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Mersedeh TariVerdi, Elise Miller-Hooks, Thomas Kirsch
Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Keith A Seffen
In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Xu Zhao, Lihua Dou, Zhong Su, Ning Liu
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU)...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Michaela M Hofmann, Andreas Fleischmann, Susanne S Renner
Botanical gardens represent artificial, but stable environments. With this premise, we analyzed the Munich Botanical Garden's bee fauna in 1997/1999 and again in 2015/2017. The garden covers 20 ha, uses no bee-relevant insecticides, has a protected layout, and on three sides abuts protected areas. Outdoors, it cultivates some 10,871 species/subspecies, many suitable as pollen and nectar sources for bees. The first survey found 79 species, the second 106, or 55% of the 192 species recorded for Munich since 1990...
March 14, 2018: Oecologia
M Sanz, J A Picazo-Bueno, J García, V Micó
We report on a novel layout capable of dual-mode imaging in real time with different magnifications and resolution capabilities in lensless microscopy. The concept is based on wavelength multiplexing for providing two illuminations with different wavefront curvatures: one is collimated, allowing a large field of view (FOV) with a poor resolution limit, and the other is divergent, to achieve a better resolution limit (micron range) over a small FOV. Moreover, our recently reported concept of MISHELF microscopy [M...
March 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Daria Genzel, Michael Schutte, W Owen Brimijoin, Paul R MacNeilage, Lutz Wiegrebe
Distance is important: From an ecological perspective, knowledge about the distance to either prey or predator is vital. However, the distance of an unknown sound source is particularly difficult to assess, especially in anechoic environments. In vision, changes in perspective resulting from observer motion produce a reliable, consistent, and unambiguous impression of depth known as motion parallax. Here we demonstrate with formal psychophysics that humans can exploit auditory motion parallax, i.e., the change in the dynamic binaural cues elicited by self-motion, to assess the relative depths of two sound sources...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N Bigler, J Pupeikis, S Hrisafov, L Gallmann, C R Phillips, U Keller
In optical parametric amplification (OPA) of broadband pulses, a non-collinear angle between the interacting waves is typically introduced in order to achieve broadband phase-matching. Consequently, bandwidth and beam geometry are closely linked. This coupling restricts the geometrical layout of an OPA system. Here, we demonstrate a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) geometry for broadband OPA in which a transverse component is introduced to the QPM grating to impose an additional momentum on the generated wave. This momentum shift detunes the wavelength where the signal and the idler are group-velocity matched, thereby allowing for broadband phase-matching without having to add a non-collinear angle between the interacting waves...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Nobuya Sato, Chihiro Fujishita, Atsuhito Yamagishi
To examine the flexibility of rats' spatial behaviour, we required rats to navigate to one of four boxes on the corners of a lattice maze. The maze consisted of five vertical and five horizontal corridors on a plane parallel to the ground and allowed us to design diverse routes. One box was set as goal and the other three were set as starting points. Both the time to arrive at the goal and the number of errors at the intersections on the route decreased, suggesting that the rats learned the route. As the goal boxes were successively changed, the decrease in the errors and the time to reach the goal became faster...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Clara Hoi Ka Wu, Sheila M H Luk, Richard L Holder, Ian Murdoch
OBJECTIVES: Medical records are legal documentation of patients' care hence must be accurate and complete for both medical and legal purposes. Electronic patient record (EPR) systems aim to improve the accuracy of documentation, provide better organisation and access of data. This study compares the completeness of traditional note records and EPR in glaucoma patients. METHODS: Using criteria from the April 2009 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines completeness of data entry was compared between EPR and paper notes in three units...
March 8, 2018: Eye
Jennifer DuBose, Lorissa MacAllister, Khatereh Hadi, Bonnie Sakallaris
Evidence-based design (EBD) research has demonstrated the power of environmental design to support improved patient, family, and staff outcomes and to minimize or avoid harm in healthcare settings. While healthcare has primarily focused on fixing the body, there is a growing recognition that our healthcare system could do more by promoting overall wellness, and this requires expanding the focus to healing. This article explores how we can extend what we know from EBD about health impacts of spatial design to the more elusive goal of healing...
January 2018: HERD
P Vavra, L Karnik, M Skrobankova, J Jurcikova, P Ihnat, P Zonca, M Peteja, A El-Gendi, S Czudek
Liver resection is the standard treatment for any liver lesion. Laparoscopic liver resection is associated with lower intra-operative blood loss and fewer complications than open resection. Access to the posterior part of the right liver lobe is very uncomfortable and difficult for surgeons due the anatomic position, especially when employing laparoscopic surgery. Based on these experiences, a new laparoscopic device was developed that is capable of bending its long axis and allowing the application of radiofrequency energy in areas that were not technically accessible...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Elizabeth Fam, Jeanne M Ferrante
To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Darren Hudson, Andre Kushniruk, Elizabeth Borycki, Danny J Zuege
INTRODUCTION: Physician satisfaction with electronic medical records has often been poor. Usability has frequently been identified as a source for decreased satisfaction. While surveys can identify many issues, and are logistically easier to administer, they may miss issues identified using other methods This study sought to understand the level of physician satisfaction and usability issues associated with a critical care clinical information system (eCritical Alberta) implemented throughout the province of Alberta, Canada...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Akinori Futamura, Motoyasu Honma, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Yuri Masaoka, Akira Midorikawa, Michael W Miller, Mitsuru Kawamura, Kenjiro Ono
Lesions of the medio-parietal lobes are linked with topographical and temporal disorientation, and are of interest to understanding mental time. We examined a 39-year-old man who worked as a driving instructor before cerebral hemorrhage, and followed his case for 8 years including neuropsychological testing and brain imaging. The patient had mild anterograde episodic amnesia, but no semantic amnesia. He felt that time passed too quickly, and developed a compulsive routine to compensate, although he was able to count time at a normal speed...
January 2018: Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience
Rainier Hreiz, Olivier Potier, Jim Wicks, Jean-Marc Commenge
In this paper, CFD simulations are employed to characterize the effects of bubble aerator layouts (i.e. spatial arrangement) on the hydrodynamics in activated sludge reactors. The first configuration considered is a channel reactor with aerators placed alongside one lateral wall, for which velocity measurements are available in literature. CFD results were in good agreement with experimental data, which proves that the model is sufficiently accurate and predictive. Accordingly, simulations and numerical residence time distribution tests were conducted for different aerator layouts to determine their effects on the reactor hydrodynamics...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Technology
Mahbub Rashid, Nayma Khan, Belinda Jones
This article reports the findings of a 2-phase quasi-experimental study looking at the perceptual effects of physical and visual accessibilities on clinical staff in intensive care units (ICUs). In a previous CCNQ article by Rashid et al, the first phase of the study was reported comparing, among other things, physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception in 2 ICUs with the open-plan and racetrack-type layouts. The data for that phase of the study were collected in December 2014, which included the data on physical and visual accessibilities collected using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax, and the data on staff perception collected using a questionnaire survey...
April 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Gabriella Tamburro, Patrique Fiedler, David Stone, Jens Haueisen, Silvia Comani
Background: EEG may be affected by artefacts hindering the analysis of brain signals. Data-driven methods like independent component analysis (ICA) are successful approaches to remove artefacts from the EEG. However, the ICA-based methods developed so far are often affected by limitations, such as: the need for visual inspection of the separated independent components (subjectivity problem) and, in some cases, for the independent and simultaneous recording of the inspected artefacts to identify the artefactual independent components; a potentially heavy manipulation of the EEG signals; the use of linear classification methods; the use of simulated artefacts to validate the methods; no testing in dry electrode or high-density EEG datasets; applications limited to specific conditions and electrode layouts...
2018: PeerJ
Fabian A Nutz, Alexandra Philipp, Bernd A F Kopera, Martin Dulle, Markus Retsch
Heat transport plays a critical role in modern batteries, electrodes, and capacitors. This is caused by the ongoing miniaturization of such nanotechnological devices, which increases the local power density and hence temperature. Even worse, the introduction of heterostructures and interfaces is often accompanied by a reduction in thermal conductivity, which can ultimately lead to the failure of the entire device. Surprisingly, a fundamental understanding of the governing heat transport processes even in simple systems, such as binary particle mixtures is still missing...
February 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
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