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Ling Bai, Van Cuong Mai, Yun Lim, Shuai Hou, Helmuth Möhwald, Hongwei Duan
Structural colors originating from interaction of light with intricately arranged micro-/nanostructures have stimulated considerable interest because of their inherent photostability and energy efficiency. In particular, noniridescent structural color with wide viewing angle has been receiving increasing attention recently. However, no method is yet available for rapid and large-scale fabrication of full-spectrum structural color patterns with wide viewing angles. Here, infiltration-driven nonequilibrium assembly of colloidal particles on liquid-permeable and particle-excluding substrates is demonstrated to direct the particles to form amorphous colloidal arrays (ACAs) within milliseconds...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Amit Arora, Ibrahim Al-Salti, Hussam Murad, Quang Tran, Rhonda Itaoui, Sameer Bhole, Shilpi Ajwani, Charlotte Jones, Narendar Manohar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of Arabic-speaking mothers views on the usefulness of existing oral health education leaflets aimed at young children and also to record their views on the tailored versions of these leaflets. METHODS: This qualitative study was nested within a large ongoing birth cohort study in South Western Sydney, Australia. Arabic-speaking mothers (n = 19) with young children were purposively selected and approached for a semi-structured interview...
January 10, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Elena Carrillo-Álvarez, Jordi Riera-Romaní, Olga Canet-Vélez
Adolescence has been referred to as the last best chance to prevent adult non-communicable diseases. Gaining further evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health behaviors, particularly the impact of peers, social networks and media on diet, is necessary to develop appropriate preventive strategies. Based on a multiple-cases study, our aim was to discuss the social influences on adolescents' dietary behavior from a social capital perspective. Participants were reached through four high-schools in different Catalan rural-urban and socioeconomic contexts...
January 6, 2018: Appetite
T Vandecasteele, W Van Den Broeck, H Tay, L Couck, G van Loon, P Cornillie
The myocardial sleeve of the porcine and equine pulmonary veins were histologically investigated and reconstructed three dimensionally. Moreover, the localization of neuron cell bodies at the veno-atrial junction and alongside the myocardial sleeve was light microscopically visualized to depict the organization of nerve, myocardial and fat tissue. Finally, the presence of telocytes inside the equine pulmonary veins was demonstrated by use of transmission electron microscopy. These structures are thought to play a role in the induction of atrial fibrillation, which is frequently seen in horses, while pigs are often used as a cardiovascular model in this context...
January 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Carmen Gondhalekar, Bartek Rajwa, Valery Patsekin, Kathy Ragheb, Jennifer Sturgis, J Paul Robinson
Flow cytometry has well-established methods for data analysis based on traditional data collection techniques. These techniques typically involved manual insertion of tube samples into an instrument that, historically, could only measure 1-3 colors. The field has since evolved to incorporate new technologies for faster and highly automated sample preparation and data collection. For example, the use of microwell plates on benchtop instruments is now a standard on virtually every new instrument, and so users can easily accumulate multiple data sets quickly...
January 3, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Samuel D Lotz, Alex Dickson
Ligand (un)binding kinetics is being recognized as a determinant of drug specificity and efficacy in an increasing number of systems. However, the calculation of kinetics and the simulation of drug unbinding is more difficult than computing thermodynamic quantities, such as binding free energies. Here we present the first full simulations of an unbinding process at pharmacologically relevant time scales (11 min), without the use of biasing forces, detailed prior knowledge, or specialized processors using the weighted ensemble based algorithm, WExplore...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Fei Tang, Weihua Li, Xiaohao Wang
High-throughput, high-precision single-stream focusing of microparticles has potential wide range of applications in bio-chemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this work, we develop a sheathless three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing method in a single-layer microchannel. This novel microchannel consists of periodic high-aspect-ratio curved channels and straight channels. The proposed method takes advantage of both the curved channels, which induce Dean flow to promote particle migration, and straight channels, which suppress the remaining stirring effects of Dean flow to stabilize the achieved particle focusing...
January 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zongxuan Li, Xue Chen, Shaoju Wang, Guang Jin
A flexural support technique for lightweighted Primary Mirror Assembly (PMA) of a space telescope is presented in this article. The proposed three-point flexural mount based on a cartwheel flexure can maintain the surface figure of the PMA in a horizontal optical testing layout. The on-orbit surface error of the PMA causes significant degradation in image quality. On-ground optical testing cannot determine the zero-gravity figure of the PMA due to surface distortion by gravity. We unveiled the crucial fact that through a delicate mounting structure design, the surface figure can remain constant precisely without inducing distinguishable astigmatism when PMA rotates with respect to the optical axis, and the figure can be considered as the zero-gravity surface figure on the orbit...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Luis Ortiz, Marilene Pavan, Lloyd McCarthy, Joshua Timmons, Douglas M Densmore
Recent advances in modular DNA assembly techniques have enabled synthetic biologists to test significantly more of the available "design space" represented by "devices" created as combinations of individual genetic components. However, manual assembly of such large numbers of devices is time-intensive, error-prone, and costly. The increasing sophistication and scale of synthetic biology research necessitates an efficient, reproducible way to accommodate large-scale, complex, and high throughput device construction...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Athanasios Gaitatzes, Sarah H Johnson, James B Smadbeck, George Vasmatzis
Motivation: The ability to produce and analyze whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from samples with structural variations (SV) generated the need to visualize such abnormalities in simplified plots. Conventional two-dimensional representations of WGS data frequently use either circular or linear layouts. There are several diverse advantages regarding both these representations, but their major disadvantage is that they do not use the two-dimensional space very efficiently. We propose a layout, termed the Genome U-Plot, which spreads the chromosomes on a two-dimensional surface and essentially quadruples the spatial resolution...
December 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
Eva Kuhn, Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik, Joy G Waite-Cusic
The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) mandates milk hauling sanitation and operational practices; however, the use of vague language (i.e., "as needed") and gaps in processes lead to variability in industry practices. Our aim was to characterize industry milk hauling practices and identify areas that may be an unexplained source of contamination in the dairy processing continuum, and communicate this information with industry to cultivate best practices. The objectives of this study were to (1) survey industry hauling sanitation and operation practices in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, and (2) quantify microbial populations [aerobic plate count (APC), lactic acid bacteria, coliforms] on the internal surfaces of transfer hoses (tanker and receiving bay) to determine their potential contribution to the microbiological quality of raw milk...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Taner Arsan, Orcun Kepez
Behavior mapping (BM) is a spatial data collection technique in which the locational and behavioral information of a user is noted on a plan layout of the studied environment. Among many indoor positioning technologies, we chose Wi-Fi, BLE beacon and ultra-wide band (UWB) sensor technologies for their popularity and investigated their applicability in BM. We tested three technologies for error ranges and found an average error of 1.39 m for Wi-Fi in a 36 m² test area (6 m × 6 m), 0.86 m for the BLE beacon in a 37...
December 16, 2017: Sensors
Diane Meyer, Tara Kirk Sell, Monica Schoch-Spana, Matthew P Shearer, Hannah Chandler, Erin Thomas, Dale A Rose, Eric G Carbone, Eric Toner
BACKGROUND: The domestic response to the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic from 2014-2016 provides a unique opportunity to distill lessons learned about health sector planning and operations from those individuals directly involved. This research project aimed to identify and integrate these lessons into an actionable checklist that can improve health sector resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease (HCID) events. METHODS: Interviews (N = 73) were completed with individuals involved in the domestic EVD response in 4 cities (Atlanta, Dallas, New York, and Omaha), and included individuals who worked in academia, emergency management, government, health care, law, media, and public health during the response...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Muhammad Mohsin, Daniel Schall, Martin Otto, Bartos Chmielak, Caroline Porschatis, Jens Bolten, Daniel Neumaier
This work reports on the fabrication and characterization of a graphene based variable optical attenuator integrated on a photonic Si3N4 waveguide and operating at 855 nm wavelength. The variable optical attenuator utilizes the gate voltage dependent optical absorption of a graphene layer, located in the evanescent field of the waveguide. A maximum attenuation of 17 dB is obtained at -3 V gate voltages for a device length of 700 µm. The measured voltage dependent absorption was found to be in good agreement with theoretical simulations, taking into account inter- and intra-band optical conductivity of graphene...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
Marta Navarro, Javier Benito, Lorena Paseta, Ignacio Gascón, Joaquin Coronas, Carlos Téllez
An innovative procedure for positioning a monolayer of hydrophilic metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) nanoparticles (NPs) in thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes has been implemented by transferring a Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) film of the MOF in between the polyamide thin layer at the top and the cross-linked asymmetric polyimide (P84®) support at the bottom. The presence and layout of the LS-MIL-101(Cr) monolayer in the TFN membrane was confirmed by STEM-HAADF images, and XPS, EDS, EELS and AFM analysis...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cynthia Swarnalatha Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Lucy Eldridge, Peter Heine, Jo Adams, Tim Cranston, Sarah E Lamb
BACKGROUND: The Strengthening and Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) is a tailored, progressive exercise program for people having difficulties with wrist and hand function due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The program was evaluated in a large-scale clinical trial and was found to improve hand function, was safe to deliver, and was cost-effective. These findings led to the SARAH program being recommended in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for the management of adults with RA...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
J Bielecki, K Drozdowicz, D Dworak, A Igielski, W Janik, A Kulinska, L Marciniak, M Scholz, M Turzanski, U Wiacek, U Woznicka, A Wójcik-Gargula
Plastic organic scintillators such as the blue-emitting BCF-12 are versatile and inexpensive tools. Recently, BCF-12 scintillators have been foreseen for investigation of the spatial distribution of neutrons emitted from dense magnetized plasma. For this purpose, small-area (5 mm × 5 mm) detectors based on BCF-12 scintillation rods and Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes were designed and constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. They will be located inside the neutron pinhole camera of the PF-24 plasma focus device...
December 11, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro Antonio Valdés-Sosa, Maria Luisa Brings-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aliasgar Shahiwala
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To provide pharmacy students with an opportunity to develop entrepreneurial thinking and skills. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: A business proposal building project-based activity was integrated into a two-credit hour pharmacy management course during the eighth semester of the bachelor of pharmacy degree program. The student groups submitted their proposals, mimicking the process of submitting business proposals and obtaining approval in the real world...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Hong Yao, Bo Liu, Zhen You, Li Zhao
According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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