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Joaquín Valle Alonso, Motiur Chowdhury, Raju Borakati, Upali Gankande
Swimming Induced Pulmonary Edema, or SIPE, is an emerging condition occurring in otherwise healthy individuals during surface swimming or diving that is characterized by cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and hypoxemia. It is typically found in those who spend time in cold water exercise with heavy swimming and surface swimming, such as civilian training for iron Man, triathalon, and military training. We report the case of a highly trained young female swimmer in excellent cardiopulmonary health, who developed acute alveolar pulmonary oedema in an open water swimming training diagnosed in the emergency department using POCUS ultrasound...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fabian Itel, Philipp S Schattling, Yan Zhang, Brigitte Städler
Cell mimicry is a nature inspired concept that aims to substitute for missing or lost (sub)cellular function. This review focuses on the latest advancements in the use of enzymes in cell mimicry for encapsulated catalysis and artificial motility in synthetic bottom-up assemblies with emphasis on the biological response in cell culture or more rarely in animal models. Entities across the length scale from nano-sized enzyme mimics, sub-micron sized artificial organelles and self-propelled particles (swimmers) to micron-sized artificial cells are discussed...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Jennifer D Stromberg
Water polo is a team sport that combines swimming with overhead throwing and wrestling. This places water polo players at risk for a unique group of illnesses and injuries. In addition to the medical problems and injuries seen in competitive swimmers, water polo players are at risk for a variety of traumatic injuries, including concussions, eye injuries, tympanic membrane perforation, fractures, dislocations, and lacerations. Repetitive overhead throwing also places these athletes at risk for related injuries, such as shoulder problems, including rotator cuff strain and impingement, and elbow problems, such as ulnar collateral ligament injuries, posteromedial impingement, and osteochondritis dissecans of the radial capitellum...
September 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Shagun Bhatia Shah, Ajay Kumar Bhargava, Ramandeep Singh Jaggi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Francisco B Ortega, Peter Krustrup, Brad Metcalf, Jose Castro Pinero, Jonatan R Ruiz, Karen M Knapp, Craig A Williams, Luis A Moreno, Luis Gracia-Marco
OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study was conducted in adolescent males involved in football, swimming and cycling and compared with an active control group. METHODS: 116 adolescent males (13.1±0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Paola Zamparo, Stefano Carrara, Paola Cesari
The study aim was to compare expert with non-expert swimmers' rating of the aesthetic and technical qualities of front crawl in video-taped recordings of swimmers with low, middle, and high level proficiency. The results suggest that: i) observers' experience affects their judgment: only the expert observers correctly rated the swimmers' proficiency level; ii) evaluation of movement (technical and aesthetic scores) is correlated with the level of skill as expressed in the kinematics of the observed action (swimming speed, stroke frequency, and stroke length); iii) expert and non-expert observers use different strategies to rate the aesthetic and technical qualities of movement: equating the technical skill with the aesthetic quality is a general rule non-expert observers follow in the evaluation of human movement...
2017: PloS One
Keith E Whitener
We present microscopic models for surface fouling of an isotropic spherical catalytic microswimmer at and away from equilibrium and show how a foulant gradient can induce chemotactic behavior. Our simulations establish that the presence of foulant manifests itself in two ways: as a braking effect on propulsive particle motion, and as a drift term which probes the foulant concentration gradient. Our results suggest that, while foulant gradients are unlikely to be directly useful for chemotactically directed particles, they nevertheless exert a non-negligible influence on particle motion under a wide range of conditions...
September 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nikhil Desai, Arezoo M Ardekani
In this article, we review mathematical models used to study the behaviour of suspensions of micro-swimmers and the accompanying biophysical phenomena, with specific focus on stimulus response. The methods discussed encompass a range of interactions exhibited by the micro-swimmers; including passive hydrodynamic (gyrotaxis) and gravitational (gravitaxis) effects, and active responses to chemical cues (chemotaxis) and light intensities (phototaxis). We introduce the simplest models first, and then build towards more sophisticated recent developments, in the process, identifying the limitations of the former and the new results obtained by the latter...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
Vanessa K Hilliard Young, Charlotte E Wienands, Brittany P Wilburn, Richard W Blob
During evolutionary reinvasions of water by terrestrial vertebrates, ancestrally tubular limb bones often flatten to form flippers. Differences in skeletal loading between land and water might have facilitated such changes. In turtles, femoral shear strains are significantly lower during swimming than during walking, potentially allowing a release from loads favoring tubular shafts. However, flipper-like morphology in specialized tetrapod swimmers is most accentuated in the forelimbs. To test if the forelimbs of turtles also experience reduced torsional loading in water, we compared strains on the humerus of river cooters (Pseudemys concinna) between swimming and terrestrial walking...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Christina Kurzthaler, Thomas Franosch
Microswimmers exhibit noisy circular motion due to asymmetric propulsion mechanisms, their chiral body shape, or by hydrodynamic couplings in the vicinity of surfaces. Here, we employ the Brownian circle swimmer model and characterize theoretically the dynamics in terms of the directly measurable intermediate scattering function. We derive the associated Fokker-Planck equation for the conditional probabilities and provide an exact solution in terms of generalizations of the Mathieu functions. Different spatiotemporal regimes are identified reflecting the bare translational diffusion at large wavenumbers, the persistent circular motion at intermediate wavenumbers and an enhanced effective diffusion at small wavenumbers...
September 5, 2017: Soft Matter
Marek Rejman, Marek Bilewski, Stefan Szczepan, Andrzej Klarowicz, Daria Rudnik, Krzysztof Maćkała
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse changes taking place within selected kinematic parameters of the swimming start, after completing a six-week plyometric training, assuming that the take-off power training improves its effectiveness. METHODS: The experiment included nine male swimmers. In the pre-test the swimmers performed three starts focusing on the best performance. Next, a plyometric training programme, adapted from sprint running, was introduced in order to increase a power of the lower extremities...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
Masoumeh Torabi, Alireza Pooriamehr, Imanollah Bigdeli, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to examine whether maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy would attenuate prenatally morphine-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary consumption of morphine in the pubertal male and female rat offspring. Pregnant rats during the development of morphine dependence were allowed to swim (30-45min/d, 3days per a week) on gestational days 11-18. Then, the pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Marc Luginbühl, Susanne Nussbaumer, Wolfgang Weinmann
The direct alcohol marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used for the assessment of alcohol consumption behavior and abstinence monitoring by hair analysis. We investigated the influence of chlorinated swimming pool water on EtG concentrations in hair in comparison to deionized water (Milli-Q) containing no chlorine. EtG concentrations were measured with a validated online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. EtG positive hair samples were obtained from three regular drinkers and incubated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours at room temperature...
August 30, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Pavol Surda, Abigail Walker, Matus Putala, Pavel Siarnik
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of rhinitis in athletes has frequently been studied and varies widely from 27% to 74%. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the prevalence of rhinitis in athletes, to specifically compare the evidence of rhinitis in land-based and aquatic athletes. METHODS: Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed was performed from inception to March 8, 2016, to identify studies on rhinitis in athletes. RESULTS: Of the 373 identified unique articles, a total of 13 studies satisfied the criteria for this review...
2017: International Journal of Otolaryngology
Mirko Stjepanovic, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Swim times, body core temperatures, and selected urinary and haematological parameters were recorded. Body core temperature reached its maximum between 5, 8 and 15 min after immersion (37.7°C, 38...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, Omar Ayad, Marco Bonifazi, Dario Dalla Vedova, Ludovic Seifert
This study assessed perception-action coupling in expert swimmers by focusing on their upper limb inter-segmental coordination in front crawl. To characterize this coupling, we manipulated the fluid flow and compared trials performed in a swimming pool and a swimming flume, both at a speed of 1.35ms(-1). The temporal structure of the stroke cycle and the spatial coordination and its variability for both hand/lower arm and lower arm/upper arm couplings of the right body side were analyzed as a function of fluid flow using inertial sensors positioned on the corresponding segments...
August 25, 2017: Human Movement Science
Sally J McLaine, Karen A Ginn, James W Fell, Marie-Louise Bird
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jack D Dischler, Timothy G Baumer, Evan Finkelstein, Daniel S Siegal, Michael J Bey
BACKGROUND: Shoulder injuries are common among competitive swimmers, and the progression of shoulder pathology is not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which years of competitive swim training were associated with physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle and tendon, shoulder strength, and self-reported assessments of shoulder pain and function. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing years of competition will be associated with declining physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle/tendon and declining self-reported assessments of pain and function...
August 1, 2017: Sports Health
Lu Zong, Xiankai Li, Xiangsheng Han, Lili Lv, Mingjie Li, Jun You, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
Macroscopic soft actuation is intrinsic to living organisms in nature, including slow deformation (e.g., contraction, bending, twisting, and curling) of plants motivated by microscopic swelling and shrinking of cells, and rapid motion of animals (e.g., deformation of jellyfish) motivated by cooperative nanoscale movement of motor proteins. These actuation behaviors, with an exceptional combination of tunable speed and programmable deformation direction, inspire us to design artificial soft actuators for broad applications in artificial muscles, nanofabrication, chemical valves, microlenses, soft robotics, etc...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Eias Kassem, Alon Eliakim
The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
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