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Pavol Surda, Matus Putala, Pavel Siarnik, Abigail Walker, Ana Bernic, Wytske Fokkens
INTRODUCTION: Limited data suggest that swimmers might be affected by rhinitis significantly more often than the general population. This can have impact on quality of life but also on performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and impact of QOL of rhinitis in swimming compared to non-swimming athletes and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational case control, questionnaire based study involving elite (n=101) and non-elite swimming athletes (n=107), non-swimming athletes (n = 38) and sex and age-matched controls (n = 50)...
November 18, 2017: Allergy
Mary L Solomon, Susannah M Briskin, Nicole Sabatina, Jennifer E Steinhoff
Youth sports participation numbers continue to grow in the United States. A shift toward sport specialization has caused an increase in sport training frequency and intensity that places the growing athlete at risk for overtraining, nutritional deficits, and injuries. Individuals who participate in endurance sports are at especially high risk. Youth runners and swimmers are high-risk populations that require special attention to their training schedules, nutritional intake, and injuries. Appropriate scheduling of training, dedicating time to rest, and nutrition education can help prevent problems in the endurance athlete...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Gašper Kokot, German V Kolmakov, Igor S Aranson, Alexey Snezhko
We demonstrate experimentally and in computer simulations that magnetic microfloaters can self-organize into various functional structures while energized by an external alternating (ac) magnetic field. The structures exhibit self-propelled motion and an ability to carry a cargo along a pre-defined path. The morphology of the self-assembled swimmers is controlled by the frequency and amplitude of the magnetic field.
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kendra I Brown, Katherine E Graham, Jeffrey A Soller, Alexandria B Boehm
Beaches often receive fecal contamination from more than one source. Human sources include untreated sewage as well as treated wastewater effluent, and animal sources include wildlife such as gulls. Different contamination sources are expected to pose different health risks to swimmers. Genetic microbial source tracking (MST) markers can be used to detect bacteria that are associated with different animal sources, but the health risks associated with a mixture of MST markers are unknown. This study presents a method for predicting these health risks, using human- and gull-associated markers as an example...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Serkan Ergözen
The mystical beauty of the subaquatic world is undoubtedly attractive, and many techniques and forms of equipment have been developed in the last few decades to allow us to explore the underwater world. A swimmer or diver needs swimming goggles or a diving mask to have clear vision because of the refraction problem between the eye and the water interface. Although these items are effective for clear vision, they can result in "ocular or facial barotrauma of descent" during diving. It is possible to prevent these types of barotrauma with correct techniques and precautions, thus enabling the continuation of recreational diving without recurrence...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
I Yustres, R Martín, L Fernández, J M González-Ravé
The primary goal was to determine whether the achievement of finalist positions in the Junior Championship was associated with the achievement of success in the International Swimming Federation (FINA) World Championship (WC). Secondary goals included analyzing the effect of various factors (gender, age, country, etc) on swimmers' performances. Data were obtained from FINA information about the finalists from 2007 to 2015 WCs and finalists from 2006 to 2013 Junior-WCs (2400 entries). Final filtered database just included swimmers who participated in both junior and senior WCs (719 entries)...
2017: PloS One
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Alon Eliakim
Previous studies have shown that the IGF1 polymorphism is associated with greater muscle mass and improved power athletic ability, but very little is known about the IGF2 polymorphism and athletic performance. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency distribution of the IGF2 rs680 polymorphism among Israeli athletes. METHODS: 185 short- (n=72) and long-distance (n=113) runners, 94 short- (n=44) and long-distance (n=50) swimmers, 54 weight lifters and 111 controls participated in the study...
October 3, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Songzhi Xie, Long Zhao, Xiaojie Song, Maosheng Tang, Chuanfei Mo, Xiaohong Li
The use of bacteria as drug carriers meets several challenges, such as biocompatibility, motility deterioration after drug loading and lack of in vivo verification. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is one of the best studied probiotic strains, and doxorubicin (DOX) is conjugated onto EcN in the current study via acid-labile linkers of cis-aconitic anhydride (EcN-ca-Dox), realizing the bacteria-directed accumulation and acid-responsive release of anticancer drugs in tumors. The drug conjugation has maintained the bacterial motion profiles of over 9μm/s and cell viability of over 70%...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Brice Guignard, Jessy Lauer, Pierre Samozino, Luis Mourão, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Hélène Rouard
During a horizontal underwater push-off, performance is strongly limited by the presence of water, inducing resistances due to its dense and viscous nature. At the same time, aquatic environments offer a support to the swimmer with the hydrostatic buoyancy counteracting the effects of gravity. Squat jump is a vertical terrestrial push-off with a maximal lower limb extension limited by the gravity force, which attracts the body to the ground. Following this observation, we characterized the effects of environment (water vs...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Flávia G De Carvalho, Ricardo A Barbieri, Milena B Carvalho, Carla C Dato, Eduardo Z Campos, Ronaldo B Gobbi, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino S R Silva, Ellen Cristini de Freitas
Taurine can affect the energy system metabolism, specifically the lipid metabolism, since an increase in lipid oxidation may promote carbohydrate savings. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation associated with high-intensity exercise could increase levels of lipolysis, benefiting swimmer performance. Nine male competitive swimmers performed two 400-m front crawl maximal efforts with a 1-week washout, and the athletes received 6 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) supplementation 120 min before performing the effort...
October 29, 2017: Amino Acids
Takaaki Tsunokawa, Tempei Tsuno, Hirotoshi Mankyu, Hideki Takagi, Futoshi Ogita
Through pressure measurement, this study aimed to clarify the effects of hand paddle use on pressure and force generation around the hand during the front crawl. Eight male swimmers performed two trials of front crawl swimming with maximal effort, once using only their hands and once aided by hand paddles. During trials, pressure sensors and underwater motion capture cameras were used together to analyze hand kinematics and pressure forces acting on the hand. Six pressure sensors were attached to the right hand, and pressure forces acting on the right hand were estimated by multiplying the areas and the pressure differences between the palm side and dorsal side of the hand...
October 24, 2017: Human Movement Science
Jamel Ali, U Kei Cheang, James D Martindale, Mehdi Jabbarzadeh, Henry C Fu, Min Jun Kim
Wirelessly controlled nanoscale robots have the potential to be used for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications. So far, the vast majority of reported micro- and nanoscale swimmers have taken the approach of mimicking the rotary motion of helical bacterial flagella for propulsion, and are often composed of monolithic inorganic materials or photoactive polymers. However, currently no man-made soft nanohelix has the ability to rapidly reconfigure its geometry in response to multiple forms of environmental stimuli, which has the potential to enhance motility in tortuous heterogeneous biological environments...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun H Park, Slawomir Lach, Konstantin Polev, Steve Granick, Bartosz A Grzybowski
Placed at a water/air interface, particles of porphyrin-based MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) cut from large-area films display efficient, multiple-use autonomous motility powered by release of solvents incorporated in the MOF matrix and directionality dictated by their shapes. The particles can be refueled multiple times and can achieve speeds of ca. 200 mm·s(-1) with high kinetic energy per unit of chemical "fuel" expended (>50 μJ·g(-1)). Efficiency of motion depends on the nature of the fuel used as well as the microstructure and surface wettability of the MOF surface...
November 7, 2017: ACS Nano
Hao Zeng, Piotr Wasylczyk, Diederik S Wiersma, Arri Priimagi
For decades, roboticists have focused their efforts on rigid systems that enable programmable, automated action, and sophisticated control with maximal movement precision and speed. Meanwhile, material scientists have sought compounds and fabrication strategies to devise polymeric actuators that are small, soft, adaptive, and stimuli-responsive. Merging these two fields has given birth to a new class of devices-soft microrobots that, by combining concepts from microrobotics and stimuli-responsive materials research, provide several advantages in a miniature form: external, remotely controllable power supply, adaptive motion, and human-friendly interaction, with device design and action often inspired by biological systems...
October 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
Eduardo Z Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Ronaldo B Gobbi, Ricardo A Barbieri, Nayara P Almeida, Marcelo Papoti
Total anaerobic contribution (TAn) can be assessed by accumulated oxygen deficit, and through sum of glycolytic and phosphagen contribution which enable the evaluation of TAn without influences on mechanical parameters. However, little is known about the difference of TAn within swimming distances. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to determine and compare the TAn in different performances using the backward extrapolation technique and amount of lactate accumulated during exercise, and relate it with swimming performance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Christophe Schnitzler, Chris Button, Ludovic Seifert, Geoffrey Armbrust, James L Croft
PURPOSE: Aquatic survival skills may be compromised in cold water thereby increasing the likelihood of drowning. This study compared physiological, psychological, and behavioural responses of humans treading water and swimming in cold and temperate water. METHODS: Thirty-eight participants were classified as inexperienced (n=9), recreational (n=15), or skilled (n=10) swimmers. They performed three tasks: treading water (120 s), swim at "comfortable" pace, and swim at "fast" pace in two water conditions (28 °C vs 10 °C)...
October 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Giorgia Sinibaldi, Valerio Iebba, Mauro Chinappi
The dynamics of swimming microorganisms is strongly affected by solid-liquid and air-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we characterize the motion of both single bacteria and microcolonies at an air-liquid interface. Both of them follow circular trajectories. Single bacteria preferentially show a counter-clockwise motion, in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical findings. Instead, no preferential rotation direction is observed for microcolonies suggesting that their motion is due to a different physical mechanism...
October 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Keith M Bayha, Allen G Collins, Patrick M Gaffney
BACKGROUND: Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts...
2017: PeerJ
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