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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813248/early-stress-parental-motivation-and-reproductive-decision-making-applications-of-life-history-theory-to-parental-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Bruce J Ellis
This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812710/developmental-constraints-shape-the-evolution-of-the-nematode-mid-developmental-transition
#2
Harel Zalts, Itai Yanai
Evolutionary theory assumes that genetic variation is uniform and gradual in nature, yet morphological and gene expression studies have revealed that different life-stages exhibit distinct levels of cross-species conservation. In particular, a stage in mid-embryogenesis is highly conserved across species of the same phylum, suggesting that this stage is subject to developmental constraints, either by increased purifying selection or by a strong mutational bias. An alternative explanation, however, holds that the same 'hourglass' pattern of variation may result from increased positive selection at the earlier and later stages of development...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810482/a-journey-in-the-field-of-health-from-social-psychology-to-multi-disciplinarity
#3
Claudine Herzlich
"Health psychology" is a newer sub-discipline whose research methodologies, theories, and practices were borrowed from diverse areas of psychology. It appeared later in France than in the United States or United Kingdom., In 1966, I adopted a perspective between anthropology and psycho-sociology of medicine. I never have self-identified as a "Health Psychologist", continuing to work outside of disciplinary boundary constraints, but studied health questions moving first from psychology (and anthropology), through social psychology to sociology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809676/simultaneous-clustering-and-model-selection-algorithm-theory-and-applications
#4
Zhuwen Li, Loong-Fah Cheong, Shuoguang Yang, Kim-Chuan Toh
While clustering has been well studied in the past decade, model selection has drawn much less attention due to the difficulty of the problem. In this paper, we address both problems in a joint manner by recovering an ideal affinity tensor from an imperfect input. By taking into account the relationship of the affinities induced by the cluster structures, we are able to significantly improve the affinity input, such as repairing those entries corrupted by gross outliers. More importantly, the recovered ideal affinity tensor also directly indicates the number of clusters and their membership, thus solving the model selection and clustering jointly...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806979/breath-giving-cooperation-critical-review-of-origin-of-mitochondria-hypotheses-major-unanswered-questions-point-to-the-importance-of-early-ecology
#5
REVIEW
István Zachar, Eörs Szathmáry
The origin of mitochondria is a unique and hard evolutionary problem, embedded within the origin of eukaryotes. The puzzle is challenging due to the egalitarian nature of the transition where lower-level units took over energy metabolism. Contending theories widely disagree on ancestral partners, initial conditions and unfolding of events. There are many open questions but there is no comparative examination of hypotheses. We have specified twelve questions about the observable facts and hidden processes leading to the establishment of the endosymbiont that a valid hypothesis must address...
August 14, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806791/effect-of-access-to-an-electronic-medical-resource-on-performance-characteristics-of-a-certification-examination-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Rebecca S Lipner, Bradley G Brossman, Kelli M Samonte, Steven J Durning
Background: Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Medical certification program...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805650/the-status-of-varying-constants-a-review-of-the-physics-searches-and-implications
#7
Carlos J A P Martins
The observational evidence for the recent acceleration of the universe demonstrates that canonical theories of cosmology and particle physics are incomplete-if not incorrect-and that new physics is out there, waiting to be discovered. A key task for the next generation of laboratory and astrophysical facilities is to search for, identify and ultimately characterize this new physics. Here we highlight recent developments in tests of the stability of nature's fundamental couplings, which provide a direct handle on new physics: a detection of variations will be revolutionary, but even improved null results provide competitive constraints on a range of cosmological and particle physics paradigms...
August 14, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805426/detecting-and-differentiating-the-direction-of-change-and-intervention-effects-in-randomized-trials
#8
Todd E Bodner, Paul D Bliese
Calls continue for randomized interventions in organizational settings. In many cases, however, practical constraints require researchers to use 2-wave randomized pretest-posttest control group designs. We discuss the importance of randomized trials for theory development with a focus on analytic options for 2-wave designs. Our discussion has implications for both designing studies and interpreting results. We review 23 published work and organizational health psychology intervention studies and find that a majority of studies featured a statistical model known to have low statistical power relative to other options...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803599/invited-review-resource-allocation-mismatch-as-pathway-to-disproportionate-growth-in-farm-animals-prerequisite-for-a-disturbed-health
#9
K Huber
The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798853/simulations-of-knotting-of-dna-during-genome-mapping
#10
Aashish Jain, Kevin D Dorfman
Genome mapping involves the confinement of long DNA molecules, in excess of 150 kilobase pairs, in nanochannels near the circa 50 nm persistence length of DNA. The fidelity of the map relies on the assumption that the DNA is linearized by channel confinement, which assumes the absence of knots. We have computed the probability of forming different knot types and the size of these knots for long chains (approximately 164 kilobase pairs) via pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model of DNA in channel sizes ranging from 35 nm to 60 nm...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792577/-implementation-evaluation-of-the-pare-chocs-program-in-high-school
#11
Martine Poirier, Diane Marcotte, Jacques Joly, Laurier Fortin
Despite the important increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, a low proportion of adolescent presenting elevated depressive symptoms receive school-based mental health services. Moreover, programs implemented in school settings often suffer of a less rigorous implementation, thus limiting their potential effectiveness. The identification of factors influencing implementation fidelity is essential to improve the quality of services. Guided by a theory-driven evaluation model, we assessed the quality of implementation of the Pare-Chocs program and the factors that affected this quality with the elements of action model of Chen (2005)...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790422/spiral-form-of-the-human-cochlea-results-from-spatial-constraints
#12
M Pietsch, L Aguirre Dávila, P Erfurt, E Avci, T Lenarz, A Kral
The human inner ear has an intricate spiral shape often compared to shells of mollusks, particularly to the nautilus shell. It has inspired many functional hearing theories. The reasons for this complex geometry remain unresolved. We digitized 138 human cochleae at microscopic resolution and observed an astonishing interindividual variability in the shape. A 3D analytical cochlear model was developed that fits the analyzed data with high precision. The cochlear geometry neither matched a proposed function, namely sound focusing similar to a whispering gallery, nor did it have the form of a nautilus...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790332/n-representability-of-the-jastrow-wave-function-pair-density-of-the-lowest-order
#13
Katsuhiko Higuchi, Masahiko Higuchi
Conditions for the N-representability of the pair density (PD) are needed for the development of the PD functional theory. We derive sufficient conditions for the N-representability of the PD that is calculated from the Jastrow wave function within the lowest order. These conditions are used as the constraints on the correlation function of the Jastrow wave function. A concrete procedure to search the suitable correlation function is also presented.
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780560/interprofessional-online-learning-for-primary-healthcare-findings-from-a-scoping-review
#14
Scott Reeves, Simon Fletcher, Clodagh McLoughlin, Alastair Yim, Kunal D Patel
OBJECTIVES: This article presents the findings from a scoping review which explored the nature of interprofessional online learning in primary healthcare. The review was informed by the following questions: What is the nature of evidence on online postgraduate education for primary healthcare interprofessional teams? What learning approaches and study methods are used in this context? What is the range of reported outcomes for primary healthcare learners, their organisations and the care they deliver to patients/clients? SETTING: The review explored the global literature on interprofessional online learning in primary healthcare settings...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777608/topological-control-on-the-structural-relaxation-of-atomic-networks-under-stress
#15
Mathieu Bauchy, Mengyi Wang, Yingtian Yu, Bu Wang, N M Anoop Krishnan, Enrico Masoero, Franz-Joseph Ulm, Roland Pellenq
Upon loading, atomic networks can feature delayed irreversible relaxation. However, the effect of composition and structure on relaxation remains poorly understood. Herein, relying on accelerated molecular dynamics simulations and topological constraint theory, we investigate the relationship between atomic topology and stress-induced structural relaxation, by taking the example of creep deformations in calcium silicate hydrates (C─S─H), the binding phase of concrete. Under constant shear stress, C─S─H is found to feature delayed logarithmic shear deformations...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774099/modelling-of-granular-fracture-in-polycrystalline-materials-using-ordinary-state-based-peridynamics
#16
Ning Zhu, Dennj De Meo, Erkan Oterkus
An ordinary state-based peridynamic formulation is developed to analyse cubic polycrystalline materials for the first time in the literature. This new approach has the advantage that no constraint condition is imposed on material constants as opposed to bond-based peridynamic theory. The formulation is validated by first considering static analyses and comparing the displacement fields obtained from the finite element method and ordinary state-based peridynamics. Then, dynamic analysis is performed to investigate the effect of grain boundary strength, crystal size, and discretization size on fracture behaviour and fracture morphology...
December 2, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764356/arm-retraction-dynamics-of-entangled-star-polymers-a-forward-flux-sampling-method-study
#17
Jian Zhu, Alexei E Likhtman, Zuowei Wang
The study of dynamics and rheology of well-entangled branched polymers remains a challenge for computer simulations due to the exponentially growing terminal relaxation times of these polymers with increasing molecular weights. We present an efficient simulation algorithm for studying the arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers by combining the coarse-grained slip-spring (SS) model with the forward flux sampling (FFS) method. This algorithm is first applied to simulate symmetric star polymers in the absence of constraint release (CR)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763198/fundamental-design-principles-for-transcription-factor-based-metabolite-biosensors
#18
Ahmad A Mannan, Di Liu, Fuzhong Zhang, Diego A Oyarzún
Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold...
August 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760757/causes-and-consequences-of-adult-sex-ratio-imbalance-in-a-historical-u-s-population
#19
Ryan Schacht, Ken R Smith
The responsiveness of individuals to partner availability has been well-documented across the literature. However, there is disagreement regarding the direction of the consequences of sex ratio imbalance. Specifically, does an excess of males or females promote male-male mating competition? In an attempt to clarify the role of the adult sex ratio (ASR) on behaviour, here we evaluate both competing and complimentary expectations derived from theory across the social and biological sciences. We use data drawn from a historical, nineteenth century population in North America and target several life-history traits thought to be affected by partner availability: age at first birth, relationship status, completed fertility and longevity...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756767/beyond-pilotitis-taking-digital-health-interventions-to-the-national-level-in-china-and-uganda
#20
REVIEW
Fei Huang, Sean Blaschke, Henry Lucas
BACKGROUND: Innovation theory has focused on the adoption of new products or services by individuals and their market-driven diffusion to the population at large. However, major health sector innovations typically emerge from negotiations between diverse stakeholders who compete to impose or at least prioritise their preferred version of that innovation. Thus, while many digital health interventions have succeeded in terms of adoption by a substantial number of providers and patients, they have generally failed to gain the level of acceptance required for their integration into national health systems that would promote sustainability and population-wide application...
July 31, 2017: Globalization and Health
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