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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936623/acute-renal-metabolic-effect-of-metformin-assessed-with-hyperpolarised-mri-in-rats
#1
Haiyun Qi, Per M Nielsen, Marie Schroeder, Lotte B Bertelsen, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin inhibits hepatic mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, thereby increasing cytosolic lactate and suppressing gluconeogenesis flux in the liver. This inhibition alters cytosolic and mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox) potential, which has been reported to protect organ function in several disease states including diabetes. In this study, we investigated the acute metabolic and functional changes induced by metformin in the kidneys of both healthy and insulinopenic Wistar rats used as a model of diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934858/metabolism-nutrition-and-redox-signaling-of-hydroxyproline
#2
Zhenlong Wu, Yongqing Hou, Zhaolai Dai, Chien-An Hu, Guoyao Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydroxyproline is a structurally and physiologically important imino acid in animals. It is provided from diets and endogenous synthesis, and its conversion into glycine is enhances the production of glutathione, DNA, heme, and protein. Furthermore, oxidation of hydroxyproline by hydroxyproline oxidase plays an important role in cell antioxidative reactions, survival, and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms whereby hydroxyproline participates in metabolism and cell signaling can improve the nutrition and health of animals and humans...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934418/systems-biotechnology-for-protein-production-in-pichia-pastoris
#3
Richard J Zahrl, David A Peña, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) is one of the most important production systems for heterologous proteins. After the first genome sequences were published in 2009, tremendous effort was made to establish systems-level analytical methods. Methylotrophic lifestyle was one of the most thoroughly investigated topics, studied at the levels of transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux. Also the responses of P. pastoris to environmental stress conditions experienced during high cell density production processes were studied...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934286/denitrification-potential-of-the-eastern-oyster-microbiome-using-a-16s-rrna-gene-based-metabolic-inference-approach
#4
Ann Arfken, Bongkeun Song, Jeff S Bowman, Michael Piehler
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a foundation species providing significant ecosystem services. However, the roles of oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, qPCR of the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), and N2 flux measurements. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive gland, the oyster shell, and sediments adjacent to the oyster reef were examined based on next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933411/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-lysosomal-storage-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Mario de la Mata, David Cotán, Marina Villanueva-Paz, Isabel de Lavera, Mónica Álvarez-Córdoba, Raquel Luzón-Hidalgo, Juan M Suárez-Rivero, Gustavo Tiscornia, Manuel Oropesa-Ávila
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death...
October 11, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932910/a-histone-deacetylase-gene-slhda3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#6
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Xiaohui Yu, Anzhou Li, Fenfen Li, Yunshu Wang, Shibing Tian, Guoping Chen
SlHDA3 functions as an inhibitor and regulates tomato fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Post-translational modifications, including histones acetylation, play a pivotal role in the changes of chromatin structure dynamic modulation and gene activity. The regulation of histone acetylation is achieved by the action of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, which play crucial roles in the regulation of transcription activation. There is an increasing research focus on histone deacetylation in crops, but the role of histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) in tomato has not been elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932219/improving-acetic-acid-production-by-over-expressing-pqq-adh-in-acetobacter-pasteurianus
#7
Xuefeng Wu, Hongli Yao, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Xiaoju Chen, Min Zhang, Zhaojun Wei, Jieshun Cheng, Shaotong Jiang, Lijun Pan, Xingjiang Li
Pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) is a key enzyme in the ethanol oxidase respiratory chain of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). To investigate the effect of PQQ-ADH on acetic acid production by Acetobacter pasteurianus JST-S, subunits I (adhA) and II (adhB) of PQQ-ADH were over-expressed, the fermentation parameters and the metabolic flux analysis were compared in the engineered strain and the original one. The acetic acid production was improved by the engineered strain (61.42 g L(-1)) while the residual ethanol content (4...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930756/dynamics-of-glucose-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation
#8
Martina Guthoff, Robert Wagner, Karoline Weichbrodt, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Nils Heyne
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) impacts patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Prediabetes, which is an independent risk factor for PTDM, is modifiable also in a post-transplant setting. Understanding the risks and dynamics of impaired glucose metabolism after transplantation is a key component for targeted intervention. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all adult non-diabetic renal allograft recipients (n=251, 2007-2014) was performed...
September 20, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928719/the-green-berry-consortia-of-the-sippewissett-salt-marsh-millimeter-sized-aggregates-of-diazotrophic-unicellular-cyanobacteria
#9
Elizabeth G Wilbanks, Verena Salman-Carvalho, Ulrike Jaekel, Parris T Humphrey, Jonathan A Eisen, Daniel H Buckley, Stephen H Zinder
Microbial interactions driving key biogeochemical fluxes often occur within multispecies consortia that form spatially heterogeneous microenvironments. Here, we describe the "green berry" consortia of the Sippewissett salt marsh (Falmouth, MA, United States): millimeter-sized aggregates dominated by an uncultured, diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium of the order Chroococcales (termed GB-CYN1). We show that GB-CYN1 is closely related to Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B) and "Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa" (UCYN-A), two groups of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria that play an important role in marine primary production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928671/aerobic-exercise-training-selectively-changes-oxysterol-levels-and-metabolism-reducing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-the-aorta-of-dyslipidemic-mice
#10
Guilherme Silva Ferreira, Paula R Pinto, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa Del Bianco, Monique Fátima Mello Santana, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Valéria S Nunes, Carlos E Negrão, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928460/molecular-dissection-of-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-steviol-glycosides-synthesis-in-leaf-tissue-during-developmental-phase-transitions-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bert
#11
Gopal Singh, Gagandeep Singh, Pradeep Singh, Rajni Parmar, Navgeet Paul, Radhika Vashist, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Ashok Kumar, Sanatsujat Singh, Anil Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Ram Kumar Sharma
Stevia is a natural source of commercially important steviol glycosides (SGs), which share biosynthesis route with gibberellic acids (GAs) through plastidal MEP and cytosolic MVA pathways. Ontogeny-dependent deviation in SGs biosynthesis is one of the key factor for global cultivation of Stevia, has not been studied at transcriptional level. To dissect underlying molecular mechanism, we followed a global transcriptome sequencing approach and generated more than 100 million reads. Annotation of 41,262 de novo assembled transcripts identified all the genes required for SGs and GAs biosynthesis...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928279/metabolism-in-time-and-space-exploring-the-frontier-of-developmental-biology
#12
REVIEW
Alena Krejci, Jason M Tennessen
Despite the fact that metabolic studies played a prominent role in the early history of developmental biology research, the field of developmental metabolism was largely ignored following the advent of modern molecular biology. Metabolism, however, has recently re-emerged as a focal point of biomedical studies and, as a result, developmental biologists are once again exploring the chemical and energetic forces that shape growth, development and maturation. In May 2017, a diverse group of scientists assembled at the EMBO/EMBL Symposium 'Metabolism in Time and Space' to discuss how metabolism influences cellular and developmental processes...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928113/pdk4-inhibits-cardiac-pyruvate-oxidation-in-late-pregnancy
#13
Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Steven Yang, Jian Li, Federico Damilano, Mun Chun Chan, Wenyun Lu, Cholsoon Jang, Shogo Wada, Michael Morley, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Joshua Rabinowitz, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig, Zoltan Arany
Rationale: Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations are not well understood. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. Methods and Results: We use here (13)C-glucose, (13)C-lactate, and (13)C-fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928003/learning-from-quantitative-data-to-understand-central-carbon-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Fumio Matsuda, Yoshihiro Toya, Hiroshi Shimizu
Quantitative analysis of metabolism has been used to identify driver reactions occurring during cancer development and bottleneck reactions in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms. In this review, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of various metabolic analysis methods. We emphasize that metabolic flux analysis based on material balance is a critical method for quantitative investigations into cell metabolism. The absolute determination of metabolite concentration appears to be essential for evaluating the thermodynamic state of metabolism...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926104/glucose-stimulates-intestinal-epithelial-crypt-proliferation-by-modulating-cellular-energy-metabolism
#15
Weinan Zhou, Deepti Ramachandran, Abdelhak Mansouri, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. The amount and type of diet influence this process and result in changes in the size and cellular make-up of the tissue. The mechanism underlying the nutrient-driven changes in proliferation is not known, but may involve a shift in intracellular metabolism that allows for more nutrients to be used to manufacture new cells...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923861/mct1-inhibitor-azd3965-increases-mitochondrial-metabolism-facilitating-combination-therapy-and-non-invasive-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#16
Mounia Beloueche-Babari, Slawomir Wantuch, Teresa Casals Galobart, Markela Koniordou, Harold G Parkes, Vaitha Arunan, Yuen-Li Chung, Thomas R Eykyn, Paul D Smith, Martin O Leach
Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) modulate tumor cell metabolism and offer promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Understanding the impact of MCT blockade on tumor cell metabolism may help develop combination strategies or identify pharmacodynamic biomarkers to support the clinical development of MCT inhibitors now in clinical trials. In this study, we assessed the impact of the MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965 on cancer cell metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Exposing human lymphoma and colon carcinoma cells to AZD3965 increased MCT4-dependent accumulation of intracellular lactate, inhibiting monocarboxylate influx and efflux...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922515/increased-resource-use-efficiency-amplifies-positive-response-of-aquatic-primary-production-to-experimental-warming
#17
James M Hood, Jonathan P Benstead, Wyatt F Cross, Alexander D Huryn, Philip W Johnson, Gísli M Gíslason, James R Junker, Daniel Nelson, Jón S Ólafsson, Chau Tran
Climate warming is affecting the structure and function of river ecosystems, including their role in transforming and transporting carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Predicting how river ecosystems respond to warming has been hindered by a dearth of information about how otherwise well-studied physiological responses to temperature scale from organismal to ecosystem levels. We conducted an ecosystem-level temperature manipulation to quantify how coupling of stream ecosystem metabolism and nutrient uptake responded to a realistic warming scenario...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922380/the-warburg-effect-as-an-adaptation-of-cancer-cells-to-rapid-fluctuations-in-energy-demand
#18
Tamir Epstein, Robert A Gatenby, Joel S Brown
To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, glucose metabolism is viewed as a function of oxygen concentrations in which the more efficient oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O produces all or nearly all ATP except under hypoxic conditions when less efficient (2 ATP/ glucose vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#19
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921534/exploring-cellular-behaviour-under-transient-gene-expression-and-its-impact-on-mab-productivity-and-fc-glycosylation
#20
Si Nga Sou, Ken Lee, Kalpana Nayyar, Karen M Polizzi, Christopher Sellick, Cleo Kontoravdi
Transient gene expression (TGE) is a methodology employed in bioprocessing for the fast provision of recombinant protein material. Mild hypothermia is often introduced to overcome the low yield typically achieved with TGE and improve specific protein productivity. It is therefore of interest to examine the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on both the yield and quality of transiently-expressed proteins and the relationship to changes in cellular processes and metabolism. In this study, we focus on the ability of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line to galactosylate a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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