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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749151/on-the-boundary-conditions-of-effort-losses-and-effort-gains-in-action-teams
#1
Joachim Hüffmeier, Michael Filusch, Jens Mazei, Guido Hertel, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Krumm
While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746660/somatic-maturation-and-the-relationship-between-bone-mineral-variables-and-types-of-sports-among-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#2
Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Igor Hideki Ito, Han Kemper, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, Mário Antônio Rodrigues-Júnior, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Peak height velocity (PHV) is an important maturational event during adolescence that affects skeleton size. The objective here was to compare bone variables in adolescents who practiced different types of sports, and to identify whether differences in bone variables attributed to sports practice were dependent on somatic maturation status. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, São Paulo State University (UNESP). METHODS: The study was composed of 93 adolescents (12 to 16...
May 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734349/integrated-preservation-and-sample-clean-up-procedures-for-studying-water-ingestion-by-recreational-swimmers-via-urinary-biomarker-determination
#3
Ricardo Cantú, Jody A Shoemaker, Catherine A Kelty, Larry J Wymer, Thomas D Behymer, Alfred P Dufour, Matthew L Magnuson
The use of cyanuric acid as a biomarker for ingestion of swimming pool water may lead to quantitative knowledge of the volume of water ingested during swimming, contributing to a better understanding of disease resulting from ingestion of environmental contaminants. When swimming pool water containing chlorinated cyanurates is inadvertently ingested, cyanuric acid is excreted quantitatively within 24 h as a urinary biomarker of ingestion. Because the volume of water ingested can be quantitatively estimated by calculation from the concentration of cyanuric acid in 24 h urine samples, a procedure for preservation, cleanup, and analysis of cyanuric acid was developed to meet the logistical demands of large scale studies...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733931/do-6%C3%A2-months-of-whole-body-vibration-training-improve-lean-mass-and-bone-mass-acquisition-of-adolescent-swimmers
#4
A Gómez-Bruton, A González-Agüero, A Matute-Llorente, C Julián, G Lozano-Berges, A Gómez-Cabello, J A Casajús, G Vicente-Rodríguez
Swimming has little effect on bone mass. Therefore, adolescent swimmers should complement their water training with a short and intense weight-bearing training, aiming to increase their bone acquisition. Forty swimmers performed a six-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training. WBV had no effect on adolescent swimmers' bone mass or lean mass. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of a whole-body vibration (WBV) intervention on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean mass (LM) in adolescent swimmers...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726415/enhanced-diffusion-of-passive-tracers-in-active-enzyme-solutions
#5
Xi Zhao, Krishna Kanti Dey, Selva Jeganathan, Peter J Butler, Ubaldo M Córdova-Figueroa, Ayusman Sen
Colloidal suspensions containing microscopic swimmers have been the focus of recent studies aimed at understanding the principles of energy transfer in fluidic media at low Reynolds number conditions. Going down in scale, active enzymes have been shown to be force-generating, non-equilibrium systems, thus offering opportunity to examine energy transfer at the ultralow Reynolds number regime. By monitoring the change of diffusion of inert tracers dispersed in active enzyme solutions, we demonstrate that the nature of energy transfer in these systems is similar to that reported for larger microscopic active systems, despite the large differences in scale, modes of energy transduction and propulsion...
July 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#6
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721108/effect-of-self-paced-active-recovery-and-passive-recovery-on-blood-lactate-removal-following-a-200-m-freestyle-swimming-trial
#7
Márcio Rabelo Mota, Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas, Iransé Oliveira-Silva, Marcelo Magalhães Sales, Rafael da Costa Sotero, Patrícia Espíndola Mota Venâncio, Jairo Teixeira Júnior, Sandro Nobre Chaves, Filipe Dinato de Lima
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-paced active recovery (AR) and passive recovery (PR) on blood lactate removal following a 200 m freestyle swimming trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen young swimmers (with a training frequency of 6-8 sessions per week) performed two maximal 200 m freestyle trials followed by 15 minutes of different recovery methods, on separate days. Recovery was performed with 15 minutes of passive rest or 5 minutes of passive rest and 10 minutes of self-paced AR...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713472/performance-trends-in-master-butterfly-swimmers-competing-in-the-fina-world-championships
#8
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
Performance trends in elite butterfly swimmers are well known, but less information is available regarding master butterfly swimmers. We investigated trends in participation, performance and sex differences in 9,606 female and 13,250 male butterfly race times classified into five-year master groups, from 25-29 to 90-94 years, competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analyzed using linear regression analysis. Trends in performance changes were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and a calendar year as fixed variables...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713467/quality-versus-quantity-debate-in-swimming-perceptions-and-training-practices-of-expert-swimming-coaches
#9
Frank J Nugent, Thomas M Comyns, Giles D Warrington
The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches' perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713464/a-rapidly-incremented-tethered-swimming-test-for-defining-domain-specific-training-zones
#10
Dalton M Pessôa Filho, Leandro O C Siqueira, Astor R Simionato, Mário A C Espada, Daniel S Pestana, Fred J DiMenna
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5) performed: (a) a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg) and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase), and (b) an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709335/entropic-multirelaxation-time-lattice-boltzmann-method-for-moving-and-deforming-geometries-in-three-dimensions
#11
B Dorschner, S S Chikatamarla, I V Karlin
Entropic lattice Boltzmann methods have been developed to alleviate intrinsic stability issues of lattice Boltzmann models for under-resolved simulations. Its reliability in combination with moving objects was established for various laminar benchmark flows in two dimensions in our previous work [B. Dorschner, S. Chikatamarla, F. Bösch, and I. Karlin, J. Comput. Phys. 295, 340 (2015)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2015.04.017] as well as for three-dimensional one-way coupled simulations of engine-type geometries in B...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709325/transitions-between-multiple-dynamical-states-in-a-confined-dense-active-particle-system
#12
Pallab Sinha Mahapatra, Ajinkya Kulkarni, Sam Mathew, Mahesh V Panchagnula, Srikanth Vedantam
We study the collective motion of a dense suspension of active swimmers in a viscous fluid medium. The swimmers are modeled as soft spheres moving in a highly viscous fluid medium. The magnitude of the propelling thrust exerted by each particle is taken to be a constant and the direction is aligned to its velocity. Depending on the magnitude of the exerted thrust, several nonequilibrium steady states are observed. The transitions between the steady states are characterized using the total dissipation as a function of the magnitude of the thrust...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708710/bone-accrual-in-children-and-adolescent-nonelite-swimmers-a-2-year-longitudinal-study
#13
Andy C Collins, Kenneth D Ward, Barbara S McClanahan, Deborah L Slawson, Christopher Vukadinovich, Kamra E Mays, Nancy Wilson, George Relyea
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in bone mass between children and adolescents swimming competitively at nonelite levels (locally and regionally) and nonathletes and to assess changes in bone mass in these 2 groups over 24 months after taking into consideration several known confounders of bone mass. DESIGN: Observational prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: White nonelite swimmers (n = 128) and nonathletes (n = 106) 8 to 18 years of age from Memphis, Tennessee, USA...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700512/influence-of-morphology-and-strength-on-front-crawl-swimming-speed-in-junior-and-youth-age-group-swimmers
#14
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
OBJECTIVES: this study, conducted in two male age groups, was aimed at analysing the influence of body properties, dry-land strength and swimming strength on 50 m crawl (VCrawl). METHODS: We examined two competitive groups, Youth (20.6 ± 1.05), and Junior, (17.3 ± 0.59), through: a. (lean) body mass (BM and LBM), (total) body height (BH and TBL) and arm span (AS); b. counter movement jump (CMJ) and maximum isometric strength of elbow and knee joints; c. tethered crawl strength...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690573/changes-of-swimmers-emotional-states-during-the-preparation-of-national-championship-do-recovery-stress-states-matter
#15
Philippe Vacher, Michel Nicolas, Guillaume Martinent, Laurent Mourot
This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685886/longitudinal-adaptations-of-bone-mass-geometry-and-metabolism-in-adolescent-male-athletes-the-pro-bone-study
#16
Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ioannis G Fatouros, Karen M Knapp, Craig A Williams, Luis Gracia-Marco
Adolescence is a crucial period for bone development and exercise can enhance bone acquisition during this period of life. However, it is not known how the different loading sports practised can affect bone acquisition in adolescent male athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the 1 year longitudinal bone acquisition among adolescent males involved in osteogenic (football) and non-osteogenic sports (swimming and cycling) and compared to active controls. 116 adolescent males aged 12-14 years at baseline were monitored 1 year: 37 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 active controls...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682161/effect-of-swim-intensity-on-responses-to-dynamic-apnoea
#17
A Guimard, K Collomp, H Zorgati, S Brulaire, X Woorons, V Amiot, F Prieur
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of swim intensity on acute responses to dynamic apnoea. 9 swimmers performed one 50 m front crawl trial in four different conditions: at 400 m velocity (V400) with normal breathing (NB), at V400 in complete apnoea (Ap), at maximal velocity (Vmax) with NB and at Vmax in Ap. Peak heart rate (HRpeak), blood lactate concentration after exercise (Lacpost ex) and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was monitored with a pulse oximeter at forehead level during and after exercise...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677387/highly-efficient-freestyle-magnetic-nanoswimmer
#18
Tianlong Li, Jinxing Li, Konstantin Morozov, Zhiguang Wu, Tailin Xu, Isaac Rozen, Alexander M Leshansky, Longqiu Li, Joseph Wang
The unique swimming strategies of natural microorganisms have inspired recent development of magnetic micro/nanorobots powered by artificial helical or flexible flagella. However, as artificial nanoswimmers with unique geometries are being developed, it is critical to explore new potential modes for kinetic optimization. For example, the freestyle stroke is the most efficient of the competitive swimming strokes for humans. Here we report a new type of magnetic nanorobot, a symmetric multi-linked two-arm nanoswimmer, capable of efficient "freestyle" swimming at low Reynolds numbers...
July 5, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672065/lean-mass-explains-the-association-between-muscular-fitness-and-bone-outcomes-in-13-year-old-boys
#19
Esther Ubago-Guisado, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Ana Torres-Costoso, Kelly Wilkinson, Brad Metcalf, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Leonor Gallardo, Luis Gracia-Marco
AIM: This study investigated the associations between fitness indices and bone outcomes in young males. METHODS: Data were collected between autumn and winter 2014-2015 on 121 males with a mean age of 13.1 ±0.1 years: 41 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 non-athletes. Participants were recruited from athletic clubs and schools across South West England. Lean mass, areal bone mineral density and hip structural estimates were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
July 3, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671378/acute-and-chronic-paronychia
#20
Jeff C Leggit
Paronychia is inflammation of the fingers or toes in one or more of the three nail folds. Acute paronychia is caused by polymicrobial infections after the protective nail barrier has been breached. Treatment consists of warm soaks with or without Burow solution or 1% acetic acid. Topical antibiotics should be used with or without topical steroids when simple soaks do not relieve the inflammation. The presence of an abscess should be determined, which mandates drainage. There are a variety of options for drainage, ranging from instrumentation with a hypodermic needle to a wide incision with a scalpel...
July 1, 2017: American Family Physician
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