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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#1
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885945/clinical-imaging-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-ii-extratemporal-epilepsies-in-children-analyses-of-an-institutional-case-series
#2
Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Mary B Connolly, Glenda Hendson, Paul Steinbok, Christopher Dunham
OBJECTIVE Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type II is divided into 2 subgroups based on the absence (IIA) or presence (IIB) of balloon cells. In particular, extratemporal FCD Type IIA and IIB is not completely understood in terms of clinical, imaging, biological, and neuropathological differences. The aim of the authors was to analyze distinctions between these 2 formal entities and address clinical, MRI, and immunohistochemical features of extratemporal epilepsies in children. METHODS Cases formerly classified as Palmini FCD Type II nontemporal epilepsies were identified through the prospectively maintained epilepsy database at the British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864929/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-focal-cortical-dysplasia-in-children-a-tip-to-find-the-abnormality
#3
Luca Bartolini, Matthew T Whitehead, Cheng-Ying Ho, Leigh N Sepeta, Chima O Oluigbo, Kathryn Havens, Emily R Freilich, John M Schreiber, William D Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and pathologic characteristics in children who had surgery for medically refractory epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 110 children who had epilepsy surgery. Twenty-seven patients with FCD were included. Thirteen had temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 14 had extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). Three patients had associated mesial temporal sclerosis...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861502/abnormal-profiles-of-local-functional-connectivity-proximal-to-focal-cortical-dysplasias
#4
René M H Besseling, Jacobus F A Jansen, Anton J A de Louw, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, M Christianne Hoeberigs, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman
INTRODUCTION: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a congenital malformation of cortical development that often leads to medically refractory epilepsy. Focal resection can be an effective treatment, but is challenging as the surgically relevant abnormality may exceed the MR-visible lesion. The aim of the current study is to develop methodology to characterize the profile of functional connectivity around FCDs using resting-state functional MRI and in the individual patient. The detection of aberrant connectivity may provide a means to more completely delineate the clinically relevant lesion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859041/increased-subcortical-oligodendroglia-like-cells-in-pharmacoresistant-focal-epilepsy-in-children-correlate-with-extensive-epileptogenic-zones
#5
Satoru Sakuma, William C Halliday, Ruka Nomura, Shiro Baba, Yosuke Sato, Kazuo Okanari, Midori Nakajima, Elysa Widjaja, Cyrus Boelman, Ayako Ochi, O Carter Snead, James T Rutka, James Drake, Steven Miller, Hiroshi Otsubo
OBJECTIVE: Cortical resections in epilepsy surgery tend to involve multiple lobes in children, compared to adults, partly due to underlying pathology. Oligodendroglia-like cells (OLCs) have been observed in surgical specimens from children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We hypothesize that OLCs recruit multiple-lobe epileptogenic zones in pediatric pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. METHODS: We examined the surgical specimens from 30 children who underwent epilepsy surgery (1...
November 8, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852375/-study-of-functional-connectivity-density-mapping-in-patients-with-acute-stress-response-by-using-resting-state-functional-mri-after-traffic-accident
#6
Y F Weng, R F Qi, X D Zhang, L Zhang, J Ke, Y Zhong, F Chen, Q Xu, G M Lu
Objective: To explore the changes of brain activity in traffic accident survivors with acute stress response within a week by using functional connectivity density (FCD) method. Method: A total of 20 traffic accidents survivors with acute stress disorders (acute stress disorder interview >3) and twenty healthy controls from Nanjing Jinling Hospital underwent the 3.0 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan from January 2013 to February 2016. Functional connectivity density mapping was used to compare the brain functional connective networks between acute stress response survivors and controls...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848148/disrupted-functional-connectivity-density-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#7
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Fangyu Wang, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder resulting from a dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. However, its exact neural substrate still remains unclear. This study investigated the changes of intrinsic whole brain functional connectivity pattern in IBS using functional connectivity density (FCD). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from thirty-two IBS patients and thirty-two healthy controls. Functional connectivity density, a data-driven algorithm, was used to compute the long-range and short-range FCD values for each voxel in the brain of each subject, implying the amount of distant and local functional connections of cortical hubs...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834621/repeat-surgery-for-focal-cortical-dysplasias-in-children-indications-and-outcomes
#8
Matthew F Sacino, Cheng-Ying Ho, Matthew T Whitehead, Amy Kao, Dewi Depositario-Cabacar, John S Myseros, Suresh N Magge, Robert F Keating, William D Gaillard, Chima O Oluigbo
OBJECTIVE Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of medically intractable epilepsy that often may be treated by surgery. Following resection, many patients continue to experience seizures, necessitating a decision for further surgery to achieve the desired seizure outcomes. Few studies exist on the efficacy of reoperation for intractable epilepsy due to FCD in pediatric cohorts, including the definition of prognostic factors correlated with clinical benefit from further resection. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records and MR images of 22 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent repeat FCD resection after unsuccessful first surgery at the Children's National Health System between March 2005 and April 2015...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830187/germline-and-somatic-mutations-in-the-mtor-gene-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia-and-epilepsy
#9
Rikke S Møller, Sarah Weckhuysen, Mathilde Chipaux, Elise Marsan, Valerie Taly, E Martina Bebin, Susan M Hiatt, Jeremy W Prokop, Kevin M Bowling, Davide Mei, Valerio Conti, Pierre de la Grange, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Georg Dorfmüller, Virginie Lambrecq, Line H G Larsen, Eric Leguern, Renzo Guerrini, Guido Rubboli, Gregory M Cooper, Stéphanie Baulac
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of somatic MTOR mutations in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and of germline MTOR mutations in a broad range of epilepsies. METHODS: We collected 20 blood-brain paired samples from patients with FCD and searched for somatic variants using deep-targeted gene panel sequencing. Germline mutations in MTOR were assessed in a French research cohort of 93 probands with focal epilepsies and in a diagnostic Danish cohort of 245 patients with a broad range of epilepsies...
December 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824513/aberrant-expression-of-mir-323a-5p-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy-caused-by-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#10
Ningwei Che, Guo Zu, Tingting Zhou, Xiaofeng Wang, Yuqiang Sun, Zeshi Tan, Yaoling Liu, Dong Wang, Xiaodong Luo, Ze Zhao, Yue Zhang, Minghai Wei, Jian Yin
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy remains one of the most common clinical neurological disorders. About a third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to drug treatment, mainly as a result of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In this study, we analyzed the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cortex and plasma of FCD patients. METHODS: Cortical samples were collected from nine patients with refractory epilepsy caused by FCD who underwent surgery, and from eight volunteers (control group) undergoing emergency surgery for hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage...
November 8, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818371/ictal-spect-is-useful-in-localizing-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-infants-with-cortical-dysplasia
#11
Martin Kudr, Pavel Krsek, Bruno Maton, Stephen Malone, Alena Jahodova, Vladimir Komarek, Prasanna Jayakar, Michael Duchowny
AIMS: To assess the localizing value of ictal SPECT in very young epilepsy surgery candidates when cerebral haemodynamic responses are known to be immature. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 13 infants with intractable focal epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Completeness of resection of the (1) ictal SPECT hyperperfusion zone and (2) cerebral cortex with prominent ictal and interictal abnormalities on intracranial EEG (ECoG or long-term invasive monitoring) and the MRI lesion, when present, were correlated with postoperative seizure outcome...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811565/automated-retroillumination-photography-analysis-for-objective-assessment-of-fuchs-corneal-dystrophy
#12
Allen O Eghrari, Aisha A Mumtaz, Brian Garrett, Mahsa Rezaei, Mina S Akhavan, S Amer Riazuddin, John D Gottsch
PURPOSE: Retroillumination photography analysis is an objective tool for the assessment of the number and distribution of guttae in eyes affected with Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD). Current protocols include manual processing of images; here, we assess validity and interrater reliability of automated analysis across various levels of FCD severity. METHODS: Retroillumination photographs of 97 FCD-affected corneas were acquired, and total counts of guttae were previously summated manually...
January 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811355/clinical-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-type-ii-and-type-i-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#13
Kun Yao, Zejun Duan, Jian Zhou, Lin Li, Feng Zhai, Yanting Dong, Xiaoyan Wang, Zhong Ma, Yu Bian, Xueling Qi, Liang Li
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) II and I are major causes for drug-resistant epilepsy. In order to gain insight into the possible correlations between FCD II and FCD I, different clinical characteristics and immunohistochemical expression characteristics in FCD I and II were analyzed. The median age of onset and duration of epilepsy in FCD I and FCD II patients were 2.1 years and 5.3 years vs 2.4 years and 4.5 years. Therefore, the median age of onset and duration of epilepsy were similar in the two groups. Pathological lesions were predominantly located in frontal lobe in FCD II and temporal in FCD I...
November 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801469/three-minute-synthesis-of-sp-3-nanocrystalline-carbon-dots-as-non-toxic-fluorescent-platforms-for-intracellular-delivery
#14
Stephen A Hill, David Benito-Alifonso, David J Morgan, Sean A Davis, Monica Berry, M Carmen Galan
A one-pot, three-minute, gram-scale synthesis of novel sp(3)-nanocrystalline, water-soluble, and fluorescent carbon dots (FCDs), from simple and cheap sugar starting materials is described. Mechanism studies showed that NH2-FCD formation proceeds via a crucial imine intermediate derived from reaction between a sugar hemiacetal and an amine. Moreover, we successfully demonstrate the utility of lactose functionalized FCDots (Lac-FCDots) as non-toxic fluorescent intracellular delivery vehicles.
November 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799906/structure-and-topology-dynamics-of-hyper-frequency-networks-during-rest-and-auditory-oddball-performance
#15
Viktor Müller, Dionysios Perdikis, Timo von Oertzen, Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Viktor Jirsa, Ulman Lindenberger
Resting-state and task-related recordings are characterized by oscillatory brain activity and widely distributed networks of synchronized oscillatory circuits. Electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) were used to assess network structure and network dynamics during resting state with eyes open and closed, and auditory oddball performance through phase synchronization between EEG channels. For this assessment, we constructed a hyper-frequency network (HFN) based on within- and cross-frequency coupling (WFC and CFC, respectively) at 10 oscillation frequencies ranging between 2 and 20 Hz...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779254/brain-white-matter-plasticity-and-functional-reorganization-underlying-the-central-pathogenesis-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#16
Tian Tian, Linying Guo, Jing Xu, Shun Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Chengxia Liu, Yuanyuan Qin, Wenzhen Zhu
Peripheral nerve damage does not fully explain the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Central nervous system changes can follow trigeminal nerve dysfunction. We hypothesized that brain white matter and functional connectivity changes in TN patients were involved in pain perception, modulation, the cognitive-affective system, and motor function; moreover, changes in functional reorganization were correlated with white matter alterations. Twenty left TN patients and twenty-two healthy controls were studied...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768794/fundus-camera-delivered-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-with-the-rpe65-leu450met-variant-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#17
Xin Zhong, Bogale Aredo, Yi Ding, Kaiyan Zhang, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Purpose: Oxidative stress, partly due to light, has an important role in many retinal diseases, including macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. The Leu450Met variant of RPE65 is expressed in C57BL/6 and in many genetically modified mice. It confers significant resistance to light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD). Our goal was to develop an effective and efficient method to induce LIRD in resistant mice that would recapitulate mechanisms seen in known models of LIRD. Methods: The retinas of C57BL/6J mice were exposed to light using a murine fundus camera...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767974/experimental-cannabidiol-treatment-reduces%C3%A2-early-pancreatic-inflammation-in%C3%A2-type-1-diabetes
#18
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750396/impaired-oligodendroglial-turnover-is-associated-with-myelin-pathology-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia-and-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#19
Theresa Scholl, Angelika Mühlebner, Gerda Ricken, Victoria Gruber, Anna Fabing, Sharon Samueli, Gudrun Gröppel, Christian Dorfer, Thomas Czech, Johannes A Hainfellner, Avanita S Prabowo, Roy J Reinten, Lisette Hoogendijk, Jasper J Anink, Eleonora Aronica, Martha Feucht
Conventional antiepileptic drugs suppress the excessive firing of neurons during seizures. In drug-resistant patients, treatment failure indicates an alternative important epileptogenic trigger. Two epilepsy-associated pathologies show myelin deficiencies in seizure-related brain regions: Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIB (FCD) and cortical tubers in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). Studies uncovering white matter-pathology mechanisms are therefore urgently needed to gain more insight into epileptogenesis, the propensity to maintain seizures, and their associated comorbidities such as cognitive defects...
October 17, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707870/trends-in-epilepsy-surgery-stable-surgical-numbers-despite-increasing-presurgical-volumes
#20
Thomas Cloppenborg, Theodor W May, Ingmar Blümcke, Philip Grewe, Lena J Hopf, Thilo Kalbhenn, Margarete Pfäfflin, Tilman Polster, Reinhard Schulz, Friedrich G Woermann, Christian G Bien
INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of epilepsy surgery, recent reports suggest a decline in surgical numbers. We tested these trends in our cohort to elucidate potential reasons. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Presurgical, surgical and postsurgical data of all patients undergoing presurgical evaluation in between 1990 and 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Patients were grouped according to the underlying pathology. RESULTS: A total of 3060 patients were presurgically studied, and resective surgery was performed in 66...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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