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Theory of constraints

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150652/evidence-for-frozen-melts-in-the-mid-lithosphere-detected-from-active-source-seismic-data
#1
Akane Ohira, Shuichi Kodaira, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Gou Fujie, Ryuta Arai, Seiichi Miura
The interactions of the lithospheric plates that form the Earth's outer shell provide much of the evidentiary basis for modern plate tectonic theory. Seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere arising from mantle convection and plate motion provide constraints on the physical and chemical properties of the mantle that contribute to the processes of formation and evolution of tectonic plates. Seismological studies during the past two decades have detected seismic discontinuities within the oceanic lithosphere in addition to that at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150414/constraints-on-statistical-learning-across-species
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Santolin, Jenny R Saffran
Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149998/computational-complexity-and-human-decision-making
#3
REVIEW
Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134104/king-post-truss-as-a-motif-for-internal-structure-of-meta-material-with-controlled-elastic-properties
#4
Emilio Turco, Ivan Giorgio, Anil Misra, Francesco dell'Isola
One of the most interesting challenges in the modern theory of materials consists in the determination of those microstructures which produce, at the macro-level, a class of metamaterials whose elastic range is many orders of magnitude wider than the one exhibited by 'standard' materials. In dell'Isola et al. (2015 Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik66, 3473-3498. (doi:10.1007/s00033-015-0556-4)), it was proved that, with a pantographic microstructure constituted by 'long' micro-beams it is possible to obtain metamaterials whose elastic range spans up to an elongation exceeding 30%...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126772/data-driven-methods-to-diversify-knowledge-of-human-psychology
#5
Rachael E Jack, Carlos Crivelli, Thalia Wheatley
Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory.
November 7, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124777/coherence-in-the-visual-imagination
#6
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119499/an-integrative-approach-toward-biology-organisms-and-cancer
#7
Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Over the last two decades, we have challenged the hegemony of the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis (SMT) based on the lack of theoretical coherence of the premises adopted by its followers. We offered instead a theoretical alternative, the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), that is based on the premises that cancer is a tissue-based disease and that proliferation and motility is the default state of all cells. We went on to use a theory-neutral experimental protocol that simultaneously tested the TOFT and the SMT...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#8
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#9
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#10
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111709/casimir-polder-size-consistency-a-constraint-violated-by-some-dispersion-theories
#11
Tim Gould, Julien Toulouse, János G Ángyán, John F Dobson
A key goal in quantum chemistry methods, whether ab initio or otherwise, is to achieve size consistency. In this work we formulate the related idea of "Casimir-Polder size consistency" that manifests in long-range dispersion energetics. We show that local approximations in time-dependent density functional theory dispersion energy calculations violate the consistency condition because of incorrect treatment of highly nonlocal "xc kernel" physics, by up to 10% in our tests on closed-shell atoms.
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109228/connecting-theory-and-data-to-understand-recombination-rate-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Amy L Dapper, Bret A Payseur
Meiotic recombination is necessary for successful gametogenesis in most sexually reproducing organisms and is a fundamental genomic parameter, influencing the efficacy of selection and the fate of new mutations. The molecular and evolutionary functions of recombination should impose strong selective constraints on the range of recombination rates. Yet, variation in recombination rate is observed on a variety of genomic and evolutionary scales. In the past decade, empirical studies have described variation in recombination rate within genomes, between individuals, between sexes, between populations and between species...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099206/free-quantum-fields-in-4d-and-calabi-yau-spaces
#13
Robert de Mello Koch, Phumudzo Rabambi, Randle Rabe, Sanjaye Ramgoolam
We develop general counting formulas for primary fields in free four dimensional (4D) scalar conformal field theory (CFT). Using a duality map between primary operators in scalar field theory and multivariable polynomial functions subject to differential constraints, we identify a sector of holomorphic primary fields corresponding to polynomial functions on a class of permutation orbifolds. These orbifolds have palindromic Hilbert series, which indicates they are Calabi-Yau orbifolds. We construct the unique top-dimensional holomorphic form expected from the Calabi-Yau property...
October 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096923/standing-wave-design-and-optimization-of-a-simulated-moving-bed-chromatography-for-separation-of-xylobiose-and-xylose-under-the-constraints-on-product-concentration-and-pressure-drop
#14
Chung-Gi Lee, Jae-Hwan Choi, Chanhun Park, Nien-Hwa Linda Wang, Sungyong Mun
The feasibility of a simulated moving bed (SMB) technology for the continuous separation of high-purity xylobiose (X2) from the output of a β-xylosidase X1→X2 reaction has recently been confirmed. To ensure high economical efficiency of the X2 production method based on the use of xylose (X1) as a starting material, it is essential to accomplish the comprehensive optimization of the X2-separation SMB process in such a way that its X2 productivity can be maximized while maintaining the X2 product concentration from the SMB as high as possible in consideration of a subsequent lyophilization step...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096512/self-consistent-self-interaction-corrected-density-functional-theory-calculations-for-atoms-using-fermi-l%C3%A3-wdin-orbitals-optimized-fermi-orbital-descriptors-for-li-kr
#15
Der-You Kao, Kushantha Withanage, Torsten Hahn, Javaria Batool, Jens Kortus, Koblar Jackson
In the Fermi-Löwdin orbital method for implementing self-interaction corrections (FLO-SIC) in density functional theory (DFT), the local orbitals used to make the corrections are generated in a unitary-invariant scheme via the choice of the Fermi orbital descriptors (FODs). These are M positions in 3-d space (for an M-electron system) that can be loosely thought of as classical electron positions. The orbitals that minimize the DFT energy including the SIC are obtained by finding optimal positions for the FODs...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096480/quasi-chemical-theory-of-f-aq-the-no-split-occupancies-rule-revisited
#16
Mangesh I Chaudhari, Susan B Rempe, Lawrence R Pratt
We use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations and quasi-chemical theory (QCT) to study the inner-shell structure of F(-)(aq) and to evaluate that single-ion free energy under standard conditions. Following the "no split occupancies" rule, QCT calculations yield a free energy value of -101 kcal/mol under these conditions, in encouraging agreement with tabulated values (-111 kcal/mol). The AIMD calculations served only to guide the definition of an effective inner-shell constraint. QCT naturally includes quantum mechanical effects that can be concerning in more primitive calculations, including electronic polarizability and induction, electron density transfer, electron correlation, molecular/atomic cooperative interactions generally, molecular flexibility, and zero-point motion...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095451/coupled-cluster-sum-frequency-generation-nonlinear-susceptibilities-of-methyl-ch3-and-methylene-ch2-groups
#17
Conrard Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Vincent Liégeois, Benoît Champagne
The first vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra based on molecular properties calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level of approximation have been simulated for interfacial model alkyl chains, providing benchmark data for comparisons with approximate methods, including density functional theory (DFT). The approach proceeds in three steps. In the first two steps, the molecular spectral properties are determined: the vibrational normal modes and frequencies and then the derivatives of the dipole moment and of the polarizability with respect to the normal coordinates...
November 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093224/the-moran-effect-and-environmental-vetoes-phenological-synchrony-and-drought-drive-seed-production-in-a-mediterranean-oak
#18
Michał Bogdziewicz, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Raul Bonal, Jordina Belmonte, Josep Maria Espelta
Masting is the highly variable production of synchronized seed crops, and is a common reproductive strategy in plants. Weather has long been recognized as centrally involved in driving seed production in masting plants. However, the theory behind mechanisms connecting weather and seeding variation has only recently been developed, and still lacks empirical evaluation. We used 12-year long seed production data for 255 holm oaks (Quercus ilex), as well as airborne pollen and meteorological data, and tested whether masting is driven by environmental constraints: phenological synchrony and associated pollination efficiency, and drought-related acorn abscission...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092609/reflecting-boundary-conditions-for-interferometry-by-multidimensional-deconvolution
#19
Cornelis Weemstra, Kees Wapenaar, Karel N van Dalen
In an acoustical context, interferometry takes advantage of existing (ambient) wavefield recordings by turning receivers into so-called "virtual sources." The medium's response to these virtual sources can be harnessed to image that medium. Most interferometric applications, however, suffer from the fact that the retrieved virtual-source responses deviate from the true medium responses. The accrued artefacts are often predominantly due to a non-isotropic illumination of the medium of interest, and prohibit accurate interferometric imaging...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089567/imaging-the-creative-unconscious-reflexive-neural-responses-to-objects-in-the-visual-and-parahippocampal-region-predicts-state-and-trait-creativity
#20
Morten Friis-Olivarius, Oliver J Hulme, Martin Skov, Thomas Z Ramsøy, Hartwig R Siebner
What does it take to have a creative mind? Theories of creative cognition assert that the quantity of automatic associations places fundamental constraints on the probability of reaching creative solutions. Due to the difficulties inherent in isolating automated associative responses from cognitive control, the neural basis underlying this faculty remains unknown. Here we acquired fMRI data in an incidental-viewing paradigm in which subjects performed an attention-demanding task whilst viewing task-irrelevant objects...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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