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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642655/the-influence-of-passive-tobacco-exposure-and-physical-exercise-on-bone-tissue-of-young-rats
#1
Regina Celi Trindade Camargo, Regiane Rocha Costalonga, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, José Carlos Silva Camargo, Jacqueline Bexiga Urban
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of passive smoking during pregnancy and associated with swimming on bone area growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC). METHODS: The offspring was grouped by control matrices (G1) and passive smokers (G2). The offspring was regrouped in eight subgroups, with exposure to smoking (2x/day) and physical exercise (1 session/day), respecting the group of matrices in: sedentary control (G1CS and G2CS), swimming control (G1CN and G2CN), sedentary passive smoker (G1FS and G2FS), and passive smoker swimmer (G1FN and G2FN)...
March 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632299/simningsorsakat-lung%C3%A3-dem-vid-svenska-f%C3%A3-rh%C3%A3-llanden-otillr%C3%A3-ckligt-studerat-erfarenheter-fr%C3%A3-n-vansbrosimningen-2016
#2
Annika Braman Eriksson, Martin Annsberg, Maria Hårdstedt
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) has been described in sports and military medicine during strenuous swimming in open water. Symptoms include dyspnea, cough, frothy mucus and hemoptysis. Hypertension, a tight wetsuit, overhydration and previous episodes of SIPE are suggested risk factors. Immediate interruption of swimming prevents more serious symptoms. In the open water race at Vansbro 2016, 69 swimmers (of 13,878 in total) were treated for symptoms suspected for SIPE. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was successfully used to treat suspected SIPE in 46 patients in the on-site emergency care center...
June 20, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623500/contribution-of-the-nasal-passage-to-face-mask-ventilation-a-prospective-blinded-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Tomoki Yamasaki, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Haruki Kido, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the nasal passage plays an important role in manual face mask ventilation, but this has yet to be quantitatively assessed. We conducted a prospective randomized crossover clinical trial to compare the change in pressure-controlled face mask tidal volume with and without nasal airway occlusion. METHOD: Female patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia served as study subjects. Patients were randomly assigned to face mask ventilation beginning either with or without nasal passage occlusion (achieved with a swimmer's nose clip), followed by removal or application of the nose clip, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618621/tracer-diffusion-in-active-suspensions
#4
Eric W Burkholder, John F Brady
We study the diffusion of a Brownian probe particle of size R in a dilute dispersion of active Brownian particles of size a, characteristic swim speed U_{0}, reorientation time τ_{R}, and mechanical energy k_{s}T_{s}=ζ_{a}U_{0}^{2}τ_{R}/6, where ζ_{a} is the Stokes drag coefficient of a swimmer. The probe has a thermal diffusivity D_{P}=k_{B}T/ζ_{P}, where k_{B}T is the thermal energy of the solvent and ζ_{P} is the Stokes drag coefficient for the probe. When the swimmers are inactive, collisions between the probe and the swimmers sterically hinder the probe's diffusive motion...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614998/a-season-of-american-football-is-not-associated-with-changes-in-plasma-tau
#5
Jonathan Oliver, Margaret Jones, Anthony Anzalone, Michele Kirk, David Gable, Justin Repshas, Torie Johnson, Kina Hogland, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
American football athletes are routinely exposed to sub-concussive impacts over the course of the season. This study sought to examine the effect of a season of American football on plasma tau, a potential marker of axonal damage. Nineteen (n =19) National Collegiate Association (NCAA) American football athletes underwent serial blood sampling over the course of the 2014-2015 season at those times in which the number and magnitude of head impacts likely changed. Non-contact, sport-control, NCAA men's swim athletes (n=19) provided a single plasma sample for comparison...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605694/effect-of-increased-kick-frequency-on-propelling-efficiency-and-muscular-co-activation-during-underwater-dolphin-kick
#6
Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa, Hirofumi Shimojo, Hideki Takagi, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Yasuo Sengoku
In this study, we investigated the effects of increased kick frequency on the propelling efficiency and the muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick. Participants included eight female collegiate swimmers. The participants performed seven 15-m underwater dolphin kick swimming trials at different kick frequencies, which is 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, and 115% of their maximum effort. The Froude (propelling) efficiency of the dolphin kick was calculated from the kinematic analysis. The surface electromyography was measured from six muscles (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius)...
June 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605647/physiological-determinants-of-individual-variation-in-sensitivity-to-an-organophosphate-pesticide-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#7
David J McKenzie, Felipe R Blasco, Thiago C Belão, Shaun S Killen, Nathan D Martins, Edwin W Taylor, F Tadeu Rantin
Individual variation in sub-lethal sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon was investigated in Nile tilapia, using critical swimming speed (Ucrit) as an indicator. Tilapia exposed for 96h to 500μgl(-1) trichlorfon at 26°C (Tcfn group, n=27) showed a significant decline in mean Ucrit, compared to their own control (pre-exposure) performance in clean water (-14.5±2.3%, mean±SEM), but also compared to a Sham group (n=10) maintained for 96h in clean water. Individuals varied in their relative sensitivity to the pesticide, with the decline in Ucrit after exposure varying from 1 to 41%...
June 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605264/testing-a-model-of-successful-aging-in-a-cohort-of-masters-swimmers
#8
David Geard, Amanda L Rebar, Peter Reaburn, Rylee A Dionigi
Due to their high physical functioning, masters athletes are regularly proposed to exemplify successful aging. However, successful aging research on masters athletes has never been undertaken using a multidimensional successful aging model. To determine the best model for future successful aging research on masters athletes we had masters swimmers self-report (N = 169, M age = 57.4 years, 61% women) subjective successful aging, and physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning. Using this data we tested one hypothesized and three alternative successful aging models...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605234/the-impact-of-training-load-on-bone-mineral-density-of-adolescent-swimmers-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#9
Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel João Coelho-E-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres, Romulo Araújo Fernandes
PURPOSE: To investigate the mediating effect of muscle mass on the relationship between training load and bone density in adolescent swimmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 87 control and 22 swimmers aged 10-19 years (overall sample, n= 109). Swimmers had a minimum of one year of competition in regional and national championships, and control adolescents reported one year without any organized sport. Bone density was the main outcome (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), which was measured in upper-limbs, lower-limbs, spine, and whole-body...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605070/nanodiamonds-that-swim
#10
Ji Tae Kim, Udit Choudhury, Hyeon-Ho Jeong, Peer Fischer
Nanodiamonds are emerging as nanoscale quantum probes for bio-sensing and imaging. This necessitates the development of new methods to accurately manipulate their position and orientation in aqueous solutions. The realization of an "active" nanodiamond (ND) swimmer in fluids, composed of a ND crystal containing nitrogen vacancy centers and a light-driven self-thermophoretic micromotor, is reported. The swimmer is propelled by a local temperature gradient created by laser illumination on its metal-coated side...
June 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601355/yogic-breathing-practices-improve-lung-functions-of-competitive-young-swimmers
#11
Chirag Sunil Hakked, Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Manjunath Nandi Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Resistive breathing practices are known to improve endurance and performance in competitive swimmers. However, the effect of Pranayama or Yogic Breathing Practices (YBP) in improving respiratory endurance and performance of competitive swimmers remains un-investigated. OBJECTIVES: To study effects of yogic breathing practices on lung functions of swimmers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven national and international competitive swimmers of the age range 13-20 years, with 8...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598347/ingestion-of-swimming-pool-water-by-recreational-swimmers
#12
A P Dufour, T D Behymer, R Cantú, M Magnuson, L J Wymer
The volume of water ingested by swimmers while swimming is of great interest to individuals who develop risk assessments using quantitative microbial risk assessment or epidemiological approaches. We have used chloroisocyanurate disinfected swimming pool waters to determine the amount of water swallowed by swimmers during swimming activity. The chloroisocyanurate, which is in equilibrium with chlorine and cyanuric acid in the pool water, provides a biomarker, cyanuric acid, that once swallowed passes through the body into the urine unchanged...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597620/critical-velocity-in-swimmers-of-different-ages
#13
Alex Rizzato, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Rubini, Nicola Olivato, Simone Fava, Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. METHODS: We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591135/bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-biva-for-measuring-the-hydration-status-in-young-elite-synchronized-swimmers
#14
Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Jorge Castizo-Olier, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez, Diego Chaverri, Daniel Brotons, Alfredo Irurtia
PURPOSE: The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586681/ocean-currents-and-marine-life
#15
Graeme C Hays
Ocean currents have many profound impacts on marine life, moving not only animals and plants around the ocean but also redistributing heat and nutrients. While some of these impacts have been well known for many decades, there have been major recent developments in this area. Biologists are increasingly collaborating with physical oceanographers. At the same time, methods to accurately predict ocean currents and their variability have improved over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Emerging from these initiatives is an understanding of how currents impact the connectivity of marine populations, how they influence the migration of strong swimmers, including whales and turtles, and how changing currents, as part of global climate change, may re-shape entire communities...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584884/population-splitting-of-rodlike-swimmers-in-couette-flow
#16
Hossein Nili, Masoud Kheyri, Javad Abazari, Ali Fahimniya, Ali Naji
We present a quantitative analysis on the response of a dilute active suspension of self-propelled rods (swimmers) in a planar channel subjected to an imposed shear flow. To best capture the salient features of the shear-induced effects, we consider the case of an imposed Couette flow, providing a constant shear rate across the channel. We argue that the steady-state behavior of swimmers can be understood in the light of a population splitting phenomenon, occurring as the shear rate exceeds a certain threshold, initiating the reversal of the swimming direction for a finite fraction of swimmers from down- to upstream or vice versa, depending on the swimmer position within the channel...
June 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570527/induction-of-cellular-differentiation-and-single-cell-imaging-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-swimmer-and-swarmer-cells
#17
Jan Heering, Alejandra Alvarado, Simon Ringgaard
The ability to study the intracellular localization of proteins is essential for the understanding of many cellular processes. In turn, this requires the ability to obtain single cells for fluorescence microscopy, which can be particularly challenging when imaging cells that exist within bacterial communities. For example, the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus exists as short rod-shaped swimmer cells in liquid conditions that upon surface contact differentiate into a subpopulation of highly elongated swarmer cells specialized for growth on solid surfaces...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570493/effects-of-intra-cyclic-velocity-variations-on-the-drag-exerted-by-different-swimming-parachutes
#18
Matteo Cortesi, Rocco Di Michele, Giorgio Gatta
Swimming parachutes are often used as a tool for resisted swimming training. However, little is known on their behavior in terms of exerted drag as a consequence of intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. This study aimed to assess the drag provided by two swimming parachutes of different shape, also characterized by different volumes and cross-sectional areas, under conditions of velocity variations in the range of those occurring in swimming. A flat square shaped parachute (FLAT, cross-sectional area and volume: 400 cm; 0...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562289/prevention-and-treatment-of-tympanostomy-tube-otorrhea-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Dale W Steele, Gaelen P Adam, Mengyang Di, Christopher W Halladay, Ethan M Balk, Thomas A Trikalinos
CONTEXT: Children with tympanostomy tubes often develop ear discharge. OBJECTIVE: Synthesize evidence about the need for water precautions (ear plugs or swimming avoidance) and effectiveness of topical versus oral antibiotic treatment of otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. DATA SOURCES: Searches in Medline, the Cochrane Central Trials Registry and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Excerpta Medica Database, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
May 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556690/vitamin-d-status-and-muscle-function-among-adolescent-and-young-swimmers
#20
Nina Rica Wium Geiker, Rikke Larsen, Mette Hansen, Niklas R Jørgensen, Jette Jakobsen, Birthe S Hansen, Michael Kristensen, Susanne Bügel
Impaired muscle function has been coupled to vitamin D insufficiency in young women and in elderly men and women. Those living at Northern latitudes are at risk of vitamin D insufficiency due to low sun exposure which may be more pronounced among elite swimmers because of their indoor training schedules. We aimed to examine vitamin D status among young elite swimmers and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Twenty-nine swimmers, 12 female and 17 male (16-24 years) residing at latitude 55-56°N were studied in March and April...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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