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Pneumonia in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333786/the-added-value-of-the-lateral-chest-radiograph-for-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
Michalle Soudack, Semion Plotkin, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Michael Benacon, Arie Augarten
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326011/neonatal-intestinal-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#3
V Nordberg, K Jonsson, C G Giske, A Iversen, O Aspevall, B Jonsson, A Camporeale, M Norman, L Navér
OBJECTIVE: To analyse Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) isolates from an outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing KP and Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) among infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to determine the duration of the intestinal colonization. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of intestinal ESBL-KP/ ESBL-EC colonized neonates after a five-month outbreak in two NICUs. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core genome MLST, pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for blaCTX-M were performed on the first isolates...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319633/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#4
Takeshi Hatachi, Kazuya Tachibana, Yu Inata, Yuji Tominaga, Aiko Hirano, Miyako Kyogoku, Kazue Moon, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Kanako Isaka, Muneyuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center observational study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive pediatric patients less than or equal to 18 years old admitted to the PICU after cardiac surgery, between January 2013 and December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319583/the-infectious-and-non-infectious-etiology-clinical-picture-and-outcome-of-neutropenia-in-immunocompetent-hospitalized-children
#5
Odeya David, Yariv Fruchtman, Ruslan Sergienko, Joseph Kapelushnik, Eugene Leibovitz
BACKGROUND: Acquired neutropenia in immunocompetent children is common and its differential diagnosis ranges from benign causes to life-threatening diseases. We described the etiology, clinical picture and outcome of new onset neutropenia in immunocompetent children assessed in the emergency department and hospitalized at our medical center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Previously healthy children admitted with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <1.5 x 10/L) were included...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319505/kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st11-in-a-children-s-hospital-in-poland
#6
Monika Machulska, Anna Baraniak, Iwona Żak, Katarzyna Bojarska, Dorota Żabicka, Iwona Sowa-Sierant, Waleria Hryniewicz, Marek Gniadkowski
Four Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from children hospitalized over 10 months in an intensive care unit in a children's teaching hospital in Poland were analyzed. All of the isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and sequence type (ST) 11, and produced the KPC-2 carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M-15. They were resistant to a variety of antimicrobials, and their β-lactam resistance patterns were typical for KPC producers. This is one of few cases of identification of KPC (or carbapenemase)-producing K...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318527/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Surinder Kumar, Indu Bala Garg, Gulshan Rai Sethi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) employing serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. METHODS: In this prospective study, 200 children aged 6 mo to 12 y hospitalized with acute LRTIs were investigated for M. pneumoniae. Serum samples were collected for serological analysis of M. pneumoniae. Throat swab samples were obtained on admission to amplify 277-base pair region of 16S rDNA gene of M...
January 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317583/-relationship-between-air-pollution-and-the-number-of-pneumonia-hospitalization-in-a-children-s-hospital%C3%A2-in-changsha
#8
Feiyun Ouyang, Siyun Liu, Jie Mao, Qianqian Zheng, Tianlin Ma, Ming Hu
To explore the relationship between air pollution and the number of pneumonia hospitalization in a children's hospital in Changsha.
 Methods: Children who have been in this hospital for the treatment of pneumonia between December 2013 and December 2015 were enrolled in this study. Based on daily meteorological data and air pollution data from December 2013 to December 2015 in Changsha, we constructed a generalized additive model to analyze the relationship between air pollution and the number of pneumonia hospitalization...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315968/cuffed-endotracheal-tubes-in-infants-less-than-3-kg-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Rebecca E Thomas, Shripada C Rao, Corrado Minutillo, Bruce Hullett, Max K Bulsara
BACKGROUND: Cuffed endotracheal tubes are being increasingly used in infants; however, current evidence in the literature mostly includes infants ≥ 3-kg weight. AIMS: The aim of this observational study was to compare the short-term outcomes with the use of Microcuff® cuffed vs uncuffed endotracheal tubes in neonates < 3 kg. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single-centre, tertiary children's hospital neonatal intensive care unit...
January 9, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304066/burden-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-among-children-in-rural-mozambique-2001-2012
#10
Betuel Sigaúque, Jennifer R Verani, Sérgio Massora, Delfino Vubil, Llorenç Quintó, Sozinho Acácio, Inácio Mandomando, Quique Bassat, Tacilta Nhampossa, Fabiana Pimenta, Charfudin Sacoor, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Eusebio Macete, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major cause of illness and death among children worldwide. 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced as part of the Mozambican routine immunization program in April 2013. We characterized the IPD burden in a rural area of Mozambique before PCV introduction and estimated the potential impact of this intervention. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveillance for IPD, defined as S. pneumoniae isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid, among children <5 years old admitted to Manhiça District Hospital, a referral hospital in a rural area with high prevalence of human immunodiciency virus infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303705/pneumonia-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-finland-1999-2014-a-nationwide-retrospective-register-linkage-study
#11
Päivi H Salonen, Hanna Säilä, Juha H Salonen, Miika Linna, Mika Helminen, Markku J Kauppi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of pneumonia in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to the aged-matched general population and to evaluate the use of anti-rheumatic medication among children with JIA and pneumonia. METHODS: The National Hospital Discharge Register collects data on ICD-diagnoses of hospital patients in Finland. From this register, patients with JIA under 18 years of age with pneumonia from 1999 through 2014 were identified. The control group consisted of age-matched patients derived from the general population with a diagnosis of pneumonia made in the same calendar year as the pneumonia of the JIA patients...
December 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302749/simultaneous-repair-of-congenital-heart-defects-and-pectus-excavatum-in-young-children
#12
Junke Wang, Quan Wang, Zhengxia Pan
PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to summarize our experience with the concurrent repair of pectus excavatum (PE) and congenital heart defects in young children over the past 15 years. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted that included patients who underwent combined repair of PE and a congenital heart defect in a large clinical center between 2002 and 2017. Intraoperative and postoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications and surgical outcomes were recorded...
January 5, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302520/care-seeking-for-childhood-pneumonia-by-rural-and-poor-urban-communities-in-lucknow-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#13
Anurag Minz, Monika Agarwal, J V Singh, V K Singh
Context: Globally, around 16% of under-five children die due to pneumonia. Childhood pneumonia, if identified early is a readily treatable through low-cost antibiotics. Access to timely and appropriate care is a key action to control pneumonia. Aims: The aim of the study was to understand the caregiver's care-seeking behavior for the management of childhood pneumonia among rural and urban poor communities in Lucknow. Settings and Design: Rural areas and urban slums of Lucknow district, from September 2014 to August 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301918/ers-ats-workshop-report-on-respiratory-health-effects-of-household-air-pollution
#14
Akshay Sood, Nour A Assad, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Churg, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin S Harrod, Hammad Irshad, Om P Kurmi, William J Martin, Paula Meek, Kevin Mortimer, Curtis W Noonan, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Kirk R Smith, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Tony Ward, John Balmes
Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297442/the-significance-of-cytomegalovirus-in-children-with-pneumonia-admitted-for-mechanical-ventilation
#15
P M Jeena, K Govender, R Parboosing, M Adhikari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and children with pneumonia and CMV infection (CMV DNA PCR-positive without clinical and imaging features of CMV and not on ganciclovir therapy) at a paediatric intensive care unit in South Africa between 2011 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294576/-study-on-the-risk-of-mortality-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-exposed-children-in-henan-province-2002-2014
#16
Q Wang, N Ma, H Si, Y M Ma, N Li, Y G Nie, D Y Sun, Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the status of survival and related risk factors among HIV-exposed children in Henan province from 2002 to 2014. Methods: A follow-up program was set up when infants as 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 month olds. Data regarding the HIV-exposed children and their mothers were collected, including service of PMTCT, antiviral therapy, incidence of infectious disease and survival status of infants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the risk factors. Results: A total number of 1 705 HIV-infected infants were reported from 2002 to 2014...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289943/pneumonia-diagnosis-in-childhood-and-incidence-of-leukaemia-lymphoma-and-brain-cancer-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#17
Kirstine Kobberøe Søgaard, Dóra Körmendiné Farkas, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: There is an ongoing debate on the possible association between infections in early childhood and subsequent cancer risk, but it remains unclear if a hospital admission for infection is associated with risk of childhood cancer diagnosis. We examined if a hospital-based diagnosis of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289941/azithromycin-to-prevent-post-discharge-morbidity-and-mortality-in-kenyan-children-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-the-toto-bora-trial
#18
Patricia B Pavlinac, Benson O Singa, Grace C John-Stewart, Barbra A Richardson, Rebecca L Brander, Christine J McGrath, Kirkby D Tickell, Mary Amondi, Doreen Rwigi, Joseph B Babigumira, Sam Kariuki, Ruth Nduati, Judd L Walson
INTRODUCTION: Child mortality due to infectious diseases remains unacceptably high in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Children who are hospitalised represent an accessible population at particularly high risk of death, both during and following hospitalisation. Hospital discharge may be a critical time point at which targeted use of antibiotics could reduce morbidity and mortality in high-risk children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Toto Bora Trial), 1400 children aged 1-59 months discharged from hospitals in Western Kenya, in Kisii and Homa Bay, will be randomised to either a 5-day course of azithromycin or placebo to determine whether a short course of azithromycin reduces rates of rehospitalisation and/or death in the subsequent 6-month period...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289385/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pre-conjugate-vaccine-era-a-chinese-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#19
Ling Li, Jinjian Fu, Shunming Li, Dan Guo, Zhiyao Chen, Sidong Chen, Xiaohua Ye
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen in causing global morbidity and mortality among children. This study aimed to determine phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. pneumoniae causing infections in children under five years in China. METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted. All 537 S. pneumoniae isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test method, molecular characteristics including resistance genes, virulence genes and serotypes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and sequence types (STs) by sequencing seven housekeeping genes...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287880/revisits-after-pediatric-tracheotomy-airway-concerns-result-in-returns
#20
Sophie Shay, Nina L Shapiro, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES: Children undergoing tracheotomy represent a medically vulnerable patient population, and understanding the reasons for revisiting the hospital setting following tracheotomy is critical for improving the quality of care for these patients. This study aims to investigate the incidence and characteristics of revisits following pediatric tracheotomy. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study using state databases. The State Inpatient Databases and State Emergency Department Databases for California, Florida, Iowa and New York 2010-11 were linked and examined for cases of pediatric tracheotomy (patients < 18...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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