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Katarzyna Malenczyk, Edit Szodorai, Robert Schnell, Gert Lubec, Gábor Szabó, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
OBJECTIVE: Specification of endocrine cell lineages in the developing pancreas relies on extrinsic signals from non-pancreatic tissues, which initiate a cell-autonomous sequence of transcription factor activation and repression switches. The steps in this pathway share reliance on activity-dependent Ca2+ signals. However, the mechanisms by which phasic Ca2+ surges become converted into a dynamic, cell-state-specific and physiologically meaningful code made up by transcription factors constellations remain essentially unknown...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jan Voogd, Peter J Koehler
This chapter is concerned with ideas on the function, structure, and pathology that shaped our present knowledge of the cerebellum. One of the main themes in its early history is its localization subtentorially, leading to misattributions due to clinical observations in trauma and lesion experiments that caused collateral damage to the brainstem. Improvement of techniques led to the insight that it plays a role in movement control (Rolando) or coordination (Flourens). Purkinje initiated the histology of the cerebellar cortex in 1837...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Doaa M Mokhtar
Fish liver is considered as a key organ that controls various life functions. The cellular and stromal elements of liver of eighteen specimens of adult grass carp were investigated by light- and electron- microscopy and enzyme histochemistry. The liver was formed of two lobes with a long process extended from the right lobe. Serial paraffin section of the liver identified different kinds of vascular- biliary structures as follows: 1) pancreatic-venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts (P-VBAT); 2) venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts, (VBAT); 3) pancreatic-venous-biliary tracts (P-VBT); 4) venous-biliary tracts (VBT); 5) venous-arteriolar tracts (VAT); 6) isolated veins named as venous tracts (VT); 7) isolated bile ducts, named as biliary tracts (BT); 8) biliary-arteriolar tracts (BAT); 9) pancreatic-biliary tracts (P-BT); 10) pancreatic- venous tracts (P-VT)...
June 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jay S Schneider
Reduced expression of GM1 and other major brain gangliosides GD1a, GD1b and GT1b have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) brain. Mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear but may be due to a deficit in the ganglioside biosynthetic process. The present study examined the extent to which deficits in gene expression of key biosynthetic enzymes involved in synthesis of GM1 and GD1b (B3galt4) and GD1a and GT1b (St3gal2) exist in neuromelanin-containing neurons in the PD substantia nigra (SN). In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine gene expression of B3GALT4 and ST3GAL2 in neuromelanin-containing neurons in the SN in 8 normal controls (61-92 yrs...
2018: PloS One
Maria de Lurdes Pinto, Paula Rodrigues
Histological analysis of mouse embryos, fetuses, or newborns remains one the most common methods and in some cases the "gold standard" used in teratology studies to detect abnormal morphogenesis during development. Histochemistry methods are based on the selectivity of certain chemical compounds for certain cellular or tissue components, several of them related to specific maturation processes. In this chapter, specific histochemistry techniques that allow for the monitoring of critical stages of tissue and organ formation, such as skeleton and muscle differentiation, neuronal maturation, neuronal connectivity, and neurodevelopment after teratogenic exposure are described in detail...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ming-Dong Zhang, Jie Su, Csaba Adori, Valentina Cinquina, Katarzyna Malenczyk, Fatima Girach, Changgeng Peng, Patrik Ernfors, Peter Löw, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn, Masahiko Watanabe, Mathias Uhlén, Nicholas Mitsios, Jan Mulder, Tibor Harkany, Tomas Hökfelt
Painful signals are transmitted by mutisynaptic glutamatergic pathways. Their first synapse between primary nociceptors and excitatory spinal interneurons gates sensory load. Glutamate release herein is orchestrated by Ca2+ sensor proteins with neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) being particularly abundant. However, neither the importance of NECAB2+ neuronal contingents in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord nor function-determination by NECAB2 has been defined. A combination of histochemistry and single-cell RNA-seq showed NECAB2 in small/medium-sized C- and Aδ D-hair low threshold mechanoreceptors in DRG, as well as in protein kinase γ-positive excitatory spinal interneurons...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Remco J Molenaar, Mohammed Khurshed, Vashendriya V V Hira, Cornelis J F Van Noorden
Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infection. The metabolic motor units of cells are enzymes and their activity is heavily regulated at many levels, including the transcriptional, mRNA stability, translational, post-translational and functional level. This complex regulation means that conventional quantitative or imaging assays, such as quantitative mRNA experiments, Western Blots and immunohistochemistry, yield incomplete information regarding the ultimate activity of enzymes, their function and/or their subcellular localization...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qing Zhao, Tian Zhu Jia, Qi Chen Cao, Fang Tian, Wan Tao Ying
The traditional Chinese drug Bombyx Batryticatus (BB), which is also named the white stiff silkworm, has been widely used in Chinese clinics for thousands of years. It is famous for its antispasmodic and blood circulation-promoting effects. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial cell hyperplasia, and myocardial fibrosis are closely related to the N -glycosylation of key proteins. To examine the alterations of N -glycosylation that occur in diabetic myocardium during the early stage of the disease, and to clarify the therapeutic effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) extracted from BB, we used the db/db (diabetic) mouse model and an approach based on hydrophilic chromatography solid-phase extraction integrated with an liquid Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) identification strategy to perform a site-specific N -glycosylation analysis of left ventricular cardiomyocyte proteins...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
G Bori, M A McNally, N Athanasou
The presence of a polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltrate in periprosthetic tissues has been shown to correlate closely with the diagnosis of septic implant failure. The histological criterion considered by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society to be diagnostic of periprosthetic joint infection is "greater than five neutrophils per high-power field in five high-power fields observed from histologic analysis of periprosthetic tissue at ×400 magnification." Surgeons and pathologists should be aware of the qualifications introduced by different authors during the last years in the histological techniques, samples for histological study, cutoffs used for the diagnosis of infection, and types of patients studied...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jackline Namulema, Miriam Nansunga, Charles Drago Kato, Muhammudu Kalange, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
Background: Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated...
2018: Thyroid Research
Sanjog Bastola, Alexandra Halalau, Ojbindra Kc, Anju Adhikari
Buschke-Löwenstein tumor of anorectal and perianal area is a rare but highly aggressive tumor, frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. It often grows over years in immunocompetent patients and can be highly destructive to local tissue. We present a case of a 61-year-old male with HIV infection who presented with worsening pain and swelling in the anorectal area for one-year duration. Exam revealed a 15 × 10 cm mass in the anorectal area with multiple sinuses and fistulas...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Bo Hu, Guangtao Xu, Xiaomin Zhang, Long Xu, Hong Zhou, Zhenyi Ma, Xiaohua Shen, Jia Zhu, Ruilin Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Paeoniflorin (PF) is known to have anti-inflammatory and paregoric effects, but the mechanism underlying its analgesic effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of PF on Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: An inflammatory pain model was established by intraplantar injection of CFA in C57BL/6J mice. After intrathecal injection of PF daily for 8 consecutive days, thermal and mechanical withdrawal thresholds, the levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, microglial activity, and the expression of Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in the spinal cord tissue were detected by animal ethological test, cell culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence histochemistry, and western blot...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Biswajit R Dash, Vitthal S Dhaygude, Prashant D Gadhave, Kaustubh V Garud, Dattatarya P Kadam
Aim: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in kidney tissues collected during necropsy and to establish its association with renal lesions in dogs of Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 40 dogs were collected during necropsy after gross examination and then fixed in neutral buffered formalin and Bouin's fluid for histopathology and histochemistry, respectively. Kidney tissues were also collected for the detection of Leptospira spp...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Xiaoqing Zhang, Huan Nie, Joshua Whited, Dan Wang, Yu Li, Xue-Long Sun
Sialic acids (SAs) are nine-carbon monosaccharides existing at the terminal location of glycan structures on the cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates. The expression levels and linkages of SAs on cells and tissues, collectively known as sialoform, present the hallmark of the cells and tissues of different systems and conditions. Accordingly, detecting or profiling cell surface sialoforms is very critical for understanding the function of cell surface glycans and glycoconjugates and even the molecular mechanisms of their underlying biological processes...
May 24, 2018: Glycobiology
Sasiharan Sithamparanathan, Mariana C Rocha, Jehill D Parikh, Karolina A Rygiel, Gavin Falkous, John P Grady, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Michael I Trenell, Robert W Taylor, Doug M Turnbull, Gráinne S Gorman, Paul A Corris
Mitochondrial dysfunction within the pulmonary vessels has been shown to contribute to the pathology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). We investigated the hypothesis of whether impaired exercise capacity observed in IPAH patients is in part due to primary mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction in skeletal muscle. This could lead to potentially new avenues of treatment beyond targeting the pulmonary vessels. Nine clinically stable participants with IPAH underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, in vivo and in vitro assessment of mitochondrial function by 31 P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P-MRS) and laboratory muscle biopsy analysis...
April 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
Letícia B Sene, Victor Hugo Gonçalves Rizzi, José A R Gontijo, Patricia A Boer
Studies have shown that adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy present a pronounced reduction of nephron number associated with decreased fractional urinary sodium excretion and arterial hypertension. Additionally, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways that govern the association of gestational nutritional restriction, intrauterine growth retardation and inflammation with impaired nephrogenesis, nephron underdosing and kidney fibrosis point to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a common factor...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lena Haeberle, Katja Steiger, Anna Melissa Schlitter, Sami Alexander Safi, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Mert Erkan, Irene Esposito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An abundant stromal reaction is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The cells mainly responsible for the stromal reaction are activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Despite their crucial role, PSCs are not well characterized. PSCs share characteristics with the better-known hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of PSCs in PDAC and CP. METHODS: Whole-slide specimens of CP (n = 12) and PDAC (n = 10) were studied by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry...
May 12, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Cristian Statkievicz, Luan Felipe Toro, João Martins de Mello-Neto, Daniela Pereira de Sá, Cláudio Aparecido Casatti, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, Juliano Milanezi de Almeida, Maria José Hitomi Nagata, Valdir Gouveia Garcia, Leticia Helena Theodoro, Edilson Ervolino
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) with multiple sessions of low-level laser on the alveolar repair process of rats with major risk factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ). Senile rats received 0.45 mL of vehicle (VEH and VEH-PBM) or 0.45 mL of 100 μg/kg zoledronate (ZOL and ZOL-PBM) administrated intraperitoneally every two days during seven weeks. After three weeks of initiation of drug treatment the first lower left molar was extracted...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
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