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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779605/games-as-tools-to-address-conservation-conflicts
#1
REVIEW
Steve M Redpath, Aidan Keane, Henrik Andrén, Zachary Baynham-Herd, Nils Bunnefeld, A Bradley Duthie, Jens Frank, Claude A Garcia, Johan Månsson, Lovisa Nilsson, Chris R J Pollard, O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Carl F Salk, Henry Travers
Conservation conflicts represent complex multilayered problems that are challenging to study. We explore the utility of theoretical, experimental, and constructivist approaches to games to help to understand and manage these challenges. We show how these approaches can help to develop theory, understand patterns in conflict, and highlight potentially effective management solutions. The choice of approach should be guided by the research question and by whether the focus is on testing hypotheses, predicting behaviour, or engaging stakeholders...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775340/universality-of-generalized-parton-distributions-in-light-front-holographic-qcd
#2
Guy F de Téramond, Tianbo Liu, Raza Sabbir Sufian, Hans Günter Dosch, Stanley J Brodsky, Alexandre Deur
The structure of generalized parton distributions is determined from light-front holographic QCD up to a universal reparametrization function w(x) which incorporates Regge behavior at small x and inclusive counting rules at x→1. A simple ansatz for w(x) that fulfills these physics constraints with a single-parameter results in precise descriptions of both the nucleon and the pion quark distribution functions in comparison with global fits. The analytic structure of the amplitudes leads to a connection with the Veneziano model and hence to a nontrivial connection with Regge theory and the hadron spectrum...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775330/constraining-alternative-theories-of-gravity-using-pulsar-timing-arrays
#3
Neil J Cornish, Logan O'Beirne, Stephen R Taylor, Nicolás Yunes
The opening of the gravitational wave window by ground-based laser interferometers has made possible many new tests of gravity, including the first constraints on polarization. It is hoped that, within the next decade, pulsar timing will extend the window by making the first detections in the nanohertz frequency regime. Pulsar timing offers several advantages over ground-based interferometers for constraining the polarization of gravitational waves due to the many projections of the polarization pattern provided by the different lines of sight to the pulsars, and the enhanced response to longitudinal polarizations...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770448/eating-practices-among-low-income-overweight-obese-brazilian-mothers-a-bourdieusian-approach
#4
Priscila de Morais Sato, Mariana Dimitrov Ulian, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
We investigated the eating practices of socially vulnerable overweight and obese Brazilian mothers, exploring the relationships between eating practices, capitals, fields and excess-weight. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews of 21 women living in three vulnerable urban regions. Content analyses were performed and codes were used to locate actors in relation to each other in terms of 'capitals' and 'fields', forming a typology based on Bourdieu's theory with five groups. Socioeconomic conditions during childhood and liking to cook were the main characteristics related to each group's distinct eating practices...
May 16, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760441/origin-and-maintenance-of-chemical-diversity-in-a-species-rich-tropical-tree-lineage
#5
Diego Salazar, John Lokvam, Italo Mesones, Magno Vásquez Pilco, Jacqueline Milagros Ayarza Zuñiga, Perry de Valpine, Paul V A Fine
Plant secondary metabolites play important ecological and evolutionary roles, most notably in the deterrence of natural enemies. The classical theory explaining the evolution of plant chemical diversity is that new defences arise through a pairwise co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their specialized natural enemies. However, plant species are bombarded by dozens of different herbivore taxa from disparate phylogenetic lineages that span a wide range of feeding strategies and have distinctive physiological constraints that interact differently with particular plant metabolites...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760051/approach-to-classify-separate-and-enrich-objects-in-groups-using-ensemble-sorting
#6
Rebecca Turk-MacLeod, Alon Henson, Marc Rodriguez-Garcia, Graham M Gibson, Gerardo Aragon Camarasa, Dario Caramelli, Miles J Padgett, Leroy Cronin
The sorting of objects into groups is a fundamental operation, critical in the preparation and purification of populations of cells, crystals, beads, or droplets, necessary for research and applications in biology, chemistry, and materials science. Most of the efforts exploring such purification have focused on two areas: the degree of separation and the measurement precision required for effective separation. Conventionally, achieving good separation ultimately requires that the objects are considered one by one (which can be both slow and expensive), and the ability to measure the sorted objects by increasing sensitivity as well as reducing sorting errors...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758752/formation-of-dominant-mode-by-evolution-in-biological-systems
#7
Chikara Furusawa, Kunihiko Kaneko
A reduction in high-dimensional phenotypic states to a few degrees of freedom is essential to understand biological systems. Here, we show evolutionary robustness causes such reduction which restricts possible phenotypic changes in response to a variety of environmental conditions. First, global protein expression changes in Escherichia coli after various environmental perturbations were shown to be proportional across components, across different types of environmental conditions. To examine if such dimension reduction is a result of evolution, we analyzed a cell model-with a huge number of components, that reproduces itself via a catalytic reaction network-and confirmed that common proportionality in the concentrations of all components is shaped through evolutionary processes...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756926/beyond-positivity-bounds-and-the-fate-of-massive-gravity
#8
Brando Bellazzini, Francesco Riva, Javi Serra, Francesco Sgarlata
We constrain effective field theories by going beyond the familiar positivity bounds that follow from unitarity, analyticity, and crossing symmetry of the scattering amplitudes. As interesting examples, we discuss the implications of the bounds for the Galileon and ghost-free massive gravity. The combination of our theoretical bounds with the experimental constraints on the graviton mass implies that the latter is either ruled out or unable to describe gravitational phenomena, let alone to consistently implement the Vainshtein mechanism, down to the relevant scales of fifth-force experiments, where general relativity has been successfully tested...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756879/collective-dynamics-and-strong-pinning-near-the-onset-of-charge-order-in-la_-1-48-nd_-0-4-sr_-0-12-cuo_-4
#9
P G Baity, T Sasagawa, Dragana Popović
The dynamics of charge-ordered states is one of the key issues in underdoped cuprate high-temperature superconductors, but static short-range charge-order (CO) domains have been detected in almost all cuprates. We probe the dynamics across the CO (and structural) transition in La_{1.48}Nd_{0.4}Sr_{0.12}CuO_{4} by measuring nonequilibrium charge transport, or resistance R as the system responds to a change in temperature and to an applied magnetic field. We find evidence for metastable states, collective behavior, and criticality...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751752/a-community-based-qualitative-study-on-the-experience-and-understandings-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-vulnerability-from-the-perspectives-of-female-sex-workers-and-male-intimate-partners-in-north-karnataka-state-india
#10
Andrea K Blanchard, Sapna G Nair, Sharon G Bruce, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Raghavendra Thalinja, Srikanta Murthy, Prakash Javalkar, Priya Pillai, Martine Collumbien, Lori Heise, Shajy Isac, Parinita Bhattacharjee
BACKGROUND: Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India...
May 11, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749973/difficult-people-who-is-perceived-to-be-demanding-in-personal-networks-and-why-are-they-there
#11
Shira Offer, Claude S Fischer
Why do people maintain ties with individuals whom they find difficult? Standard network theories imply that such alters are avoided or dropped. Drawing on a survey of over 1,100 diverse respondents who described over 12,000 relationships, we examined which among those ties respondents nominated as a person whom they "sometimes find demanding or difficult." Those so listed composed about 15 percent of all alters in the network. After holding ego and alter traits constant, close kin, especially women relatives and aging parents, were especially likely to be named as difficult alters...
February 2018: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745213/-bacterial-quorum-sensing-cooperation-and-cheating
#12
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744286/adolescent-pregnancy-and-challenges-in-kenyan-context-perspectives-from-multiple-community-stakeholders
#13
Manasi Kumar, Keng-Yen Huang, Caleb Othieno, Dalton Wamalwa, Beatrice Madeghe, Judith Osok, Simon Njuguna Kahonge, Joyce Nato, Mary McKernon McKay
Objective: The key objective of this paper is to provide a phenomenological account of the mental health challenges and experiences of adolescent new mothers. We explore the role of social support and the absence of empathy plays in depression among pregnant adolescents. The project also collected data on the adolescents' caregiving environment which includes the adolescents' mothers, their partners, the community, and health care workers, as well as feedback from staff nurses at the maternal and child health centers...
March 2018: Global Social Welfare: Research, Policy & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743692/precision-measurement-of-the-weak-charge-of-the-proton
#14
(no author information available yet)
Large experimental programmes in the fields of nuclear and particle physics search for evidence of physics beyond that explained by current theories. The observation of the Higgs boson completed the set of particles predicted by the standard model, which currently provides the best description of fundamental particles and forces. However, this theory's limitations include a failure to predict fundamental parameters, such as the mass of the Higgs boson, and the inability to account for dark matter and energy, gravity, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, among other phenomena...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742400/topological-constraints-and-their-conformational-entropic-penalties-on-rna-folds
#15
Chi H Mak, Ethan N H Phan
Functional RNAs can fold into intricate structures using a number of different secondary and tertiary structural motifs. Many factors contribute to the overall free energy of the target fold. This study aims at quantifying the entropic costs coming from the loss of conformational freedom when the sugar-phosphate backbone is subjected to constraints imposed by secondary and tertiary contacts. Motivated by insights from topology theory, we design a diagrammatic scheme to represent different types of RNA structures so that constraints associated with a folded structure may be segregated into mutually independent subsets, enabling the total conformational entropy loss to be easily calculated as a sum of independent terms...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740805/examining-ecological-constraints-on-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-attachment-via-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#16
Marije L Verhage, R M Pasco Fearon, Carlo Schuengel, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sheri Madigan, Glenn I Roisman, Mirjam Oosterman, Kazuko Y Behrens, Maria S Wong, Sarah Mangelsdorf, Lynn E Priddis, Karl-Heinz Brisch
Parents' attachment representations and child-parent attachment have been shown to be associated, but these associations vary across populations (Verhage et al., 2016). The current study examined whether ecological factors may explain variability in the strength of intergenerational transmission of attachment, using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Analyses on 4,396 parent-child dyads (58 studies, child age 11-96 months) revealed a combined effect size of r = .29. IPD meta-analyses revealed that effect sizes for the transmission of autonomous-secure representations to secure attachments were weaker under risk conditions and weaker in adolescent parent-child dyads, whereas transmission was stronger for older children...
May 9, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739337/colliding-ideals-an-interview-study-of-how-intervention-researchers-address-adherence-and-adaptations-in-replication-studies
#17
Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrika Förberg, Knut Sundell, Henna Hasson
BACKGROUND: For an intervention to be considered evidence-based, findings need to be replicated. When this is done in new contexts (e.g., a new country), adaptations may be needed. Yet, we know little about how researchers approach this. This study aims to explore how researchers reason about adaptations and adherence when conducting replication studies, describe what adaptations they make and how these are reported in scientific journals. METHODS: This was an interview study conducted in 2014 with principal investigators of Swedish replication studies reporting adaptations to an intervention from another country...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738099/contrasting-duplication-patterns-reflect-functional-diversities-of-ubiquitin-and-ubiquitin-like-protein-modifiers-in-plants
#18
Zhihua Hua, Paymon Doroodian, William Vu
Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins, collectively forming the ubiquiton family, regulate nearly all aspects of cellular processes via posttranslational modifications. Studies devoted to specific members suggested a large expansion of this family in plants. However, lack of its systematic analysis hinders the comparison of individual members at both evolutionary history and functional divergence levels, which may provide new insight into biological functions. In this work, we first retrieved in total 5,856 members of 17 known ubiquiton subfamilies in 50 plant genomes by searching both prior annotations and missing loci in each genome...
May 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736242/association-with-humans-and-seasonality-interact-to-reverse-predictions-for-animal-space-use
#19
Peter N Laver, Kathleen A Alexander
Background: Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733674/correlation-of-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-asynchrony-across-stimuli-and-tasks-new-constraints-on-temporal-renormalization-theory
#20
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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