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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#1
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#2
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323108/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-significantly-decreases-microglia-activation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#3
Steven A Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C Bruster, Rick L Roberts, Ryan A Shanks
Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321500/aptahistochemistry-in-diagnostic-pathology-technical-scrutiny-and-feasibility
#4
REVIEW
Bakhtiar A Bukari, Marimuthu Citartan, Ewe Seng Ch'ng, Mawethu P Bilibana, Timofey Rozhdestvensky, Thean-Hock Tang
Antibodies have been the workhorse for diagnostic immunohistochemistry to specifically interrogate the expression of certain protein to aid in histopathological diagnosis. This review introduces another dimension of histochemistry that employs aptamers as the core tool, the so-called aptahistochemistry. Aptamers are an emerging class of molecular recognition elements that could recapitulate the roles of antibodies. The many advantageous properties of aptamers suited for this diagnostic platform are scrutinized...
March 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302075/renal-effects-of-metallothionein-induction-by-zinc-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Moritz Schanz, Lea Schaaf, Juergen Dippon, Dagmar Biegger, Peter Fritz, Mark Dominik Alscher, Martin Kimmel
BACKGROUND: Metallothionein (MTT) is an endogenous antioxidant that can be induced by both zinc (Zn) and ischemia. In kidneys, increased MTT expression exerts a putative protective role in diabetes and hypoxia. Our goal was to further investigate the behavior of MTT under the influence of Zn and hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: MTT expression was measured in vitro in cell cultures of proximal tubular cells (LCC-PK1) by immune-histochemistry and real-time PCR after incubation with increasing concentrations of Zn under hypoxic and non-hypoxic conditions...
March 16, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290861/-histochemistry-of-coronary-arteries-in-myocardial-infarction
#6
E I Sokolov, S S Golubev, K A Abrosimova
In this study we used the samples of autopsy material from 15 patients who died of myocardial infarction. As control we used autopsy material from 5 victims of car accidents. Quantitative comparison of area of coronary arteries of healthy persons and patients with myocardial infarction revealed its decrease in patients with myocardial infarction. In ischemic heart disease patients there were many "xanthoma cells" forming the basis net filled with glycoproteins. Thickening of intima in patients with ischemic heart disease was due to increased quantity of glycosoaminoglycans and glycoproteins...
September 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287740/mediating-passive-tumor-accumulation-through-particle-size-tumor-type-and-location
#7
Jillian L Perry, Kevin G Reuter, J Christopher Luft, Chad V Pecot, William C Zamboni, Joseph M DeSimone
As the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect continues to be a controversial topic in nanomedicine, we sought to examine EPR as a function of nanoparticle size, tumor model and tumor location, while also evaluating tumors for EPR mediating factors such as microvessel density, vascular permeability, lymphatics, stromal content, and tumor associated immune cells. Tumor accumulation was evaluated for 55x60 nm, 80x180 nm, and 80x320 nm PRINT particles, in four subcutaneous flank tumor models (SKOV3 human ovarian, 344SQ murine non-small cell lung, A549 human non-small cell lung, and A431 human epidermoid cancer)...
March 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286321/synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-mother-rats
#8
Edina Brigitta Udvari, Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Diána Dimén, Viktor Kis, János Barna, Éva Rebeka Szabó, Gert Lubec, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi
To establish synaptic proteome changes associated with motherhood, we isolated synaptosome fractions from the hypothalamus of mother rats and non-maternal control females at the 11th postpartum day. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric protein identification established 26 significant proteins, 7 increasing and 19 decreasing protein levels in the dams. The altered proteins are mainly involved in energy homeostasis, protein folding, and metabolic processes suggesting the involvement of these cellular processes in maternal adaptations...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281670/visualising-recalcitrance-by-colocalisation-of-cellulase-lignin-and-cellulose-in-pretreated-pine-biomass-using-fluorescence-microscopy
#9
Lloyd Donaldson, Alankar Vaidya
Mapping the location of bound cellulase enzymes provides information on the micro-scale distribution of amenable and recalcitrant sites in pretreated woody biomass for biofuel applications. The interaction of a fluorescently labelled cellulase enzyme cocktail with steam-exploded pine (SEW) was quantified using confocal microscopy. The spatial distribution of Dylight labelled cellulase was quantified relative to lignin (autofluorescence) and cellulose (Congo red staining) by measuring their colocalisation using Pearson correlations...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279759/what-do-we-know-about-the-structure-of-human-thymic-hassall-s-corpuscles-a-histochemical-immunohistochemical-and-electron-microscopic-study
#10
Renáta Mikušová, Veronika Mešťanová, Štefan Polák, Ivan Varga
Hassall's corpuscles are the most prominent structures in the human thymus. However, relatively few analyses have been performed to determine their function and cellular origins during development. In this study, we evaluated the cellular microenvironment of human thymic Hassall's corpuscles using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. We examined 95 human thymic tissue samples, which were perioperatively obtained from children undergoing cardiac surgery. To characterize the complex cellular microenvironment of human thymic corpuscles, we used a panel of 14 different antibodies to identify discrete cell types...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267813/decellularized-scaffold-of-cryopreserved-rat-kidney-retains-its-recellularization-potential
#11
Baldeep Chani, Veena Puri, Ranbir C Sobti, Vivekanand Jha, Sanjeev Puri
The multi-cellular nature of renal tissue makes it the most challenging organ for regeneration. Therefore, till date whole organ transplantations remain the definitive treatment for the end stage renal disease (ESRD). The shortage of available organs for the transplantation has, thus, remained a major concern as well as an unsolved problem. In this regard generation of whole organ scaffold through decellularization followed by regeneration of the whole organ by recellularization is being viewed as a potential alternative for generating functional tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262709/a-standardized-method-for-lectin-microarray-based-tissue-glycome-mapping
#12
Xia Zou, Maki Yoshida, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Jun Iwaki, Atsushi Matsuda, Binbin Tan, Kozue Hagiwara, Takashi Sato, Yoko Itakura, Erika Noro, Hiroyuki Kaji, Masashi Toyoda, Yan Zhang, Hisashi Narimatsu, Atsushi Kuno
The significance of glycomic profiling has been highlighted by recent findings that structural changes of glycans are observed in many diseases, including cancer. Therefore, glycomic profiling of the whole body (glycome mapping) under different physiopathological states may contribute to the discovery of reliable biomarkers with disease-specific alterations. To achieve this, standardization of high-throughput and in-depth analysis of tissue glycome mapping is needed. However, this is a great challenge due to the lack of analytical methodology for glycans on small amounts of endogenous glycoproteins...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251302/colleters-in-rubiaceae-from-forest-and-savanna-the-link-between-secretion-and-environment
#13
Fernanda Tresmondi, Yve Canaveze, Elza Guimarães, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
This study aims to investigate colleters' secretory function, on cellular level, in Rubiaceae species from contrasting environments looking to explore the association between secretion and environment. We collected samples from eight species of Rubiaceae growing in forest and savanna having standard-type colleters with diverse histochemistry (hydrophilic, lipophilic and mixed secretions) and processed for both conventional and cytochemical study under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The standard colleters, although similar in morphology and anatomy, exhibited marked differences on cellular level, especially in the abundance and topology of Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids when comparing forest and savanna species...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228841/an-update-on-the-management-of-breast-cancer-in-africa
#14
REVIEW
V Vanderpuye, S Grover, N Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H Simonds, F Olopade, D C Stefan
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224423/prognostic-significance-of-autophagy-related-proteins-expression-in-resected-human-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#15
Bing Qu, Lei Yao, Hua-Ling Ma, Hong-Lei Chen, Zhi Zhang, Jiang Xie
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world and one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death. Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. However, the mechanism and guiding significance of autophagy in the development and progression of GC have remained to be elucidated. This study aimed to explore the clinicopathological significances and prognostic values of autophagy-related proteins AMBRA1 and Beclin-1 in GC...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224252/heat-shock-protein-70-in-lung-and-kidney-of-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-is-a-receptor-associated-protein-that-interacts-with-the-binding-domain-of-the-spike-protein-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#16
ZhiKun Zhang, Xin Yang, PengWei Xu, Xuan Wu, Long Zhou, HongNing Wang
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae. A binding domain that mediates the attachment of the virus to its receptor has been identified in the S1 protein of prototype IBV strain M41. In this study, we identified this binding domain in a different strain, as well as the cellular proteins that interact with it. First, we expressed the S1N proteins (residues 19-270) of M41 and another isolate, SCZJ3, and compared the binding capacities of recombinant S1N-M41 and S1N-SCZJ3 to host tissues...
February 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219632/alfred-pischinger-1899-1983-an-austrian-career-in-anatomy-continuing-through-national-socialism-to-postwar-leadership
#17
Sabine Hildebrandt, Gabriele Czarnowski
Despite intensified research efforts on the history of anatomy during National Socialism (NS), many aspects of this story still need further investigation. This study explores the life, work and politics of Alfred Pischinger, Chairman of the Institute for Embryology and Histology in Graz from 1936 to 1945, and in Vienna from 1958 to 1970, and is an addition to previous reports on careers in anatomy continuing through the Third Reich to the postwar period. Pischinger was an illegal NSDAP member in Austria, joined the SA in 1938, served as expert in racial hygiene, and as judge on the Genetic Health High Court of Graz...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213912/diagnostic-red-flags-steroid-treated-malignant-cns-lymphoma-mimicking-autoimmune-inflammatory-demyelination
#18
Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Aylin Sophie Engel, Odir Antonio Rodríguez-Villagra, Anne Winkler, Markus Bergmann, Christian Mawrin, Tania Kuempfel, Hannah Pellkofer, Imke Metz, Annalen Bleckmann, Silvia Hernández-Durán, Sven Schippling, Elisabeth J Rushing, Stephan Frank, Markus Glatzel, Jakob Matschke, Christian Hartmann, Guido Reifenberger, Wolf Müller, Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
The presence of inflammation and demyelination in a central nervous system (CNS) biopsy points towards a limited, yet heterogeneous group of pathologies, of which multiple sclerosis (MS) represents one of the principal considerations. Inflammatory demyelination has also been reported in patients with clinically suspected primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), especially when steroids had been administered prior to biopsy acquisition. The histopathological changes induced by corticosteroid treatment can range from mild reduction to complete disappearance of lymphoma cells...
February 18, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#19
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197308/novel-small-molecule-probes-for-metastatic-melanoma
#20
Anyanee Kamkaew, Nanyan Fu, Weibo Cai, Kevin Burgess
Actively targeting probe 1b, an unsymmetrical bivalent dipeptide mimic, selectively bound melanoma over healthy skin tissue in histological samples from patients and Sinclair swine. Modifications to 1b gave agents 2-4 that contain a near-IR aza-BODIPY fluor. Contrary to our expectations, symmetrical probe 3 gave the highest melanoma-to-healthy skin selectivity in histochemistry and experiments with live cells; this was surprising because 2, not 3, is unsymmetrical like the original lead 1. Optical imaging of 3 in a mouse melanoma model failed to show tumor accumulation in vivo, but the probe did selectively accumulate in the tumor (some in lung and less in the liver) as proven by analysis of the organs post mortem...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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