVE: To characterize carbapenem (CPM)-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and carbape-nemase produced by these strains isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital based on a five-year surveillance. METHODS: The Minimal Inhibition Concentration values for 15 antibiotics were assessed using the Phonix100 compact system. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to detect genes encoding carbapenemases. WHONET 5.6 was finally used for resistance analysis...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803551/hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-before-and-during-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#10
G Anderson, G Deceuninck, Z Zhou, F D Boucher, Y Bonnier Viger, R Gilca, P DE Wals
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce this burden. This study's goal was to analyse trends in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hospitalisations before and during a routine vaccination programme targeting all newborns with PCV was started in the province of Quebec, Canada in December 2004. The study population included hospital admissions with a main diagnosis of LRTI among 6-59 month-old Quebec residents from April 2000 to December 2014...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801724/pneumococcal-meningitis-and-endocarditis-in-an-infant-possible-improved-survival-with-factor-v-leiden-mutation
#11
Sitikant Mohapatra, Assaf Doulah, Elspeth Brown
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797395/organizing-pneumonia-in-an-adult-with-chronic-recurrent-noninfectious-osteomyelitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Tiffany A Winstone, Robert D Levy, Kamran Shojania, Darra Murphy, Andrew Churg, Chris Ryerson
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder primarily of children and adolescents that is characterized by multifocal nonpyogenic relapsing and remitting inflammatory bone lesions. Pulmonary abnormalities are rarely associated with CRMO, with two reported cases of consolidation on chest CT that occurred in children. We present a case of organizing pneumonia in an adult patient with CRMO. The concurrent worsening of pulmonary and bone disease suggests that CRMO may be a rare cause of organizing pneumonia...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#13
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783024/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-young-healthy-children-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-turkey
#14
Ahmet Arvas, Haluk Çokuğraş, Emel Gür, Nevriye Gönüllü, Zeynep Taner, Hrisi Bahar Tokman
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children aged 0-6 years who were vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 healthy Turkish children between 1 month and 6 years of age. Serotyping was performed and risk factors of carriage were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall carriage rate was 14%. Vaccine type serotypes were determined in 17 (12...
August 4, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780710/regression-of-neonatal-cardiac-rhabdomyoma-in-two%C3%A2-months-through-low-dose-everolimus-therapy-a-report-of-three-cases
#15
Jeng-Sheng Chang, Ping-Yun Chiou, Shu-Hui Yao, I-Ching Chou, Ching-Yuang Lin
Cardiac rhabdomyoma (CR) is the most common cardiac tumor in newborns. Approximately 75% of cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although these tumors usually spontaneously regress after 2 years of age, they can be life-threatening when they obstruct major cardiac inflow or outflow pathways. Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, reducing its production of the proteins harmartin and tuberin. Everolimus has demonstrated a remarkable suppression effect in children with tuberous sclerosis complex at doses of 4...
August 5, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780309/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-pantoea-agglomerans-infection-in-children
#16
Ayşe Büyükcam, Özlem Tuncer, Deniz Gür, Banu Sancak, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ali Bülent Cengiz, Ateş Kara
Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that rarely is responsible for the infections in humans but it is often a causative factor of a number of occupational diseases. This study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics and pathogenicity of P. agglomerans in children. We retrospectively reviewed microbiological test results for all children (1 month old to 18 years old) who were admitted to our pediatric hospital between January 2000 to June 2015 and had positive clinical specimen cultures for P...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780272/current-challenges-in-the-accurate-identification-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-serogroups-serotypes-in-the-vaccine-era
#17
REVIEW
Rosemol Varghese, Ranjith Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases resulting in high mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five. Inaccurate identification of S. pneumoniae masks the exact estimation of disease burden and could delay treatment options. This is the common problem most frequently faced in developing countries due to several reasons that include poor infrastructure, insensitive operational procedures and lack of expertise. Inconsistent methods for phenotypic detection often delay the early identification and confirmation of S...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779997/the-bacterial-species-associated-with-aspirated-foreign-bodies-in-children
#18
Maayan Gruber, Graeme van Der Meer, Benjamin Ling, Colin Barber, Nikki Mills, Michel Neeff, Lesley Salkeld, Murali Mahadevan
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled foreign bodies in children are common and may be complicated by secondary airway tract infection. The inhaled foreign body may act as carrier of infectious material and the aim of this study was to explore the bacterial species associated with aspirated foreign bodies in a cohort of children. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 34 patients who underwent rigid laryngobronchoscopy because of foreign body aspiration. Each patient had a sample taken from tracheobronchial secretions during the procedure...
August 2, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777284/outcomes-of-primary-posterior-spinal-fusion-for-scoliosis-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-clinical-radiographic-and-pulmonary-outcomes-and-complications
#19
Joshua B Holt, Lori A Dolan, Stuart L Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive neuromuscular disease commonly including progressive scoliosis resulting in severe deformity and negatively affecting pulmonary function. Surgical correction and stabilization of this progressive deformity is generally recommended; however, the timing and method of surgical fixation remains controversial. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical, radiographic, and pulmonary function data from 16 children with SMA and surgically treated scoliosis between 1985 and 2013...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776526/common-bacterial-isolates-clinical-outcome-and-tb-meningitis-in-children-admitted-at-morogoro-regional-referral-hospital-tanzania
#20
Ramadhani Salum Chambuso, Mkhoi Lord Mkhoi, Evelyn Kaambo
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is still one of the major causes of deaths, disabilities, and mental retardation in children in Morogoro region. To study the current meningitis burden, we evaluated the common bacterial isolates and clinical outcome of the disease in the region. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based prospective study on 1352 children aged between 7 days and 12 years admitted in pediatric wards at Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital for 7 months...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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