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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815210/lpxk-is-essential-for-growth-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-atcc-19606-relationship-to-toxic-accumulation-of-lipid-a-pathway-intermediates
#1
Jun-Rong Wei, Daryl L Richie, Mina Mostafavi, Louis E Metzger, Christopher M Rath, William S Sawyer, Kenneth T Takeoka, Charles R Dean
Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 can grow without lipid A, the major component of lipooligosaccharide. However, we previously reported that depletion of LpxH (the fourth enzyme in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway) prevented growth of this strain due to toxic accumulation of lipid A pathway intermediates. Here, we explored whether a similar phenomenon occurred with depletion of LpxK, a kinase that phosphorylates disaccharide 1-monophosphate (DSMP) at the 4' position to yield lipid IVA. An A. baumannii ATCC 19606 derivative with LpxK expression under the control of an isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated expression system failed to grow without induction, indicating that LpxK is essential for growth...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814950/morinda-citrifolia-l-leaf-extract-prevent-weight-gain-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Fawzi Mahomoodally, Nazamid Saari, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Azizah Abdul Hamid
Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813662/a-liver-capsular-network-of-monocyte-derived-macrophages-restricts-hepatic-dissemination-of-intraperitoneal-bacteria-by-neutrophil-recruitment
#3
Frederic Sierro, Maximilien Evrard, Simone Rizzetto, Michelle Melino, Andrew J Mitchell, Manuela Florido, Lynette Beattie, Shaun B Walters, Szun Szun Tay, Bo Lu, Lauren E Holz, Ben Roediger, Yik Chun Wong, Alessandra Warren, William Ritchie, Claire McGuffog, Wolfgang Weninger, David G Le Couteur, Florent Ginhoux, Warwick J Britton, William R Heath, Bernadette M Saunders, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Fabio Luciani, Kelli P A MacDonald, Lai Guan Ng, David G Bowen, Patrick Bertolino
The liver is positioned at the interface between two routes traversed by pathogens in disseminating infection. Whereas blood-borne pathogens are efficiently cleared in hepatic sinusoids by Kupffer cells (KCs), it is unknown how the liver prevents dissemination of peritoneal pathogens accessing its outer membrane. We report here that the hepatic capsule harbors a contiguous cellular network of liver-resident macrophages phenotypically distinct from KCs. These liver capsular macrophages (LCMs) were replenished in the steady state from blood monocytes, unlike KCs that are embryonically derived and self-renewing...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765282/the-drug-transporter-oat3-slc22a8-regulates-endogenous-metabolite-flow-through-the-gut-liver-kidney-axis
#4
Kevin T Bush, Wei Wu, Christina Lun, Sanjay K Nigam
The organic anion transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) have similar substrate specificity for drugs, but it is far from clear whether this holds for endogenous substrates. By analysis of more than 600 metabolites in the Oat3KO by LCMS, we demonstrate OAT3 involvement in the movement of gut microbiome-derived products, key metabolites and signaling molecules, including those flowing through the gut-liver-kidney axis. Major pathways affected included those involved in metabolism of bile acids, flavonoids, nutrients, amino acids (including tryptophan-derivatives that are uremic solutes) and lipids...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749669/thermal-degradation-of-major-gomphrenin-pigments-in-the-fruit-juice-of-basella-alba-l-malabar-spinach
#5
Agnieszka Kumorkiewicz, Slawomir Wybraniec
Generation of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated gomphrenins during heating of Basella alba L. fruit juice which contains high levels of betacyanin pigments was monitored by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of principal decarboxylation products, 2-, 17- and 2,17-decarboxy-gomphrenins, their diastereomers as well as minor levels of their dehydrogenated derivatives are reported. In addition, determination of molecular masses of decarboxylated gomphrenins by high-resolution mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF) was performed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713441/analysis-of-raw-biofluids-by-mass-spectrometry-using-microfluidic-diffusion-based-separation
#6
Joshua Heinemann, Brigit Noon, Daniel Willems, Katherine Budeski, Brian Bothner
Elucidation and monitoring of biomarkers continues to expand because of their medical value and potential to reduce healthcare costs. For example, biomarkers are used extensively to track physiology associated with drug addiction, disease progression, aging, and industrial processes. While longitudinal analyses are of great value from a biological or healthcare perspective, the cost associated with replicate analyses is preventing the expansion of frequent routine testing. Frequent testing could deepen our understanding of disease emergence and aid adoption of personalized healthcare...
January 21, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696241/ethambutol-partitioning-in-tuberculous-pulmonary-lesions-explains-its-clinical-efficacy
#7
Matthew Zimmerman, Jodi Lestner, Brendan Prideaux, Paul O'Brien, Isabela Freedman, Chao Chen, Jillian Dietzold, Isaac Daudelin, Firat Kaya, Landry Blanc, Pei-Yu Chen, Steven Park, Padmini Salgame, Jansy Sarathy, Véronique Dartois
Clinical trials and practice have shown that ethambutol is an important component of the first line tuberculosis (TB) regime. This contrasts the drug's rather modest potency and lack of activity against non-growing persister mycobacteria. The standard plasma-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile of ethambutol suggests that the drug may be of limited clinical value. Here we hypothesized that this apparent contradiction may be explained by favorable penetration of the drug into TB lesions. First we utilized novel in vitro lesion pharmacokinetic assays and predicted good penetration of the drug into lesions...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688916/venom-proteome-of-the-yellow-lipped-sea-krait-laticauda-colubrina-from-bali-insights-into-subvenomic-diversity-venom-antigenicity-and-cross-neutralization-by-antivenom
#8
Choo Hock Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan
The venom proteome of Laticauda colubrina (Bali, Indonesia) was elucidated by nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the venom reverse-phase HPLC fractions. Altogether 31 distinct forms of proteins were identified and clustered into three toxin families: three-finger toxin (3FTX, 66.12% of total venom proteins), phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 33.26%) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP, 0.05%). The 3FTX were α-neurotoxins (five long neurotoxins, LNTX, 48.87%; two short neurotoxins, SNTX, 16.94%) and a trace amount of two cytotoxins (CTX, 0...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669240/antibiotic-activity-of-emerimicin-iv-isolated-from-emericellopsis-minima-from-talcahuano-bay-chile
#9
Alejandro Inostroza, Liliana Lara, Cristian Paz, Andrés Perez, Felipe Galleguillos, Victor Hernandez, José Becerra, Gerardo González-Rocha, Mario Silva
Due to the increasing emergence of resistance of bacterial pathogens to current antibiotics, we have examined the marine fungi present in sea sediments obtained 200 m offshore to discover new antibacterial compounds active against multidrug-resistant bacteria. One strain, identified as Emericellopsis minima, was isolated from sediments of Talcahuano Bay (Chile). From the liquid culture of E. minima, we isolated Emerimicin IV, a unique fungal peptaibol that exhibited antibacterial activity. The structure of this compound was assigned by interpretation of (1)H NMR and HR-LCMS data...
July 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661687/curcumin-acrylation-for-biological-and-environmental-applications
#10
Vinod S Patil, Angela M Gutierrez, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J Morris, J Zach Hilt, Douglass S Kalika, Thomas D Dziubla
Curcumin has recently gained interest for use in drug delivery, chemical sensing, and environmental applications. As a result, the development of synthesis strategies for the incorporation of curcumin into novel materials has become a priority. One such strategy, curcumin acrylation, involves the introduction of acrylate functional groups to the curcumin scaffold, with the potential generation of mono-, di-, and triacrylate curcumin species. The relative populations of these species in the resulting multiacrylate mixture can be controlled by the ratio of curcumin to acryloyl chloride in the initial reaction formulation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648623/isolation-of-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-metabolites-from-epicoccum-nigrum-endophyte-of-ferula-sumbul
#11
Irum Perveen, Muhammad Asam Raza, Tahir Iqbal, Iffat Naz, Shama Sehar, Safia Ahmed
Owing to the importance of endophytes, current research was aimed to purify the secondary metabolites from targeted source. Ferula sumbul, a lipophilic extract of the endophyte was prepared in 10% methanol and partitioned with ethyl acetate and bioassay guided isolation was carried using standard protocols against bacterial, fungal and cancer cells. The active fractions consisted of three new metabolites (2-methyl-3-nonyl prodiginine, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and a meroterpenoid, Preaustinoid A). Their structures were confirmed with LCMS/MS...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648005/-components-of-human-placental-extract-and-its-protective-effect-to-rat-from-d-galn-induced-acute-liver-injury
#12
H Q Lei, M L Cheng, J Li, P P Zhou, X H Luo, F Yu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of human placental extracts (HPE) on the protection from acute liver injury (ALI) induced by D-GalN and analyze the components of HPE. Methods: (1)Fourty male mice were randomly divided into five groups (Blank, Model, MgIG, HPE and HPE+ MgIG) for the ALI model and treatments.The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined by biochemical assays.Nitric monoxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum and hepatic tissue were detected by assay kits...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644052/a-little-dab-will-do-ya-in-a-case-report-of-neuro-and-cardiotoxicity-following-use-of-cannabis-concentrates
#13
Shannon S Rickner, Dazhe Cao, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Steven Fleming
CONTEXT: The use of marijuana and cannabis concentrates is increasing, especially following decriminalization in several states. Psychosis and cardiotoxicity have been reported following cannabis use; however, myocardial injury from "dabbing" has not yet been reported. We report a case of hyperthermia, tachycardia, hypertension, severe agitation, neuro-, and cardiotoxicity following the use of "dabs" where there is concomitant confirmatory biological and sample testing. CASE DETAILS: A 17-year-old athletic man developed agitation requiring sedation and intubation for safety, with peak systolic blood pressures in the 190s and hyperthermia (to 102 °F)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643405/reassessment-of-the-access-testosterone-chemiluminescence-assay-and-comparison-with-lc-ms-method
#14
Ruggero Dittadi, Mara Matteucci, Elisa Meneghetti, Rudina Ndreu
AIM OF THE STUDY: To reassess the imprecision and Limit of Quantitation, to evaluate the cross-reaction with dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), the accuracy toward liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the reference interval of the Access Testosterone method, performed by DxI immunoassay platform (Beckman Coulter). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imprecision was evaluated testing six pool samples assayed in 20 different run using two reagents lots. The cross-reaction with DHEAS was studied both by a displacement curve and by spiking DHEAS standard in two serum samples with known amount of testosterone...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640638/enzyme-mediated-conversion-of-flavin-adenine-dinucleotide-fad-to-8-formyl-fad-in-formate-oxidase-results-in-a-modified-cofactor-with-enhanced-catalytic-properties
#15
John M Robbins, Michael G Souffrant, Donald Hamelberg, Giovanni Gadda, Andreas S Bommarius
Flavins, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are fundamental catalytic cofactors that are responsible for the redox functionality of a diverse set of proteins. Alternatively, modified flavin analogues are rarely found in nature as their incorporation typically results in inactivation of flavoproteins, thus leading to the disruption of important cellular pathways. Here, we report that the fungal flavoenzyme formate oxidase (FOX) catalyzes the slow conversion of noncovalently bound FAD to 8-formyl FAD and that this conversion results in a nearly 10-fold increase in formate oxidase activity...
July 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640347/psychotria-viridis-chemical-constituents-from-leaves-and-biological-properties
#16
Débora B S Soares, Lucienir P Duarte, André D Cavalcanti, Fernando C Silva, Ariadne D Braga, Miriam T P Lopes, Jacqueline A Takahashi, Sidney A Vieira-Filho
The phytochemical study of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Psychotria viridis resulted in the identification of: the pentacyclic triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acid; the steroids, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol; the glycosylated steroids 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-stigmasterol; a polyunsaturated triterpene, squalene; the esters of glycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol and triacylglycerol; a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons; the aldehyde nonacosanal; the long chain fat acids hentriacontanoic, hexadecanoic and heptadenoic acid; the ester methyl heptadecanoate; the 4-methyl-epi-quinate and two indole alkaloids, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N-methyltryptamine...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612376/first-report-on-a-novel-nigrospora-sphaerica-isolated-from-catharanthus-roseus-plant-with-anticarcinogenic-properties
#17
Farah Wahida Ayob, Khanom Simarani, Nurhayati Zainal Abidin, Jamaludin Mohamad
This paper reports on the vinca alkaloid produced by a novel Nigrospora sphaerica isolated from Catharanthus roseus. Through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), only the crude mycelia extract of this fungus was positive for determination of vinblastine. This vinca alkaloid was then purified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tested for cytotoxicity activity using MTT assays. The breast cell line cancer (MDA-MB 231) was treated with a purified vinblastine which was intracellulary produced by N...
July 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605582/assessing-antibiotic-permeability-of-gram-negative-bacteria-via-nanofluidics
#18
SoonGweon Hong, Tobias J Moritz, Christopher M Rath, Pramila Tamrakar, Philip Lee, Thomas Krucker, Luke P Lee
While antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly, drug discovery has proven to be extremely difficult. Antibiotic resistance transforms some bacterial infections into deadly medical conditions. A significant challenge in antibiotic discovery is designing potent molecules that enter Gram-negative bacteria and also avoid active efflux mechanisms. Critical analysis in rational drug design has been hindered by the lack of effective analytical tools to analyze the bacterial membrane permeability of small molecules...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599879/uncommon-toxic-microbial-metabolite-patterns-in-traditionally-home-processed-maize-dish-fufu-consumed-in-rural-cameroon
#19
Wilfred A Abia, Benedikt Warth, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Bojan Sarkanj, Paul C Turner, Doris Marko, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
Toxins of microbial origin frequently contaminate foodstuffs worldwide and pose a serious hazard to humans. This study reports on LCMS/MS quantification of multiple fungal and bacterial toxins, from household sampling of 50 traditionally prepared maize-fufu samples from Bamunka village, western highlands of Cameroon. Seventy-four metabolites including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (12/50: mean 0.9, range n.d-1.8 μg kg(-1)), cereulide (50/50: mean 37; range 1-236 μg kg(-1)), deoxynivalenol (DON) (50/50: mean 23, range 14-55 μg kg(-1)), fumonisin B1 (FB1) (50/50: mean: 151, range 48-709 μg kg(-1)), nivalenol (NIV) (50/50; mean 268, range 116-372 μg kg(-1)), patulin (PAT) (15/50:mean 105, range 12-890 μg kg(-1)) and zearalenone (ZEN) (50/50: mean 49, range 5-150) were detected; and of note every sample contained at least 27 toxic compounds...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578903/intrinsic-capabilities-of-leptospermum-javanicum-in-inducing-apoptosis-and-suppressing-the-metastatic-potential-of-human-lung-carcinoma-cells
#20
Suerialoasan Navanesan, Norhanom Abdul Wahab, Sugumaran Manickam, Yuen Lin Cheow, Kae Shin Sim
The active isolate of LF1 in Leptospermum javanicum was further looked into its capabilities in provoking an apoptotic reaction and suppressing the metastasis process in treated non-small lung cancer cells. LF1 underwent isolation and purification to yield a white powder which was identified as Betulinic acid (BA) via NMR, LCMS and IR spectroscopy. The isolate, BA, which produced an encouraging cytotoxic effect against non-small lung cancer cells (A549 and NCI-H1299) through the MTT assay, was further assessed with TUNEL, Sub-G1 population quantification, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining as well as activated caspase-3 detection...
June 2, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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