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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911492/rolling-circle-amplification-with-chemically-modified-nucleoside-triphosphates
#1
Marcel Hollenstein, Masad J Damha
Modified nucleoside triphosphates (dN*TPs) represent facile and versatile precursors for the introduction of chemical diversity into nucleic acids. While dN*TPs have been utilized in a plethora of practical applications, very little attention has been devoted to the assessment of their compatibility with isothermal amplification strategies. In this context, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a wide-spread enzymatic replication method in which small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circles serve as templates in primer extension reactions yielding very long, ssDNA products...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911484/platinum-complex-assemblies-as-luminescent-probes-and-tags-for-drugs-and-toxins-in-water
#2
Stephan Sinn, Frank Biedermann, Luisa De Cola
A reactive phosphorescent probe for aza-heterocyclic drugs and toxins was developed, affording a supramolecular emission-switch-on chemosensor in water. Complex formation of the heterocycles with a platinum(II) precursor proceeds readily at ambient conditions, allowing for facile analyte screening. 52 structurally diverse compounds were tested, out of which 23 pyridines, imidazole, and triazoles formed strongly emissive complex aggregates. Importantly, they all can be clearly distinguished from each other through a principal component analysis, but often already by simple visual inspection, e...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#3
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911378/iridium-oxide-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanohybrid-thin-film-modified-screen-printed-electrodes-as-disposable-electrochemical-paper-microfluidic-ph-sensors
#4
Jiang Yang, Tae-Joon Kwak, Xiaodong Zhang, Robert McClain, Woo-Jin Chang, Sundaram Gunasekaran
A facile, controllable, inexpensive and green electrochemical synthesis of IrO2-graphene nanohybrid thin films is developed to fabricate an easy-to-use integrated paper microfluidic electrochemical pH sensor for resource-limited settings. Taking advantages from both pH meters and strips, the pH sensing platform is composed of hydrophobic barrier-patterned paper micropad (µPAD) using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with IrO2-graphene films and molded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic holder...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910978/indium-catalysed-amide-allylation-of-%C3%AE-iminoamide-highly-enantioselective-synthesis-of-amide-functionalised-%C3%AE-methylene-%C3%AE-butyrolactams
#5
Tetsuya Sengoku, Kana Kokubo, Masami Sakamoto, Masaki Takahashi, Hidemi Yoda
A highly enantioselective amide allylation of α-iminoamides has been achieved using catalytic amounts of InCl3, ZnCl2 and a BINOL derivative. This reaction allowed facile access to a variety of amide functionalised α-methylene-γ-butyrolactams in excellent yields with high enantioselectivities.
December 2, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910976/the-first-example-of-palladium-catalyzed-cascade-amidine-arylation-intramolecular-ester-amidation-for-the-synthesis-of-hypoxanthines-application-to-the-synthesis-of-8-azanebularine-analogues
#6
Wu Yang, Haoran Ma, Qian Yang, Jingwen Wang, Yuan Liu, Qinghua Yang, Jie Wu, Chuanjun Song, Junbiao Chang
8-Azanebularine analogues display interesting antiviral, antitumour and biochemical activities. However, typical glycosylation of 8-azapurines always resulted in the desired products in low yields due to the lack of stereo- and regioselectivity of the glycosylation reaction. Herein, a concise synthetic route toward 8-azanebularine analogues has been developed. Key steps involve a copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a 1-β-azido sugar moiety with ethyl 3-bromopropiolate and a palladium-catalyzed cascade amidine arylation-intramolecular ester amidation reaction to build the hypoxanthine structural motif...
December 2, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910695/understanding-reconstructed-dante-spectra-using-high-resolution-spectroscopy
#7
M J May, J Weaver, K Widmann, G E Kemp, D Thorn, J D Colvin, M B Schneider, A Moore, B E Blue
The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910681/tokamak-independent-software-analysis-suite-for-multi-spectral-line-polarization-mse-diagnostics
#8
S D Scott, R T Mumgaard
A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910667/x-ray-self-emission-imaging-used-to-diagnose-3-d-nonuniformities-in-direct-drive-icf-implosions
#9
A K Davis, D T Michel, R S Craxton, R Epstein, M Hohenberger, T Mo, D H Froula
As hydrodynamics codes develop to increase understanding of three-dimensional (3-D) effects in inertial confinement fusion implosions, diagnostics must adapt to evaluate their predictive accuracy. A 3-D radiation postprocessor was developed to investigate the use of soft x-ray self-emission images of an imploding target to measure the size of nonuniformities on the target surface. Synthetic self-emission images calculated from 3-D simulations showed a narrow ring of emission outside the ablation surface of the target...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910656/the-design-of-the-optical-thomson-scattering-diagnostic-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#10
P S Datte, J S Ross, D H Froula, K D Daub, J Galbraith, S Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, D Manha, A M Manuel, W Molander, D Montgomery, J Moody, G F Swadling, J Weaver
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs. We report on the design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beam splitter and gratings before the shot...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910648/simulated-performance-of-the-optical-thomson-scattering-diagnostic-designed-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#11
J S Ross, P Datte, L Divol, J Galbraith, D H Froula, S H Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, A M Manuel, W Molander, D S Montgomery, J D Moody, G Swadling, J Weaver
An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been designed for the National Ignition Facility to characterize under-dense plasmas. We report on the design of the system and the expected performance for different target configurations. The diagnostic is designed to spatially and temporally resolve the Thomson scattered light from laser driven targets. The diagnostic will collect scattered light from a 50 × 50 × 200 μm volume. The optical design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths. A deep-UV probe beam (λ0 = 210 nm) will be used to Thomson scatter from electron plasma densities of ∼5 × 10(20) cm(-3) while a 3ω probe will be used for plasma densities of ∼1 × 10(19) cm(-3)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910635/calibration-of-x-ray-spectrometers-for-opacity-experiments-at-the-orion-laser-facility-invited
#12
C Bentley, P Allan, K Brent, N Bruce, D Hoarty, A Meadowcroft, J Percival, C Opie
Accurately calibrated and characterised x-ray diagnostics are a key requirement in the fielding of experiments on the Orion laser where absolute measurements of x-ray emission are used to underpin the validity of models of emissivity and opacity. Diffraction crystals are used in spectrometers on Orion to record the dispersed spectral features emitted by the laser produced plasma to obtain a measurement of the plasma conditions. The ability to undertake diffraction crystal calibrations supports the successful outcome of these Orion experiments...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910632/recent-advances-and-results-from-the-solid-radiochemistry-nuclear-diagnostic-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#13
N Gharibyan, D A Shaughnessy, K J Moody, P M Grant, J D Despotopulos, S A Faye, D R Jedlovec, C B Yeamans
The solid debris collection capability at the National Ignition Facility has been expanded to include a third line-of-sight assembly. The solid radiochemistry nuclear diagnostic measurement of the ratio of gold isotopes is dependent on the efficient collection of neutron-activated hohlraum debris by passive metal disks. The collection of target debris at this new location is more reliable in comparison to the historic locations, and it appears to be independent of collector surface ablation.
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910628/final-design-of-thermal-diagnostic-system-in-spider-ion-source
#14
M Brombin, M Dalla Palma, R Pasqualotto, N Pomaro
The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H(-) production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910609/x-ray-thomson-scattering-measurements-from-hohlraum-driven-spheres-on-the-omega-laser
#15
A M Saunders, A Jenei, T Döppner, R W Falcone, D Kraus, A Kritcher, O L Landen, J Nilsen, D Swift
X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is a powerful diagnostic for probing warm and hot dense matter. We present the design and results of the first XRTS experiments with hohlraum-driven CH2 targets on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester, NY. X-rays seen directly from the XRTS x-ray source overshadow the elastic scattering signal from the target capsule but can be controlled in future experiments. From the inelastic scattering signal, an average plasma temperature is inferred that is in reasonable agreement with the temperatures predicted by simulations...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910608/x-ray-transport-and-radiation-response-assessment-xtrra-experiments-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#16
K B Fournier, C G Brown, M F Yeoman, J H Fisher, S W Seiler, D Hinshelwood, S Compton, F R Holdener, G E Kemp, C D Newlander, R P Gilliam, N Froula, M Lilly, J F Davis, Maj A Lerch, B E Blue
Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility's diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910602/study-of-a-high-power-hydrogen-beam-diagnostic-based-on-secondary-electron-emission
#17
E Sartori, A Panasenkov, P Veltri, G Serianni, R Pasqualotto
In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910598/analogue-saturation-limit-of-single-and-double-10-mm-microchannel-plate-photomultiplier-tubes
#18
J S Milnes, T M Conneely, C J Horsfield
Photek are a well-established supplier of microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to the inertial confinement fusion community. The analogue signals produced at the major inertial confinement fusion facilities cover many orders of magnitude, therefore understanding the upper saturation limit of MCP-PMTs to large low rate signals takes on a high importance. Here we present a study of a single and a double MCP-PMT with 10 mm diameter active area. The saturation was studied for a range of optical pulse widths from 4 ns to 100 ns and at a range of electron gain values: 10(3) to 10(4) for the single and 10(4) to 10(6) for the double...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910587/signal-and-background-considerations-for-the-mrst-on-the-national-ignition-facility-nif
#19
C W Wink, J A Frenje, T J Hilsabeck, R Bionta, H Y Khater, M Gatu Johnson, J D Kilkenny, C K Li, F H Séguin, R D Petrasso
A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRSt) has been conceptually designed for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility. Using the MRSt, the goals are to measure the time-evolution of the spectrum with a time resolution of ∼20-ps and absolute accuracy better than 5%. To meet these goals, a detailed understanding and optimization of the signal and background characteristics are required. Through ion-optics, MCNP simulations, and detector-response calculations, it is demonstrated that the goals and a signal-to background >5-10 for the down-scattered neutron measurement are met if the background, consisting of ambient neutrons and gammas, at the MRSt is reduced 50-100 times...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910586/a-novel-method-to-recover-dd-fusion-proton-cr-39-data-corrupted-by-fast-ablator-ions-at-omega-and-the-national-ignition-facility
#20
G D Sutcliffe, L M Milanese, D Orozco, B Lahmann, M Gatu Johnson, F H Séguin, H Sio, J A Frenje, C K Li, R D Petrasso, H-S Park, J R Rygg, D T Casey, R Bionta, D P Turnbull, C M Huntington, J S Ross, A B Zylstra, M J Rosenberg, V Yu Glebov
CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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