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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046051/characterization-of-the-skin-mucus-in-the-common-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-reared-paralarvae
#1
Gianluca Accogli, Giovanni Scillitani, Donatella Mentino, Salvatore Desantis
The Octopus vulgaris farming is impaired by the high mortality of the paralarvae during the first month of life. Several factors have been investigated in this regard, but no data exist on the body surface mucus, which represents the interface with the outside environment. This study included morphometric analysis and glycoconjugates characterization of skin mucus in reared Octopus vulgaris paralarvae during the first month of life. Four types of mucous cells were distinguished:  mucous 1 (m1) and mucous 2 (m2) cells were scattered in the mantle epidermis, mucous 3 (m3) and mucous 4 (m4) in the epithelium surrounding the sucker...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045021/reduced-dietary-intake-of-micronutrients-with-antioxidant-properties-negatively-impacts-muscle-health-in-aged-mice
#2
Miriam van Dijk, Francina J Dijk, Anita Hartog, Klaske van Norren, Sjors Verlaan, Ardy van Helvoort, Richard T Jaspers, Yvette Luiking
BACKGROUND: Inadequate intake of micronutrients with antioxidant properties is common among older adults and has been associated with higher risk of frailty, adverse functional outcome, and impaired muscle health. However, a causal relationship is less well known. The aim was to determine in old mice the impact of reduced dietary intake of vitamins A/E/B6/B12/folate, selenium, and zinc on muscle mass, oxidative capacity, strength, and physical activity (PA) over time. METHODS: Twenty-one-month-old male mice were fed either AIN-93-M (control) or a diet low in micronutrients with antioxidant properties (=LOWOX-B: 50% of mouse recommended daily intake of vitamins A, E, B6, and B12, folate, selenium, and zinc) for 4 months...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039747/development-of-useful-biomaterial-for-bone-tissue-engineering-by-incorporating-nano-copper-zinc-alloy-ncuzn-in-chitosan-gelatin-nano-hydroxyapatite-ch-g-nhap-scaffold
#3
Juan Carlos Forero, Eduardo Roa, Juan G Reyes, Cristian Acevedo, Nelson Osses
Ceramic and metallic nanoparticles can improve the mechanical and biological properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and nano-copper-zinc alloy (nCuZn) were added to a chitosan/gelatin (Ch/G) scaffold in order to investigate the effects on morphological, physical, and biocompatibility properties. Scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying technique using different pre-freezing temperatures. Microstructure and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glass transition (Tg) was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cell growth was estimated by MTT assay, and biocompatibility was examined in vitro and in vivo by histochemistry analyses...
October 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039565/hydrogen-sulfide-regulates-bone-remodeling-and-promotes-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#4
Haiya Pu, Yongmei Hua
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas signaling molecule that has multiple influences on physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian body, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, inflammation, hypoxia sensing and bone remodeling. Our previous studies suggested that H2S might be involved in the periodontal tissue remodeling during the orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) via increasing periodontal ligament cell differentiation, tissue mineralization, bone formation and collagen synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on alveolar bone remodeling that is associated with tooth movement...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031792/control-of-myogenic-tone-and-agonist-induced-contraction-of-intramural-coronary-resistance-arterioles-by-cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-and-endocannabinoids
#5
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Eszter Soltész-Katona, László Hunyady
It was tested whether intrinsic CB1R activation modifies myogenic and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat. CB1R protein was detected by immuno-histochemistry and by Western blot, its mRNA by qRT-PCR in their wall. Microsurgically prepared cylindrical coronary segments (∼100-150μm) developed myogenic contraction (∼20% of relaxed luminal diameter), from which a substantial relaxation (∼15%) in response to WIN55212 (a specific agonist of the CB1Rs) has been found...
October 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#6
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029805/glycan-diversity-in-the-vomeronasal-organ-of-the-korean-roe-deer-capreolus-pygargus-a-lectin-histochemical-study
#7
Taekyun Shin, Jeongtae Kim, Yuna Choi, Meejung Ahn
Glycans in the epithelium play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and adhesion. No detailed evaluation of glycoconjugates in the vomeronasal organs (VNO) of the roe deer has been published previously. The aim of this study was to characterize glycan epitopes in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) and non-sensory epithelium (VNSE) using lectin histochemistry. Glycan epitopes identified by lectin histochemistry were grouped as follows: N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, BSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose (RCA120, BSL-I, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA, DBA, SBA, and SJA), fucose (UEA-I) and complex type N-glycan (PHA-E and PHA-L) groups...
October 10, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029162/aberrant-global-and-jagged-mediated-notch-signaling-disrupts-segregation-between-wt1-expressing-and-steroidogenic-tissues-in-zebrafish
#8
Chih-Wei Chou, Jamie Lin, Yun-Jin Jiang, Yi-Wen Liu
Though the zebrafish interrenal tissue has been used as a model for steroidogenesis and genesis of the adrenal gland, its specification and morphogenesis is still largely unclear. In this study, we explored how the WT1-expressing cells are segregated from the SF-1-expressing steroidogenic cells in the zebrafish model. The interrenal tissue precursors expressing ff1b, the equivalent of mammalian SF-1, are derived from wt1-expressing pronephric primordia in the zebrafish embryo. Through histochemistry and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the size of functionally-differentiated interrenal tissue was significantly increased upon a global inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, which was accompanied by a disrupted segregation between the wt1- and ff1b-expressing cells...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse%C3%A2-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#9
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994095/repression-of-the-notch-pathway-prevents-liver-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#10
Eda Acikgoz, Huseyin Aktug, Gurkan Yigitturk, Kenan Demir, Ummu Guven, Fahriye Duzagac, Fatih Oltulu, Altug Yavasoglu, Gulperi Oktem
INTRODUCTION: Sunitinib is an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor that is used to treat a variety of cancer. There are limited data regarding the effect of sunitinib on diabetes. In the liver, Notch signaling plays an important role in liver tissue development and homeostasis and its dysfunction is associated with liver pathologies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sunitinib on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic liver in mice models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) model was created in 28 male CD-1 mice...
October 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994038/clusia-hilariana-and-eugenia-uniflora-as-bioindicators-of-atmospheric-pollutants-emitted-by-an-iron-pelletizing-factory-in-brazil
#11
Luzimar Campos da Silva, Talita Oliveira de Araújo, Advanio Inácio Siqueira-Silva, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues Pereira, Letícia Nalon Castro, Eduardo Chagas Silva, Marco Antonio Oliva, Aristéa Alves Azevedo
The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988234/dynamics-of-goldfish-subregional-hippocampal-pallium-activity-throughout-spatial-memory-formation
#12
Francisco M Ocaña, Sara Uceda, Jorge L Arias, Cosme Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987188/diseases-of-the-skeletal-muscle
#13
Edoardo Malfatti, Norma Beatriz Romero
After the advances created by the use of cryostat sections and histochemistry 60 years ago, muscle histopathology is now living a real renaissance. In the field of genetic neuromuscular disorders, muscle biopsy analysis is fundamental to address questions about pathogenicity and protein expression when new genes are discovered through next-generation sequencing approaches. Moreover, the identification of the same gene mutated in previously considered distinct histopathologic entities imposes a constant reassessment of morphologic boundaries in several groups of disorders...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985092/resveratrol-ameliorates-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-c57bl-6j-mice-via-downregulation-of-caspase-3
#14
Hyemin Seong, Jinhyun Ryu, Woong-Sun Yoo, Seong Jae Kim, Yong-Seop Han, Jong Moon Park, Sang Soo Kang, Seong Wook Seo
PURPOSE: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Resveratrol (Res) is a potent natural antioxidant with beneficial effects in many ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Because caspase-3 expression is highly correlated with activation of the apoptotic pathway, the present study aimed to determine whether Res regulates the expression of caspase-3 using an I/R retinal injury mouse model...
October 6, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975451/increased-mast-cell-degranulation-and-co-localization-of-mast-cells-with-the-nmda-receptor-1-during-healing-after-achilles-tendon-rupture
#15
Md Abdul Alim, Paul W Ackermann, Pernilla Eliasson, Parmis Blomgran, Per Kristiansson, Gunnar Pejler, Magnus Peterson
The role of inflammation and the mechanism of tendon healing after rupture has historically been a matter of controversy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of mast cells and their relation to the NMDA receptor-1 (a glutamate receptor) during healing after Achilles tendon rupture. Eight female Sprague Dawley rats had their right Achilles tendon transected. Three weeks after rupture, histological quantification of mast cell numbers and their state of degranulation was assessed by histochemistry...
October 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973355/lectin-binding-characterizes-the-healthy-human-skeletal-muscle-glycophenotype-and-identifies-disease-specific-changes-in-dystrophic-muscle
#16
Brian J McMorran, M Carrie Miceli, Linda G Baum
Our understanding of muscle glycosylation to date has derived from studies in mouse models and a limited number of human lectin histochemistry studies. As various therapeutic approaches aimed at treating patients with muscular dystrophies are being translated from rodent models to human, it is critical to better understand human muscle glycosylation and relevant disease-specific differences between healthy and dystrophic muscle. Here, we report the first quantitative characterization of human muscle glycosylation, and identify differentiation- and disease-specific differences in human muscle glycosylation...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973323/evidence-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-entry-into-the-optic-nerve-via-a-glymphatic-pathway
#17
Emily Mathieu, Neeru Gupta, Amir Ahari, Xun Zhou, Joseph Hanna, Yeni H Yücel
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the optic nerve via a glymphatic pathway and whether this entry is size-dependent. Methods: Fluorescent dextran tracers (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]) of four different sizes (10, 40, 70, and 500 kDa) and FITC-ovalbumin (45 kDa) were injected into the CSF of 15 adult mice. Tracer distribution in the orbital optic nerve at 1 hour after injection was assessed in tissue sections with confocal microscopy...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970177/long-lasting-effects-of-early-life-intervention-in-mice-on-adulthood-behaviour-gabaa-receptor-subunit-expression-and-synaptic-clustering
#18
Kelly J Skilbeck, Graham A R Johnston, Tina Hinton
Variations in the early postnatal environment of rodents produce long-term changes in responses to stress that may underlie neuropsychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. GABAA receptors undergo marked changes in their subunit composition during this period, involving a regionally-dependent replacement of α2 with α1 subunits, the so-called α-subunit switch. In this study we examined the effects of early-life environment on adulthood GABAA receptor α1 and α2 subunit expression and the synaptic clustering of GABAA receptors...
September 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962689/a-lectin-histochemical-study-to-detect-variation-in-glycosylation-at-the-feto-maternal-interface-in-three-interbreeding-equine-species
#19
Carolyn J P Jones, W R Twink Allen, Sandra Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we compare glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in 3 equine species: horse, donkey and zebra, all of which can interbreed to produce hybrids, to assess their glycan similarities and differences. METHODS: Sections cut from 3 specimens of horse (Equus caballus) placenta (50, 200 and 280 days gestation), one donkey (Equus asinus) placenta (65 cm crown-rump length) and 5 specimens of zebra (Equus quagga) placentae (81-239 days gestation) were stained with a panel of 24 biotinylated lectins using an avidin-peroxidase revealing system...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946212/methyl-jasmonate-reduces-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-through-regulation-of-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-processes-in-rats
#20
Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye, Olubukola Oyebimpe Akanni, Olusoji John Abiola, Solomon Eduviere Owumi, Oluyemi Akinloye, Emiola Olubunmi Olapade-Olaopa
BACKGROUND: Phytotherapy is becoming a treatment option in management of diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We have shown previously that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) ameliorated BPH, however the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate in mechanistic terms the protective role of MeJA in BPH. METHODS: BPH was induced by daily injections of testosterone propionate (TP) (3mg/kg) for 28 days. RESULTS: The weight and organo-somatic weight of prostate in BPH rats were 6...
September 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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