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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230127/theory-of-chaotic-orbital-variations-confirmed-by-cretaceous-geological-evidence
#1
Chao Ma, Stephen R Meyers, Bradley B Sageman
Variations in the Earth's orbit and spin vector are a primary control on insolation and climate; their recognition in the geological record has revolutionized our understanding of palaeoclimate dynamics, and has catalysed improvements in the accuracy and precision of the geological timescale. Yet the secular evolution of the planetary orbits beyond 50 million years ago remains highly uncertain, and the chaotic dynamical nature of the Solar System predicted by theoretical models has yet to be rigorously confirmed by well constrained (radioisotopically calibrated and anchored) geological data...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222736/implementing-guidelines-and-training-initiatives-to-improve-cross-cultural-communication-in-primary-care-consultations-a-qualitative-participatory-european-study
#2
E Teunissen, K Gravenhorst, C Dowrick, E Van Weel-Baumgarten, F Van den Driessen Mareeuw, T de Brún, N Burns, C Lionis, F S Mair, C O'Donnell, M O'Reilly-de Brún, M Papadakaki, A Saridaki, W Spiegel, C Van Weel, M Van den Muijsenbergh, A MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural communication in primary care is often difficult, leading to unsatisfactory, substandard care. Supportive evidence-based guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) exist to enhance cross cultural communication but their use in practice is sporadic. The objective of this paper is to elucidate how migrants and other stakeholders can adapt, introduce and evaluate such G/TIs in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We undertook linked qualitative case studies to implement G/TIs focused on enhancing cross cultural communication in primary care, in five European countries...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#3
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211758/life-cycle-host-utilization-and-ecological-fitting-for-invasive-lancet-liver-fluke-dicrocoelium-dendriticum-emerging-in-southern-alberta-canada
#4
Bradley van Paridon, John S Gilleard, Douglas D Colwell, Cameron P Goater
The expansion of parasite distributions outside of their native host and geographical ranges has occurred repeatedly over evolutionary time. Contemporary examples include emerging infectious diseases (EID's), many of which pose threats to human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations. Theory predicts that parasites with complex life cycles will be rare as EID's due to constraints imposed by host specialization at each life-cycle stage. In contrast to predictions of this theory, we report 2 new intermediate hosts in the 3-host life cycle of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#5
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199025/beyond-fields-networks-and-fame-lawrence-krader-as-an-outsider-intellectual
#6
Sabine Sander, Cyril Levitt, Neil McMaughlin
This paper investigates the intellectual biography of the American philosopher and anthropologist Lawrence Krader (1919-1998) as a contribution to the sociology of intellectuals and history of ideas. We trace Krader's career trajectory to his intellectual self-concept, his scholarly and political worldviews, and his financial independence. Krader entertained a self-concept of a lone pioneer that led him to reject the competition for attention as highlighted in the current literature, dominated as it is by an emphasis on field, habitus, the accumulation and reproduction of power, and symbolic capital...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187353/towards-an-ecologically-grounded-functional-practice-in-rehabilitation
#7
Daniela Virgínia Vaz, Paula Lanna Silva, Marisa Cotta Mancini, Claudia Carello, Jeffrey Kinsella-Shaw
According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, effective rehabilitation requires interventions that go beyond minimizing pathological conditions and associated symptoms. The scope of practice must include promoting an individual's activity within relevant contexts. We argue that best practice requires decisions that are not only evidence-based but also theory-based. Perception and action theories are essential for interpreting evidence and clinical phenomena as well as for developing new interventions...
February 7, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186796/from-planck-data-to-planck-era-observational-tests-of-holographic-cosmology
#8
Niayesh Afshordi, Claudio Corianò, Luigi Delle Rose, Elizabeth Gould, Kostas Skenderis
We test a class of holographic models for the very early Universe against cosmological observations and find that they are competitive to the standard cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM) of cosmology. These models are based on three-dimensional perturbative superrenormalizable quantum field theory (QFT), and, while they predict a different power spectrum from the standard power law used in ΛCDM, they still provide an excellent fit to the data (within their regime of validity). By comparing the Bayesian evidence for the models, we find that ΛCDM does a better job globally, while the holographic models provide a (marginally) better fit to the data without very low multipoles (i...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186772/the-thermodynamics-of-restoring-underwater-superhydrophobicity
#9
Paul R Jones, Adrian Thomas Kirn, David Ma, Dennis T Rich, Neelesh Ashok Patankar
Superhydrophobic surfaces submerged in liquids are susceptible to permanently becoming wet. This is especially true when the ambient liquid is pressurized or undersaturated with air. To gain insight into the thermodynamics of restoring underwater superhydrophobicity, nucleation theory is applied to the design of spontaneously dewetting conical pores. It is found that for intrinsically hydrophobic materials, there is a geometric constraint for which reversible superhydrophobic behavior may occur. Molecular dynamics simulations are implemented to support the theory, and steered molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the energy landscape of the dewetting process...
February 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186201/speed-versus-endurance-tradeoff-in-plants-leaves-with-higher-photosynthetic-rates-show-stronger-seasonal-declines
#10
Yong-Jiang Zhang, Lawren Sack, Kun-Fang Cao, Xue-Mei Wei, Nan Li
We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185398/reconciling-conceptualizations-of-relationships-and-person-centred-care-for-older-people-with-cognitive-impairment-in-acute-care-settings
#11
Carole Rushton, David Edvardsson
Relationships are central to enacting person-centred care of the older person with cognitive impairment. A fuller understanding of relationships and the role they play facilitating wellness and preserving personhood is critical if we are to unleash the productive potential of nursing research and person-centred care. In this article, we target the acute care setting because much of the work about relationships and older people with cognitive impairment has tended to focus on relationships in long-term care...
February 10, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167585/prospectus-towards-the-development-of-high-fidelity-models-of-wall-turbulence-at-large-reynolds-number
#12
J C Klewicki, G P Chini, J F Gibson
Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics...
March 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166938/population-level-differences-in-thermal-sensitivity-of-energy-assimilation-in-terrestrial-salamanders
#13
Timothy A Clay, Matthew E Gifford
Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166508/quantization-based-adaptive-actor-critic-tracking-control-with-tracking-error-constraints
#14
Quan-Yong Fan, Guang-Hong Yang, Dan Ye
In this paper, the problem of adaptive actor-critic (AC) tracking control is investigated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities and quantized inputs. Different from the existing results based on reinforcement learning, the tracking error constraints are considered and new critic functions are constructed to improve the performance further. To ensure that the tracking errors keep within the predefined time-varying boundaries, a tracking error transformation technique is used to constitute an augmented error system...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161693/nurse-environment-interactions-in-the-development-of-cultural-competence
#15
Amélie Blanchet Garneau, Jacinthe Pepin, Sylvie Gendron
Studies on the development of cultural competence among healthcare providers tend to focus on the clinical encounter, with little attention paid to the environment. In this paper, results from a grounded theory study conducted with nurses and students to understand cultural competence development are presented; with a focus on findings that call particular attention to nurse-environment interactions. Two concurrent processes, as students and nurses develop cultural competence through interactions with their environment, were identified: "dealing with structural constraints" and "mobilizing social resources"...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161314/groupwise-structural-parcellation-of-the-whole-cortex-a-logistic-random-effects-model-based-approach
#16
Guillermo Gallardo, William Wells Iii, Rachid Deriche, Demian Wassermann
Current theories hold that brain function is highly related to long-range physical connections through axonal bundles, namely extrinsic connectivity. However, obtaining a groupwise cortical parcellation based on extrinsic connectivity remains challenging. Current parcellation methods are computationally expensive; need tuning of several parameters or rely on ad-hoc constraints. Furthermore, none of these methods present a model for the cortical extrinsic connectivity of the cortex. To tackle these problems, we propose a parsimonious model for the extrinsic connectivity and an efficient parceling technique based on clustering of tractograms...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157359/high-precision-shock-wave-measurements-of-deuterium-evaluation-of-exchange-correlation-functionals-at-the-molecular-to-atomic-transition
#17
M D Knudson, M P Desjarlais
We present shock compression data for deuterium through the molecular-to-atomic transition along the principal Hugoniot with unprecedented precision, enabling discrimination between subtle differences in first-principle theoretical predictions. These observations, supported through reshock measurements, provide tight constraints in a regime directly relevant to planetary interiors. Our findings are in best agreement with density functional theory; however, no one exchange-correlation functional describes well both the onset of dissociation and the maximum compression along the Hugoniot...
January 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147570/adaptive-and-compressive-matched-field-processing
#18
Kay L Gemba, William S Hodgkiss, Peter Gerstoft
Matched field processing is a generalized beamforming method that matches received array data to a dictionary of replica vectors in order to locate one or more sources. Its solution set is sparse since there are considerably fewer sources than replicas. Using compressive sensing (CS) implemented using basis pursuit, the matched field problem is reformulated as an underdetermined, convex optimization problem. CS estimates the unknown source amplitudes using the replica dictionary to best explain the data, subject to a row-sparsity constraint...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144170/flipping-the-classroom-to-teach-millennial-residents-medical-leadership-a-proof-of-concept
#19
Alicia T Lucardie, Lizanne Berkenbosch, Jochem van den Berg, Jamiu O Busari
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing changes in health care delivery have resulted in the reform of educational content and methods of training in postgraduate medical leadership education. Health care law and medical errors are domains in medical leadership where medical residents desire training. However, the potential value of the flipped classroom as a pedagogical tool for leadership training within postgraduate medical education has not been fully explored. Therefore, we designed a learning module for this purpose and made use of the flipped classroom model to deliver the training...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140563/abrupt-size-partitioning-of-multimodal-photoluminescence-relaxation-in-monodisperse-silicon-nanocrystals
#20
Samuel L Brown, Joseph B Miller, Rebecca J Anthony, Uwe R Kortshagen, Andrei Kryjevski, Erik K Hobbie
Intrinsic constraints on efficient photoluminescence (PL) from smaller alkene-capped silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) put limits on potential applications, but the root cause of such effects remains elusive. Here, plasma-synthesized colloidal SiNCs separated into monodisperse fractions reveal an abrupt size-dependent partitioning of multilevel PL relaxation, which we study as a function of temperature. Guided by theory and simulation, we explore the potential role of resonant phonon interactions with "minigaps" that emerge in the electronic density of states (DOS) under strong quantum confinement...
February 1, 2017: ACS Nano
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