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Theory of constraints

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637856/how-to-get-the-most-bang-for-your-buck-the-evolution-and-physiology-of-nutrition-dependent-resource-allocation-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Enoch Ng'oma, Anna M Perinchery, Elizabeth G King
All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635126/reinterpreting-maximum-entropy-in-ecology-a-null-hypothesis-constrained-by-ecological-mechanism
#2
James P O'Dwyer, Andrew Rominger, Xiao Xiao
Simplified mechanistic models in ecology have been criticised for the fact that a good fit to data does not imply the mechanism is true: pattern does not equal process. In parallel, the maximum entropy principle (MaxEnt) has been applied in ecology to make predictions constrained by just a handful of state variables, like total abundance or species richness. But an outstanding question remains: what principle tells us which state variables to constrain? Here we attempt to solve both problems simultaneously, by translating a given set of mechanisms into the state variables to be used in MaxEnt, and then using this MaxEnt theory as a null model against which to compare mechanistic predictions...
July 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622872/processes-of-local-alcohol-policy-making-in-england-does-the-theory-of-policy-transfer-provide-useful-insights-into-public-health-decision-making
#3
Lucy Gavens, John Holmes, Penny Buykx, Frank de Vocht, Matt Egan, Daniel Grace, Karen Lock, John D Mooney, Alan Brennan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making...
June 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621794/exploring-surface-landscapes-with-molecules-rotationally-induced-diffraction-of-h2-on-lif-001-under-fast-grazing-incidence-conditions
#4
M Del Cueto, A S Muzas, M F Somers, G J Kroes, C Díaz, F Martín
Atomic diffraction by surfaces under fast grazing incidence conditions has been used for almost a decade to characterize surface properties with more accuracy than with more traditional atomic diffraction methods. From six-dimensional solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we show that diffraction of H2 molecules under fast grazing incidence conditions could be even more informative for the characterization of ionic surfaces, due to the large anisotropic electrostatic interaction between the quadrupole moment of the molecule and the electric field created by the ionic crystal...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621696/professional-transitions-towards-sustainable-farming-systems-the-development-of-farmers-professional-worlds
#5
Xavier Coquil, Benoît Dedieu, Pascal Béguin
BACKGROUND: While farming in France and generally in Europe is continuing to intensify, at the expense of its environmental sustainability, promising alternatives are emerging. OBJECTIVE: The processes whereby farmers change and transform their own work, to shift from an intensive mode of production to a self-sufficient and autonomous one, need to be formalized if we are to further our understanding of why and how these forms of sustainable farming activity emerge...
June 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616016/neurological-and-neuropsychological-consequences-of-electrical-and-lightning-shock-review-and-theories-of-causation
#6
REVIEW
Christopher J Andrews, Andrew D Reisner
Injuries from lightning and electrical injuries involve multiple systems of the body, however neurological symptoms are very widely reported. A disabling neuropsychological syndrome is also noted. This paper presents a comprehensive review of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. Partial theories of causation for these injuries have been advanced, however, there is no convincing explanation for both delay in onset of symptoms and also the genesis of the neuropsychological syndrome. A theory of causation is proposed which satisfies both these constraints...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611488/molecular-dynamics-studies-of-defect-formation-during-heteroepitaxial-growth-of-ingan-alloys-on-0001-gan-surfaces
#7
J Gruber, X W Zhou, R E Jones, S R Lee, G J Tucker
We investigate the formation of extended defects during molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of GaN and InGaN growth on (0001) and ([Formula: see text]) wurtzite-GaN surfaces. The simulated growths are conducted on an atypically large scale by sequentially injecting nearly a million individual vapor-phase atoms towards a fixed GaN surface; we apply time-and-position-dependent boundary constraints that vary the ensemble treatments of the vapor-phase, the near-surface solid-phase, and the bulk-like regions of the growing layer...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610851/biodiversity-models-what-if-unsaturation-is-the-rule
#8
REVIEW
Rubén G Mateo, Karel Mokany, Antoine Guisan
Improving biodiversity predictions is essential if we are to meet the challenges posed by global change. As knowledge is key to feed models, we need to evaluate how debated theory can affect models. An important ongoing debate is whether environmental constraints limit the number of species that can coexist in a community (saturation), with recent findings suggesting that species richness in many communities might be unsaturated. Here, we propose that biodiversity models could address this issue by accounting for a duality: considering communities as unsaturated but where species composition is constrained by different scale-dependent biodiversity drivers...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609782/influence-of-dna-sequence-on-the-structure-of-minicircles-under-torsional-stress
#9
Qian Wang, Rossitza N Irobalieva, Wah Chiu, Michael F Schmid, Jonathan M Fogg, Lynn Zechiedrich, B Montgomery Pettitt
The sequence dependence of the conformational distribution of DNA under various levels of torsional stress is an important unsolved problem. Combining theory and coarse-grained simulations shows that the DNA sequence and a structural correlation due to topology constraints of a circle are the main factors that dictate the 3D structure of a 336 bp DNA minicircle under torsional stress. We found that DNA minicircle topoisomers can have multiple bend locations under high torsional stress and that the positions of these sharp bends are determined by the sequence, and by a positive mechanical correlation along the sequence...
June 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606892/systematic-and-iterative-development-of-a-smartphone-app-to-promote-sun-protection-among-holidaymakers-design-of-a-prototype-and-results-of-usability-and-acceptability-testing
#10
Angela M Rodrigues, Falko F Sniehotta, Mark A Birch-Machin, Patrick Olivier, Vera Araújo-Soares
BACKGROUND: Sunburn and intermittent exposure to ultraviolet rays are risk factors for melanoma. Sunburn is a common experience during holidays, making tourism settings of particular interest for skin cancer prevention. Holidaymakers are a volatile populations found at different locations, which may make them difficult to reach. Given the widespread use of smartphones, evidence suggests that this might be a novel, convenient, scalable, and feasible way of reaching the target population...
June 12, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588524/perceptual-plasticity-for-auditory-object-recognition
#11
Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587691/exploring-the-influence-of-local-food-environments-on-food-behaviours-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-literature
#12
Erin Pitt, Danielle Gallegos, Tracy Comans, Cate Cameron, Lukar Thornton
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews investigating associations between objective measures of the food environment and dietary behaviours or health outcomes have not established a consistent evidence base. The present paper aims to synthesise qualitative evidence regarding the influence of local food environments on food and purchasing behaviours. DESIGN: A systematic review in the form of a qualitative thematic synthesis. SETTING: Urban localities...
June 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582685/meaningful-questions-the-acquisition-of-auxiliary-inversion-in-a-connectionist-model-of-sentence-production
#13
Hartmut Fitz, Franklin Chang
Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input...
June 3, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580614/instrumentalisation-of-the-health-system-an-examination-of-the-impact-on-nursing-practice-and-patient-autonomy
#14
Jesús Molina-Mula, Elizabeth Peter, Julia Gallo-Estrada, Catalina Perelló-Campaner
Most current management systems of healthcare institutions correspond to a model of market ethics with its demands of competitiveness. This approach has been called managerialism and is couched in terms of much-needed efficiencies and effective management of budgetary constraints. The aim of this study was to analyse the decision-making of nurses through the impact of health institution management models on clinical practice. Based on Foucault's ethical theory, a qualitative study was conducted through a discourse analysis of the nursing records in a hospital unit...
June 4, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579951/communicative-pragmatic-assessment-is-sensitive-and-time-effective-in-measuring-the-outcome-of-aphasia-therapy
#15
Benjamin Stahl, Bettina Mohr, Felix R Dreyer, Guglielmo Lucchese, Friedemann Pulvermüller
A range of methods in clinical research aim to assess treatment-induced progress in aphasia therapy. Here, we used a crossover randomized controlled design to compare the suitability of utterance-centered and dialogue-sensitive outcome measures in speech-language testing. Fourteen individuals with post-stroke chronic non-fluent aphasia each received two types of intensive training in counterbalanced order: conventional confrontation naming, and communicative-pragmatic speech-language therapy (Intensive Language-Action Therapy, an expanded version of Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579917/higgs-eft-for-2hdm-and-beyond
#16
Hermès Bélusca-Maïto, Adam Falkowski, Duarte Fontes, Jorge C Romão, João P Silva
We discuss the validity of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SM EFT) as the low-energy effective theory for the two-Higgs-doublet Model (2HDM). Using the up-to-date Higgs signal strength measurements at the LHC, one can obtain a likelihood function for the Wilson coefficients of dimension-6 operators in the EFT Lagrangian. Given the matching between the 2HDM and the EFT, the constraints on the Wilson coefficients can be translated into constraints on the parameters of the 2HDM Lagrangian. We discuss under which conditions such a procedure correctly reproduces the true limits on the 2HDM...
2017: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577111/family-life-and-social-medicine-discourses-and-discontents-surrounding-puebla-s-psychiatric-care
#17
Kathryn Law Hale
Drawing on clinical data from 15 months of on-site participant observation in the only public psychiatric hospital in the state of Puebla, Mexico, this article advances our understanding of globalization in relation to psychiatry. I challenge the construction of psychiatry as only treating the individual patient and provide grounded doctor-patient-family member interaction in a Mexican psychiatric clinic in order to review what happens when doctors cannot interact with patients as atomized individuals even though in theory they are trained to think of patients that way...
June 2, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575411/operationalization-of-sign-language-phonological-similarity-and-its-effects-on-lexical-access
#18
Joshua T Williams, Adam Stone, Sharlene D Newman
Cognitive mechanisms for sign language lexical access are fairly unknown. This study investigated whether phonological similarity facilitates lexical retrieval in sign languages using measures from a new lexical database for American Sign Language. Additionally, it aimed to determine which similarity metric best fits the present data in order to inform theories of how phonological similarity is constructed within the lexicon and to aid in the operationalization of phonological similarity in sign language. Sign repetition latencies and accuracy were obtained when native signers were asked to reproduce a sign displayed on a computer screen...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574269/adsorption-of-homotrifunctional-1-2-3-benzenetriol-on-a-ge-100-2-%C3%A3-1-surface
#19
Tania E Sandoval, Stacey F Bent
The adsorption of the homotrifunctional 1,2,3-benzenetriol on Ge(100)-2 × 1 has been investigated by density functional theory calculations, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the adsorption can occur through OH dissociation of all three hydroxyl groups, and that all three reaction pathways are kinetically and thermodynamically favorable. A coverage-dependent analysis shows that at low coverage, the molecule reacts to form a mix of trifold and dually bound adsorbates...
June 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573354/optimal-feedback-control-to-describe-multiple-representations-of-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#20
Yuki Ueyama
Primary motor cortex (M1) neurons are tuned in response to several parameters related to motor control, and it was recently reported that M1 is important in feedback control. However, it remains unclear how M1 neurons encode information to control the musculoskeletal system. In this study, we examined the underlying computational mechanisms of M1 based on optimal feedback control (OFC) theory, which is a plausible hypothesis for neuromotor control. We modelled an isometric torque production task that required joint torque to be regulated and maintained at desired levels in a musculoskeletal system physically constrained by muscles, which act by pulling rather than pushing...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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