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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921427/-growth-hormone-axis-gh-igf1-and-glucose-metabolism
#1
Michal Kršek
Growth hormone is a hormone of anterior lobe of pituitary gland which possesses besides its growth promoting effects also many other various physiological effects including its regulatory influences on metabolism with glucose metabolism belonging to most important ones. The present article summarizes basic information about metabolic consequences of disturbed growth hormone secretion and their importance for clinical presentation and management.Key words: acromegaly - glucose - growth hormone - growth hormone deficiency - IGF1 - metabolism...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914538/adaptive-response-of-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-insulin-resistance-induced-by-monocrotophos-biochemical-evidence
#2
Raju Nagaraju, Padmanabhan Sharda Rajini
Our previous findings clearly suggested the role of duration of exposure to monocrotophos (MCP) in the development of insulin resistance. Rats exposed chronically to MCP developed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia without overt diabetes. In continuation of this vital observation, we sought to delineate the biochemical mechanisms that mediate heightened pancreatic β-cell response in the wake of MCP-induced insulin resistance in rats. Adult rats were orally administered (0.9 and 1.8mg/kgb.w/d) MCP for 180days...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914008/igf1r-dental-pulp-stem-cells-enhanced-neuroplasticity-in-hypoxia-ischemia-model
#3
Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Chen-Huan Lin, Chung Y Hsu, John Yu, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Woei-Cherng Shyu
Until now, the surface markers of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) had not been fully identified. Here, we found that the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), regarded as a pluripotent marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), was also expressed in human dental pulp derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hDSCs), which displayed a potential for both self-renewal and multipotency. hDSC-secreted IGF1 interacted with IGF1R through an autocrine signaling pathway to maintain this self-renewal and proliferation potential. Stereotaxic implantation of immunosorted IGF1R(+) hDSCs in rats with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (NHI) promoted neuroplasticity, improving the neurological outcome by increasing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which enhanced both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870972/mek-erk-signaling-is-involved-in-the-role-of-vegf-and-igf1-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#4
Chunhui Wang, Wenhui Liu, Xianning Zhang, Yinghui Wang, Huan Liu, Haifang Li
BACKGROUND: We found that mouse brown adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (BATDCs), but not white adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (WATDCs), could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells in a simple culture medium. This study would find out some critical trophic factors that were responsible for such difference in differentiation, and further determine the involved signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiomyocyte differentiation capacity of cells was identified by morphological observations, immunofluorescence staining, and evaluation of expression of cardiomyocyte specific markers...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856640/g-protein-coupled-receptors-gpcrs-that-signal-via-protein-kinase-a-pka-cross-talk-at-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-irs1-to-activate-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#5
Nathan C Law, Morris F White, Mary E Hunzicker-Dunn
GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors)2 activate PI3K/AKT (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/v-AKT thymoma viral oncoprotein) to regulate many cellular functions that promote cell survival, proliferation, and growth. However, the mechanism by which GPCRs activate PI3K/AKT remains poorly understood. We used ovarian preantral granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the mechanism by which the GPCR agonist FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) via PKA (protein kinase A) activates the PI3K/AKT cascade. IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) is secreted in an autocrine/paracrine manner by GCs and activates the IGF1R (IGF1 receptor), but in the absence of FSH fails to stimulate YXXM phosphorylation of IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) required for PI3K/AKT activation...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683264/apelin-apln-and-apelin-receptor-aplnr-in-human-ovary-expression-signaling-and-regulation-of-steroidogenesis-in-primary-human-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#6
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Marion Cornuau, Fabrice Guerif, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and non-obese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from non-obese patients without PCOS...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660020/mac-t-cell-as-in-vitro-evaluation-system-for-casein-gene-expression-involved-in-glucose-level
#7
Young-Tae Heo, Woo-Tae Ha, Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Ha-Youn Jung, Kyu-Chan Hwang, Hyuk Song
Glucose is essential fuel in energy metabolism and synthesis pathways of all mammalian cells. In lactating animals, glucose is the major precursor for lactose and is a substrate for the synthesis of milk proteins and fat in mammary secretory (alveolar) epithelial cells. However, clear utilization of glucose in mammary cell during lactogenesis is still unknown due to lack of in vitro analyzing model. Therefore, objective of this study is to test reliability of mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cell as in vitro study model for glucose metabolism and lactating system...
September 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621108/mild-pituitary-phenotype-in-3-and-12-month-old-aip-deficient-male-mice
#8
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Zizzari, Mirella Hage, Lyvianne Decourtye, Clovis Adam, Say Viengchareun, Johannes D Veldhuis, Valérie Geoffroy, Marc Lombès, Virginie Tolle, Anne Guillou, Auli Karhu, Laurent Kappeler, Philippe Chanson, Peter Kamenický
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552248/pathogenic-phenotype-of-adipogenesis-and-hyaluronan-in-orbital-fibroblasts-from-female-graves-orbitopathy-mouse-model
#9
Gina-Eva Görtz, Sajad Moshkelgosha, Christoph Jesenek, Bärbel Edelmann, Mareike Horstmann, J Paul Banga, Anja Eckstein, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt
A mouse model of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) induced by genetic immunization of human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit encoding plasmid has recently been established. The orbital pathology was characterized by adipogenesis, myopathy and fibrosis. Human orbital fibroblasts (OFs) express TSHR and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and are considered to be pathogenic in GO. We established conditions for growing ex vivo cultures of mouse OFs (mOFs) from orbital tissue of animals undergoing GO and controls. Early passage mOFs showed characteristic fibroblast morphology and expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers including a strong expression of CD90...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406741/defining-human-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-gene-regulation
#10
Aditi Mukherjee, Damir Alzhanov, Peter Rotwein
Growth hormone (GH) plays an essential role in controlling somatic growth and in regulating multiple physiological processes in humans and other species. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a conserved, secreted 70-amino acid peptide, is a critical mediator of many of the biological effects of GH. Previous studies have demonstrated that GH rapidly and potently promotes IGF-I gene expression in rodents and in some other mammals through the transcription factor STAT5b, leading to accumulation of IGF-I mRNAs and production of IGF-I...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354148/microrna-223-affects-il-6-secretion-in-mast-cells-via-the-igf1r-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#11
Qianyuan Yang, Hong Xu, Jin Yang, Yao Zhou, Deyu Zhao, Feng Liu
In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of microRNA-223 (miR-223) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in mast cells and determine the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mast cells (P815) were transfected with miR-223 lentiviral vector and miR-223 inhibitor. miR-223 expression was then evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). IL-6 levels in the supernatant were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The signaling pathways in mast cells with downregulated miR-223 were initially evaluated by gene chip...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307439/disruption-of-the-ampk-tbc1d1-nexus-increases-lipogenic-gene-expression-and-causes-obesity-in-mice-via-promoting-igf1-secretion
#12
Liang Chen, Qiaoli Chen, Bingxian Xie, Chao Quan, Yang Sheng, Sangsang Zhu, Ping Rong, Shuilian Zhou, Kei Sakamoto, Carol MacKintosh, Hong Yu Wang, Shuai Chen
Tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16 domain family member 1 (the TBC domain is the GTPase activating protein domain) (TBC1D1) is a Rab GTPase activating protein that is phosphorylated on Ser(231) by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to intracellular energy stress. However, the in vivo role and importance of this phosphorylation event remains unknown. To address this question, we generated a mouse model harboring a TBC1D1(Ser231Ala) knockin (KI) mutation and found that the KI mice developed obesity on a normal chow diet...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293373/the-small-tellurium-based-compound-sas-suppresses-inflammation-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#13
Rima Dardik, Tami Livnat, Gilad Halpert, Shayma Jawad, Yael Nisgav, Shirley Azar-Avivi, Baoying Liu, Robert B Nussenblatt, Dov Weinberger, Benjamin Sredni
PURPOSE: Pathological angiogenesis and chronic inflammation greatly contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in chorioretinal diseases involving abnormal contact between retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and endothelial cells (ECs), associated with Bruch's membrane rupture. We explored the ability of the small organotellurium compound octa-O-bis-(R,R)-tartarate ditellurane (SAS) to mitigate inflammatory processes in human RPE cells. METHODS: Cell adhesion assays and analyses of gene and protein expression were used to examine the effect of SAS on ARPE-19 cells or primary human RPE cells that were grown alone or in an RPE-EC co-culture...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222482/screening-and-functional-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-chronic-glomerulonephritis-by-whole-genome-microarray
#14
Jia-Rong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Ting Wang, Jun-Mei Song, Shuang-Zhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is the most common form of the glomerular disease with unclear molecular mechanisms, which related to immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize differentially expressed genes in the normal and adriamycin-induced CGN rats by microarray analysis, and to determine the potential molecular mechanisms of CGN pathogenesis. METHODS: For the gene expression analysis, fresh glomerular tissues from both normal and adriamycin treated rats (n=4, respectively) were collected...
September 1, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194969/short-stature-in-isodicentric-y-chromosome-and-three-copies-of-the-shox-gene-clinical-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Angelo Valetto, Veronica Bertini, Angela Michelucci, Benedetta Toschi, Eleonora Dati, Giampietro I Baroncelli, Silvano Bertelloni
Short stature homeobox gene (SHOX) mutations and pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions encompassing SHOX are known causes of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and isolated short stature, while 3 copies of SHOX in cases with triple sex chromosome constitution are responsible for tall stature. Duplications involving SHOX have been rarely reported, and they were found in individuals with short, normal and tall stature. An adopted boy with short stature, isodicentric Y chromosome and 3 copies of SHOX is described...
April 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126782/matrix-metalloproteinase-11-protects-from-diabesity-and-promotes-metabolic-switch
#16
Nassim Dali-Youcef, Karim Hnia, Sébastien Blaise, Nadia Messaddeq, Stéphane Blanc, Catherine Postic, Philippe Valet, Catherine Tomasetto, Marie-Christine Rio
MMP11 overexpression is a bad prognostic factor in various human carcinomas. Interestingly, this proteinase is not expressed in malignant cells themselves but is secreted by adjacent non-malignant mesenchymal/stromal cells, such as cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and adipocytes (CAAs), which favors cancer cell survival and progression. As MMP11 negatively regulates adipogenesis in vitro, we hypothesized that it may play a role in whole body metabolism and energy homeostasis. We used an in vivo gain- (Mmp11-Tg mice) and loss- (Mmp11-/- mice) of-function approach to address the systemic function of MMP11...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904199/pnet-co-secreting-ghrh-and-calcitonin-ex-vivo-hormonal-studies-in-human-pituitary-cells
#17
Taiba Zornitzki, Hadara Rubinfeld, Lyudmila Lysyy, Tal Schiller, Véronique Raverot, Ilan Shimon, Hilla Knobler
UNLABELLED: Acromegaly due to ectopic GHRH secretion from a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is rare and comprises <1% of all acromegaly cases. Herein we present a 57-year-old woman with clinical and biochemical features of acromegaly and a 6 cm pancreatic NET (pNET), secreting GHRH and calcitonin. Following surgical resection of the pancreatic tumor, IGF1, GH and calcitonin normalized, and the clinical features of acromegaly improved. In vitro studies confirmed that the tumor secreted large amounts of both GHRH and calcitonin, and incubation of pNET culture-derived conditioned media stimulated GH release from a cultured human pituitary adenoma...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899034/effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-cytokines-on-the-functional-properties-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#18
Witchayaporn Kamprom, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Aungkura Supokawej, Methichit Wattanapanitch, Chuti Laowtammathron, Surapol Issaragrisil
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) is a potential source for cell therapy due to its property to promote tissue repair. Although, it has been known that hMSCs promote tissue repair via angiogenic cytokines, the interaction between hMSC-derived cytokines and the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which play an important role in tissue neovascularization, is poorly characterized. We investigate the effect of cytokine released from different sources of hMSCs including bone marrow and gestational tissues on the EPC functions in vitro...
March 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888629/low-beta-arrestin-expression-correlates-with-the-responsiveness-to-long-term-somatostatin-analog-treatment-in-acromegaly
#19
Federico Gatto, Nienke R Biermasz, Richard A Feelders, Johan M Kros, Fadime Dogan, Aart-Jan van der Lely, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Steven W J Lamberts, Alberto M Pereira, Diego Ferone, Leo J Hofland
OBJECTIVE: The high expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2 also known as sst2) usually present in growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas is the rationale for therapy with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) in acromegaly. Although SSTR2 expression is a good predictor for biochemical response to SSA treatment, we still face tumors resistant to SSAs despite high SSTR2 expression. Recently, beta-arrestins (β-arrestins) have been highlighted as key players in the regulation of SSTR2 function...
May 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26852275/molecular-cloning-snp-detection-and-association-analysis-of-5-flanking-region-of-the-goat-igf1-gene-with-prolificacy
#20
Naicy Thomas, Thirupathy Venkatachalapathy, Thazhathuveettil Aravindakshan, K C Raghavan
The insulin-like growth factor 1 has an important role in reproduction, foetal development and growth. It regulates the secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone, stimulates ovarian function and steroidogenesis. The present study was conducted to characterise the 5' flanking region of goat IGF 1 gene, ascertain ovarian expression of the IGF1 gene, detect SNPs and assess the association with prolificacy in the two indigenous goat breeds of South India viz., low prolific Attappady Black and high prolific Malabari...
April 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
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