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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#1
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933875/-sex-differences-in-left-handedness-a-meta-analysis-of-144-studies-correction-to-papadatou-pastou-et-al-2008
#2
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies" by Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin, Marcus R. Munafò and Gregory V. Jones (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 677-699). In the article the statistical evidence is weaker than reported for the moderating effect of writing hand compared to all the other instruments (reported finding: Q(1) = 8.36, p = .02; corrected finding: Q(1) = 3.17, p = .075). While the statistical evidence is thus somewhat weaker on this particular point, the broad conclusions of the article remain unchanged...
October 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932236/quantitative-evaluation-of-temporal-regularizers-in-compressed-sensing-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-of-the-breast
#3
Dong Wang, Lori R Arlinghaus, Thomas E Yankeelov, Xiaoping Yang, David S Smith
PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used in cancer imaging to probe tumor vascular properties. Compressed sensing (CS) theory makes it possible to recover MR images from randomly undersampled k-space data using nonlinear recovery schemes. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate common temporal sparsity-promoting regularizers for CS DCE-MRI of the breast. METHODS: We considered five ubiquitous temporal regularizers on 4...
2017: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931738/biological-and-statistical-processes-jointly-drive-population-aggregation-using-host-parasite-interactions-to-understand-taylor-s-power-law
#4
Pieter T J Johnson, Mark Q Wilber
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined collection of a unique dataset involving 11 987 amphibian hosts and 332 684 trematode parasites with experimental measurements of core epidemiological outcomes to explicitly test the contributions of hypothesized biological processes in driving aggregation...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926713/phase-separation-kinetics-of-dynamically-self-assembling-nanoparticles-with-toggled-interactions
#5
Zachary M Sherman, Helen Rosenthal, James W Swan
Ordered materials passively self-assembled from dispersions of nanoparticles with steady interactions are subject to thermodynamic constraints on their phase separation kinetics forcing a tradeoff between throughput and quality. Dynamically self-assembling dispersions whose interactions vary in a controlled way with time do not have these constraints and can rapidly form ordered structures while avoiding kinetic arrest. These out-of-equilibrium processes cannot be understood in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics or kinetic models derived from equilibrium thermodynamics, so new theories must be developed before dynamic self-assembly can be used to reliably fabricate nanomaterials...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913768/ionic-effects-on-the-temperature-force-phase-diagram-of-dna
#6
Sitichoke Amnuanpol
Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) undergoes a structural transition to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in many biologically important processes such as replication and transcription. This strand separation arises in response either to thermal fluctuations or to external forces. The roles of ions are twofold, shortening the range of the interstrand potential and renormalizing the DNA elastic modulus. The dsDNA-to-ssDNA transition is studied on the basis that dsDNA is regarded as a bound state while ssDNA is regarded as an unbound state...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903812/the-capability-and-constraint-model-of-recoverability-an-integrated-theory-of-continuity-planning
#7
David Lindstedt
While there are best practices, good practices, regulations and standards for continuity planning, there is no single model to collate and sort their various recommended activities. To address this deficit, this paper presents the capability and constraint model of recoverability - a new model to provide an integrated foundation for business continuity planning. The model is non-linear in both construct and practice, thus allowing practitioners to remain adaptive in its application. The paper presents each facet of the model, outlines the model's use in both theory and practice, suggests a subsequent approach that arises from the model, and discusses some possible ramifications to the industry...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902394/quantity-and-quality-limit-detritivore-growth-mechanisms-revealed-by-ecological-stoichiometry-and-co-limitation-theory
#8
Halvor M Halvorson, Erik Sperfeld, Michelle A Evans-White
Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus:carbon, P:C ratios). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients...
September 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902216/primitive-chain-network-simulations-of-probe-rheology
#9
Yuichi Masubuchi, Yoshifumi Amamoto, Ankita Pandey, Cheng-Yang Liu
Probe rheology experiments, in which the dynamics of a small amount of probe chains dissolved in immobile matrix chains is discussed, have been performed for the development of molecular theories for entangled polymer dynamics. Although probe chain dynamics in probe rheology is considered hypothetically as single chain dynamics in fixed tube-shaped confinement, it has not been fully elucidated. For instance, the end-to-end relaxation of probe chains is slower than that for monodisperse melts, unlike the conventional molecular theories...
September 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901787/medication-management-strategies-used-by-older-adults-with-heart-failure-a-systems-based-analysis
#10
Robin S Mickelson, Richard J Holden
BACKGROUND: Older adults with heart failure use strategies to cope with the constraining barriers impeding medication management. Strategies are behavioral adaptations that allow goal achievement despite these constraining conditions. When strategies do not exist, are ineffective or maladaptive, medication performance and health outcomes are at risk. While constraints to medication adherence are described in literature, strategies used by patients to manage medications are less well-described or understood...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901625/systemic-challenges-in-bipolar-disorder-management-a-patient-centered-approach
#11
Anastasiya Nestsiarovich, Nathaniel G Hurwitz, Stuart J Nelson, Annette S Crisanti, Berit Kerner, Matt J Kuntz, Alicia N Smith, Emma Volesky, Quentin L Schroeter, Jason L DeShaw, S Stanley Young, Robert L Obenchain, Ronald L Krall, Kimmie Jordan, Jan Fawcett, Mauricio Tohen, Douglas J Perkins, Christophe G Lambert
OBJECTIVES: As part of a series of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded large-scale retrospective observational studies on bipolar disorder (BD) treatments and outcomes, we sought the input of patients with BD and their family members to develop research questions. We aimed to identify systemic root causes of patient-reported challenges with BD management in order to guide subsequent studies and initiatives. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted where patients and their family members (total n = 34) formulated questions around the central theme, "What do you wish you had known in advance or over the course of treatment for BD?" In an affinity mapping exercise, participants clustered their questions and ranked the resulting categories by importance...
September 13, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900804/a-nonparametric-multidimensional-latent-class-irt-model-in-a-bayesian-framework
#12
Francesco Bartolucci, Alessio Farcomeni, Luisa Scaccia
We propose a nonparametric item response theory model for dichotomously-scored items in a Bayesian framework. The model is based on a latent class (LC) formulation, and it is multidimensional, with dimensions corresponding to a partition of the items in homogenous groups that are specified on the basis of inequality constraints among the conditional success probabilities given the latent class. Moreover, an innovative system of prior distributions is proposed following the encompassing approach, in which the largest model is the unconstrained LC model...
September 12, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898579/identifying-the-oscillatory-mechanism-of-the-glucose-oxidase-catalase-coupled-enzyme-system
#13
František Muzika, Radovan Jurašek, Lenka Schreiberova, Vuk Radojkovic, Igor Schreiber
We provide experimental evidence of periodic and aperiodic oscillations in an enzymatic system of glucose oxidase - catalase in a continuous-flow stirred reactor coupled by membrane with a continuous-flow reservoir supplied with hydrogen peroxide. To describe such dynamics we formulate a detailed mechanism based on partial results in the literature. Finally, we introduce a novel method for estimation of unknown kinetic parameters. The method is based on matching experimental data at an oscillatory instability with stoichiometric constraints of the mechanism formulated by applying stability theory of reaction networks...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894554/exploring-the-adaptive-experiences-of-children-with-parents-of-myocardial-infarction-a-qualitative-study
#14
Tahere Hashemifard, Ali Akbar Vaezi, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy, Tahere Kamalikhah, Mehdi Khankolabi, Abbas Andishmand, Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the world's leading cause of mortality. These diseases are rooted in an unhealthy lifestyle. In order to confront this subject, it is essential to identify several risk factors that contribute to heart disease (HD) in people with different attitudes, values, beliefs, expectations and motivations. This study was therefore an attempt to explain the adaptive experiences of children whose parents were involved in myocardial infarction since they were more likely subjected to get the so-called disease...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894256/a-scaling-law-for-distinct-electrocaloric-cooling-performance-in-low-dimensional-organic-relaxor-and-anti-ferroelectrics
#15
Yuping Shi, Limin Huang, Ai Kah Soh, George J Weng, Shuangyi Liu, Simon A T Redfern
Electrocaloric (EC) materials show promise in eco-friendly solid-state refrigeration and integrable on-chip thermal management. While direct measurement of EC thin-films still remains challenging, a generic theoretical framework for quantifying the cooling properties of rich EC materials including normal-, relaxor-, organic- and anti-ferroelectrics is imperative for exploiting new flexible and room-temperature cooling alternatives. Here, we present a versatile theory that combines Master equation with Maxwell relations and analytically relates the macroscopic cooling responses in EC materials with the intrinsic diffuseness of phase transitions and correlation characteristics...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894205/the-quantum-optics-hamiltonian-in-the-multipolar-gauge
#16
Emmanuel Rousseau, Didier Felbacq
This article deals with the fundamental problem of light-matter interaction in the quantum theory. Although it is described through the vector potential in quantum electrodynamics, it is believed by some that a hamiltonian involving only the electric and the magnetic fields is preferable. In the literature this hamiltonian is known as the Power-Zienau-Woolley hamiltonian. We question its validity and show that it is not equivalent to the minimal-coupling hamiltonian. In this article, we show that these two hamiltonians are not connected through a gauge transformation...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894004/waiting-can-be-an-optimal-conservation-strategy-even-in-a-crisis-discipline
#17
Gwenllian D Iacona, Hugh P Possingham, Michael Bode
Biodiversity conservation projects confront immediate and escalating threats with limited funding. Conservation theory suggests that the best response to the species extinction crisis is to spend money as soon as it becomes available, and this is often an explicit constraint placed on funding. We use a general dynamic model of a conservation landscape to show that this decision to "front-load" project spending can be suboptimal if a delay allows managers to use resources more strategically. Our model demonstrates the existence of temporal efficiencies in conservation management, which parallel the spatial efficiencies identified by systematic conservation planning...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891500/on-the-nernst-planck-equation
#18
Reinoud Maex
This review first discusses Nernst's and Planck's early papers on electro-diffusion, the brief priority conflict that followed, and the role these papers played in shaping the emerging concept of membrane excitability. The second part discusses in greater detail the constraints of the Nernst-Planck theory, and shows more recent examples of its applicability for neuronal modelling.
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889216/municipal-solid-waste-management-planning-for-xiamen-city-china-a-stochastic-fractional-inventory-theory-based-approach
#19
Xiujuan Chen, Guohe Huang, Shan Zhao, Guanhui Cheng, Yinghui Wu, Hua Zhu
In this study, a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based waste management planning (SFIWP) model was developed and applied for supporting long-term planning of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Xiamen City, the special economic zone of Fujian Province, China. In the SFIWP model, the techniques of inventory model, stochastic linear fractional programming, and mixed-integer linear programming were integrated in a framework. Issues of waste inventory in MSW management system were solved, and the system efficiency was maximized through considering maximum net-diverted wastes under various constraint-violation risks...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885628/fluctuation-tension-and-shape-transition-of-vesicles-renormalisation-calculations-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#20
Guillaume Gueguen, Nicolas Destainville, Manoel Manghi
It has been known for long that the fluctuation surface tension of membranes r, computed from the height fluctuation spectrum, is not equal to the bare surface tension σ, which is introduced in the theory either as a Lagrange multiplier to conserve the total membrane area or as an external constraint. In this work we relate these two surface tensions both analytically and numerically. They are also compared to the Laplace tension γ, and the mechanical frame tension τ. Using the Helfrich model and one-loop renormalisation calculations, we obtain, in addition to the effective bending modulus κeff, a new expression for the effective surface tension σeff = σ - εkBT/(2ap) where kBT is the thermal energy, ap the projected cut-off area, and ε = 3 or 1 according to the allowed configurations that keep either the projected area or the total area constant...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
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