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Theory of constraints

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339410/unimanual-versus-bimanual-therapy-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-same-same-but-different
#1
Brian Hoare, Susan Greaves
BACKGROUND: There is high-level evidence supporting constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based intervention includes time-limited, goal-directed, skills-based, intensive blocks of practice based on motor learning theory. AIM AND METHODS: Using supporting literature and clinical insight, we provide a theoretical rationale to highlight previously unreported differences between CIMT and bimanual therapy...
2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337133/inferring-master-painters-esthetic-biases-from-the-statistics-of-portraits
#2
Hassan Aleem, Ivan Correa-Herran, Norberto M Grzywacz
The Processing Fluency Theory posits that the ease of sensory information processing in the brain facilitates esthetic pleasure. Accordingly, the theory would predict that master painters should display biases toward visual properties such as symmetry, balance, and moderate complexity. Have these biases been occurring and if so, have painters been optimizing these properties (fluency variables)? Here, we address these questions with statistics of portrait paintings from the Early Renaissance period. To do this, we first developed different computational measures for each of the aforementioned fluency variables...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333474/examining-the-psychology-of-working-theory-decent-work-among-sexual-minorities
#3
Richard P Douglass, Brandon L Velez, Sarah E Conlin, Ryan D Duffy, Jessica W England
Research has found heterosexist discrimination negatively relates to vocational outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, but no known study has examined how heterosexist discrimination relates to the attainment of decent work. Building from the Psychology of Working Theory, which proposes that specific forms of marginalization coupled with economic constraints limit a person's ability to secure decent work, the present study examined theoretically hypothesized pathways to decent work among a sample of employed sexual minority adults...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330348/learning-molecular-energies-using-localized-graph-kernels
#4
Grégoire Ferré, Terry Haut, Kipton Barros
Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326741/the-impact-of-childhood-adversities-on-anxiety-and-depressive-disorders-in-adulthood
#5
Marketa Marackova, Jan Prasko, Stanislav Matousek, Klara Latalova, Radovan Hruby, Michaela Holubova, Milos Slepecky, Kristyna Vrbova, Ales Grambal
OBJECTIVES: The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. METHOD: A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder"...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323016/identifying-the-shared-metabolic-objectives-of-glycerol-bioconversion-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-under-different-culture-conditions
#6
Gongxian Xu, Caixia Li
This paper addresses the problem of identifying the shared metabolic objectives of glycerol bioconversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae for production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) under different culture conditions. To achieve this goal, we propose a multi-level programming model. This model includes three optimization problems, where the constraint region of the first level problem is implicitly determined by the other two optimization problems. The optimized objectives of the first and second level problems are to minimize the set of fluxes that are of major importance to glycerol metabolism and the difference between the observed fluxes and those computed by the model, respectively...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318906/analysis-of-molecular-mechanisms-of-atp-synthesis-from-the-standpoint-of-the-principle-of-electrical-neutrality
#7
REVIEW
Sunil Nath
Theories of biological energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS) and photophosphorylation (PHOTO PHOS) are reviewed and applied to ATP synthesis by an experimental system containing purified ATP synthase reconstituted into liposomes. The theories are critically evaluated from the standpoint of the principle of electrical neutrality. It is shown that the obligatory requirement to maintain overall electroneutrality of bulk aqueous phases imposes strong constraints on possible theories of energy coupling and molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis...
March 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318503/sociotechnical-systems-as-a-framework-for-regulatory-system-design-and-evaluation-using-work-domain-analysis-to-examine-a-new-regulatory-system
#8
Tony Carden, Natassia Goode, Gemma J M Read, Paul M Salmon
Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems...
March 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306319/testing-the-speed-of-gravitational-waves-over-cosmological-distances-with-strong-gravitational-lensing
#9
Thomas E Collett, David Bacon
Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302187/dynamical-systems-theory-in-quantitative-psychology-and-cognitive-science-a-fair-discrimination-between-deterministic-and-statistical-counterparts-is-required
#10
Adam Gadomski, Marcel Ausloos, Tahlia Casey
This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297943/phase-coarsening-in-multicomponent-systems
#11
K G Wang, Gabriel Q Wang
A theory for phase coarsening in multicomponent systems is developed in which both the multicomponent thermodynamic effect and kinetic effect from a nonzero volume fraction are considered. In contrast to previous theory, a diffusion screening zone for a coarsening particle due to nonzero volume fraction is introduced. The evolution equation for phase coarsening in multicomponent systems is derived in a rigorous way in the framework of the maximum rate of dissipation with the constraints of mass and energy conservation...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288155/dynamics-robustness-of-cascading-systems
#12
Jonathan T Young, Tetsuhiro S Hatakeyama, Kunihiko Kaneko
A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287998/design-and-validation-of-a-virtual-player-for-studying-interpersonal-coordination-in-the-mirror-game
#13
Chao Zhai, Francesco Alderisio, Piotr Slowinski, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Mario di Bernardo
The mirror game has been recently proposed as a simple, yet powerful paradigm for studying interpersonal interactions. It has been suggested that a virtual partner able to play the game with human subjects can be an effective tool to affect the underlying neural processes needed to establish the necessary connections between the players, and also to provide new clinical interventions for rehabilitation of patients suffering from social disorders. Inspired by the motor processes of the central nervous system (CNS) and the musculoskeletal system in the human body, in this paper we develop a novel interactive cognitive architecture based on nonlinear control theory to drive a virtual player (VP) to play the mirror game with a human player (HP) in different configurations...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285464/shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#14
Kathrine E Starkweather
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents...
March 11, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282195/conformal-bootstrap-in-mellin-space
#15
Rajesh Gopakumar, Apratim Kaviraj, Kallol Sen, Aninda Sinha
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of conformal field theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built-in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275766/minimum-free-energy-paths-for-the-self-organization-of-polymer-brushes
#16
Ignacio Gleria, Esteban Mocskos, Mario Tagliazucchi
A methodology to calculate minimum free-energy paths based on the combination of a molecular theory and the improved string method is introduced and applied to study the self-organization of polymer brushes under poor solvent conditions. Polymer brushes in a poor solvent cannot undergo macroscopic phase separation due to the physical constraint imposed by the grafting points; therefore, they microphase separate forming aggregates. Under some conditions, the theory predicts that the homogeneous brush and the aggregates can exist as two different minima of the free energy...
March 9, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274856/mathematical-modeling-of-an-urban-pigeon-population-subject-to-local-management-strategies
#17
I Haidar, I Alvarez, A C Prévot
This paper addresses the issue of managing urban pigeon population using some possible actions that make it reach a density target with respect to socio-ecological constraints. A mathematical model describing the dynamic of this population is introduced. This model incorporates the effect of some regulatory actions on the dynamic of this population. We use mathematical viability theory, which provides a framework to study compatibility between dynamics and state constraints. The viability study shows when and how it is possible to regulate the pigeon population with respect to the constraints...
March 6, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274214/the-impact-of-integrated-prevention-and-treatment-on-child-malnutrition-and-health-the-promis-project-a-randomized-control-trial-in-burkina-faso-and-mali
#18
Lieven Huybregts, Elodie Becquey, Amanda Zongrone, Agnes Le Port, Regina Khassanova, Lazare Coulibaly, Jef L Leroy, Rahul Rawat, Marie T Ruel
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM) in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage) of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM) model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale...
March 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272366/hydrogen-atomic-positions-of-o-h%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-o-hydrogen-bonds-in-solution-and-in-the-solid-state-the-synergy-of-quantum-chemical-calculations-with-%C3%A2-h-nmr-chemical-shifts-and-x-ray-diffraction-methods
#19
REVIEW
Michael G Siskos, M Iqbal Choudhary, Ioannis P Gerothanassis
The exact knowledge of hydrogen atomic positions of O-H···O hydrogen bonds in solution and in the solid state has been a major challenge in structural and physical organic chemistry. The objective of this review article is to summarize recent developments in the refinement of labile hydrogen positions with the use of: (i) density functional theory (DFT) calculations after a structure has been determined by X-ray from single crystals or from powders; (ii) ¹H-NMR chemical shifts as constraints in DFT calculations, and (iii) use of root-mean-square deviation between experimentally determined and DFT calculated ¹H-NMR chemical shifts considering the great sensitivity of ¹H-NMR shielding to hydrogen bonding properties...
March 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270830/cotton-defense-induction-patterns-under-spatially-temporally-and-quantitatively-varying-herbivory-levels
#20
Michael Eisenring, Michael Meissle, Steffen Hagenbucher, Steven E Naranjo, Felix Wettstein, Jörg Romeis
In its defense against herbivores, cotton (Gossypium sp.) relies in part on the production of a set of inducible, non-volatile terpenoids. Under uniform damage levels, in planta allocation of induced cotton terpenoids has been found to be highest in youngest leaves, supporting assumptions of the optimal defense theory (ODT) which predicts that plants allocate defense compounds to tissues depending on their value and the likelihood of herbivore attack. However, our knowledge is limited on how varying, and thus more realistic, damage levels might affect cotton defense organization...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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