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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778648/impact-of-insulin-on-the-intestinal-microcirculation-in-a-model-of-sepsis-related-hyperglycemia
#1
Alexa Caldwell, Jan Niklas Morick, Anne-Marie Jentsch, Annette Wegener, Dragan Pavlovic, Nadia Al-Banna, Christian Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Sepsis involves dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Among patients with sepsis, hyperglycemia is frequent and insulin administration has been evaluated for glycemic control to improve patient outcomes. Only few studies have examined the hyperglycemic microcirculation and the impact of insulin on the microvasculature in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To study the functional capillary density (FCD) and leukocyte activation within the intestinal microcirculation in endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis...
May 17, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778488/the-2016-bernard-sachs-lecture-timing-in-morphogenesis-and-genetic-gradients-during-normal-development-and-in-malformations-of-the-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Harvey B Sarnat
Nervous system development is quadradimensional. Both normal ontogenesis and developmental malformations are explained in the context of the fourth dimension, timing. Timing of the onset of either the genetic expression of a mutation or an epigenetic event that may be teratogenic is primordial in determining morphogenesis and the forms of malformations with their functional consequences. Multiple genotypes may cause similar phenotypes or a single genotype with different degrees of retained normal genetic expression may result in variable phenotypes...
March 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753220/effects-of-congestion-on-drivers-speed-choice-assessing-the-mediating-role-of-state-aggressiveness-based-on-taxi-floating-car-data
#3
Yizhe Huang, Daniel Jian Sun, Li-Hui Zhang
Inappropriate cruising speed, such as speeding, is one of the major contributors to the road safety, which increases both the quantitative number and severity of traffic accidents. Previous studies have indicated that traffic congestion is one of the primary causes of drivers' frustration and aggression, which may lead to inappropriate speed choice. In this study, the large taxi floating car data (FCD) was used to empirically evaluate how traffic congestion-related negative moods, defined as state aggressiveness, affected drivers' speed choice...
May 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740216/altered-functional-connectivity-density-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia
#4
Shunda Hong, Lili Gu, Fuqing Zhou, Jiaqi Liu, Muhua Huang, Jian Jiang, Laichang He, Honghan Gong, Xianjun Zeng
Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Patients and methods: Thirty-three right-handed HZ patients (13 males; mean age 57.15±9.30 years), 22 right-handed PHN patients (9 males; mean age 66.13±6.77 years), and 28 well-matched healthy controls (HC) (9 males; mean age 54.21±7.72 years) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging for intrinsic functional connectivity analyses...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738718/bilateral-thalamocortical-abnormalities-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#5
Arthur Rezayev, Henry A Feldman, Jacob Levman, Emi Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a congenital malformation of the neocortex and one of the most common causes of medication resistant epilepsy in pediatric populations, can be studied noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The present study aimed to quantify changes in the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways with respect to fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and other common measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study quantified data collected from pediatric patients with a prior diagnosis of FCD; 75 patients (35 females, 10...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735513/a-unifying-theory-for-cognitive-abnormalities-in-functional-neurological-disorders-fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards, Jeremy D Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) describes cognitive dysfunction in the absence of an organic cause. It is increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings yet its key neuropsychological features have not been reported in large patient cohorts. We hypothesised that cognitive profiles in fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and functional neurological disorders (FNDs) would provide a template for characterising FCD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies with cognition-related outcomes in FM, CFS and FND...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708508/second-hit-mosaic-mutation-in-mtorc1-repressor-depdc5-causes-focal-cortical-dysplasia-associated-epilepsy
#7
Théo Ribierre, Charlotte Deleuze, Alexandre Bacq, Sara Baldassari, Elise Marsan, Mathilde Chipaux, Giuseppe Muraca, Delphine Roussel, Vincent Navarro, Eric Leguern, Richard Miles, Stéphanie Baulac
DEP domain-containing 5 protein (DEPDC5) is a repressor of the recently recognized amino acid-sensing branch of the mTORC1 pathway. So far, its function in the brain remains largely unknown. Germline loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5 have emerged as a major cause of familial refractory focal epilepsies, with case reports of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Remarkably, a fraction of patients also develop focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a neurodevelopmental cortical malformation. We therefore hypothesized that a somatic second-hit mutation arising during brain development may support the focal nature of the dysplasia...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694389/site-specific-glycosaminoglycan-content-is-better-maintained-in-the-pericellular-matrix-than-the-extracellular-matrix-in-early-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#8
Simo P Ojanen, Mikko A J Finnilä, Aino E Reunamo, Ari P Ronkainen, Santtu Mikkonen, Walter Herzog, Simo Saarakkala, Rami K Korhonen
INTRODUCTION: One of the characteristics of early osteoarthritis (OA) is the loss of fixed charged density (FCD) of glycosaminoglycans in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. However, possible local changes in the FCD content of the pericellular matrix (PCM) are not fully understood. Hence, our aim was to investigate the effect of unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rabbit knees on estimated FCD in the PCM compared to that in the ECM, and relate these results with cell morphology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692704/left-parietal-functional-connectivity-mediates-the-association-between-comt-rs4633-and-verbal-intelligence-in-healthy-adults
#9
Qiang Xu, Jilian Fu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Bing Liu, Tianzi Jiang, Chunshui Yu
In Chinese Han population, Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene ( COMT) rs4633 is found to be associated with impaired cognitive process. We aimed to investigate the association between COMT rs4633 and verbal intelligence and the underlying neural mechanisms in Chinese Han healthy young adults. In 256 Chinese Han healthy young adults, we explored the modulatory effects of COMT rs4633 on verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and functional connectivity density (FCD) of the brain and the mediation effect of FCD on the association between COMT and VIQ...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686868/impact-of-degree-truncation-on-the-spread-of-a-contagious-process-on-networks
#10
Guy Harling, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored...
March 2018: Network Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686318/microcirculation-and-biomarkers-in-patients-with-resistant-or-mild-to-moderate-hypertension-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Camillo L C Junqueira, Maria Eliane C Magalhães, Andréa Araújo Brandão, Esmeralci Ferreira, Fátima Z G A Cyrino, Priscila A Maranhão, Maria das Graças C Souza, Daniel Alexandre Bottino, Eliete Bouskela
Microcirculation influences peripheral vascular resistance and therefore contributes to arterial blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between serum markers of inflammation and microcirculatory parameters observed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) in patients with resistant (RH, 58 [50-63] years, n = 25) or mild-to-moderate hypertension (MMH, 56 [47-64] years, n = 25) compared to normotensive patients (control group (CG), 33 [27-52] years, n = 25). C-reactive protein (CRP), endothelin, adiponectin, I-CAM and V-CAM levels were obtained by laboratory analysis...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679388/somatic-slc35a2-variants-in-the-brain-are-associated-with-intractable-neocortical-epilepsy
#12
Melodie R Winawer, Nicole G Griffin, Jorge Samanamud, Evan H Baugh, Dinesh Rathakrishnan, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, David Zagzag, Catherine A Schevon, Patricia Dugan, Manu Hegde, Sameer A Sheth, Guy M McKhann, Werner K Doyle, Gerald A Grant, Brenda E Porter, Mohamad A Mikati, Carrie R Muh, Colin D Malone, Ann Marie R Bergin, Jurriaan M Peters, Danielle K McBrian, Alison M Pack, Cigdem I Akman, Christopher M LaCoursiere, Katherine M Keever, Joseph R Madsen, Edward Yang, Hart G W Lidov, Catherine Shain, Andrew S Allen, Peter Canoll, Peter B Crino, Annapurna H Poduri, Erin L Heinzen
OBJECTIVE Somatic variants are a recognized cause of epilepsy-associated focal malformations of cortical development (MCD). We hypothesized that somatic variants may underlie a wider range of focal epilepsy, including non-lesional focal epilepsy (NLFE). Through genetic analysis of brain tissue, we evaluated the role of somatic variation in focal epilepsy with and without MCD. METHODS We identified somatic variants through high-depth exome and ultra-high-depth candidate gene sequencing of DNA from epilepsy surgery specimens and leukocytes from 18 individuals with NLFE and 38 with focal MCD...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677585/age-at-epilepsy-onset-in-patients-with-focal-cortical-dysplasias-gangliogliomas-and-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumours
#13
Attila Rácz, Andreas-Markus Müller, Johannes Schwerdt, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Christian E Elger
PURPOSE: The age at epilepsy onset in patients with inborn or very early acquired brain lesions depends on the epileptogenic potential of the lesion and the patients' individual "susceptibility" to epileptic seizures. To gain insight into these determinants, we analysed the case history of patients with focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and neuroglial tumours. METHODS: In a systematic, retrospective analysis comprised of 233 patients who underwent surgery (116 with FCDs and 117 with neuroglial tumours), we evaluated the age at epilepsy onset according to histopathologic subgroups, lesion location and family history...
April 4, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676012/further-audiovestibular-characterization-of-dfnb77-caused-by-deleterious-variants-in-loxhd1-and-investigation-into-the-involvement-of-fuchs-corneal-dystrophy
#14
M Wesdorp, V Schreur, A J Beynon, J Oostrik, J M van de Kamp, M W Elting, M-J H van den Boogaard, I Feenstra, R J C Admiraal, H P M Kunst, C B Hoyng, H Kremer, H G Yntema, R J E Pennings, M Schraders
This study focuses on further characterization of the audiovestibular phenotype and on genotype-phenotype correlations of DFNB77, an autosomal recessive type of hearing impairment (HI). DFNB77 is associated with disease-causing variants in LOXHD1, and is genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Heterozygous deleterious missense variants in LOXHD1 have been associated with late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD). However, up to now screening for FCD of heterozygous carriers in DFNB77 families has not been reported...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663692/profiles-of-gene-expression-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-rats-with-experimentally-induced-brain-dysplasia
#15
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Krzysztof Janeczko
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of intractable seizures in humans. Among these, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) poses an outstanding challenge. There are several subtypes of FCD that show significant variation in pathology and clinical presentation. All types exhibit disturbed cortical cytoarchitecture and increased propensity for seizures. The etiology is likely heterogenous, with mutations, specifically in genes related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), identified in only a subset of cases...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620007/ictal-spitting-in-non-dominant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-anatomo-electrophysiological-correlation
#16
Marcos Quevedo-Diaz, Adrià Tauste Campo, Manel Vila-Vidal, Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Rodrigo Rocamora
We report a patient presenting drug-resistant, non-dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with ictal spitting and prosopometamorphopsia, both extremely rare semiologies. Second-phase pre-surgical monitoring was performed using SEEG due to lesion-negative imaging and the rare semiology. The seizure onset zone was delimited to the right anterior hippocampus and the temporobasal cortex, with the propagation zone within the entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, direct electrical stimulation to the entorhinal cortex, which was reproduced in a number of trials, evoked spitting without leading to seizures or post-discharges...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615960/reported-changes-in-dietary-behavior-following-a-first-clinical-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#17
Rebecca D Russell, Robyn M Lucas, Vanessa Brennan, Jill L Sherriff, Andrea Begley, Lucinda J Black
Background/objectives: Although the current evidence is insufficient to recommend a special diet for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), dietary advice for people with MS is prolific online and in the media. This study aimed to describe dietary changes made in the year following a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS. Subjects/methods: We used follow-up data from the Ausimmune Study, a multicentre matched case-control study examining the environmental risk factors for a FCD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593490/a-comparative-study-of-standardized-infinity-reference-and-average-reference-for-eeg-of-three-typical-brain-states
#18
Gaoxing Zheng, Xiaoying Qi, Yuzhu Li, Wei Zhang, Yuguo Yu
The choice of different reference electrodes plays an important role in deciphering the functional meaning of electroencephalography (EEG) signals. In recent years, the infinity zero reference using the reference electrode standard technique (REST) has been increasingly applied, while the average reference (AR) was generally advocated as the best available reference option in previous classical EEG studies. Here, we designed EEG experiments and performed a direct comparison between the influences of REST and AR on EEG-revealed brain activity features for three typical brain behavior states (eyes-closed, eyes-open and music-listening)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588287/fanconi-anemia-fancm-fncm-1-and-fancd2-fcd-2-are-required-for-maintaining-histone-methylation-levels-and-interact-with-the-histone-demethylase-lsd1-spr-5-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Hyun-Min Kim, Sara E Beese-Sims, Monica P Colaiácovo
The histone demethylase LSD1 was originally discovered as removing methyl groups from di- and monomethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/1). Several studies suggest LSD1 plays roles in meiosis as well as in the epigenetic regulation of fertility given that in its absence there is evidence of a progressive accumulation of H3K4me2 and increased sterility through generations. In addition to the progressive sterility phenotype observed in the mutants, growing evidence for the importance of histone methylation in the regulation of DNA damage repair has attracted more attention to the field in recent years...
March 27, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588131/protective-effects-of-micronized-purified-flavonoid-fraction-mpff-on-a-novel-experimental-model-of-chronic-venous-hypertension
#20
Maria das Graças C de Souza, Fatima Zga Cyrino, Jorge J de Carvalho, Vanessa Blanc-Guillemaud, Eliete Bouskela
OBJECTIVES: To assess protective effects of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) on microcirculation in an original chronic model of hind limb venous hypertension with low blood flow in small animals. METHODS: Vein ligatures were performed on male hamsters, as follows: A-right femoral vein; A + B-right femoral vein and its right branch; A + C-right femoral vein and its left branch; A + B + C-right femoral and its right and left branches; D-external right iliac vein...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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