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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634792/impairments-of-cadmium-on-vitellogenin-accumulation-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense
#1
Jian Yang, Hui Sun, Yu Qian, Jie Yang
During ovary maturation of crabs, vitellogenin (Vg), a precursor molecule of vitellin (Vn) needed for embryogenesis, can be produced in large quantities in the hepatopancreas and then transported to the ovary by the hemolymph. In the present study, effects of Cd on Vg accumulation in the hepatopancreas and Vg transportation of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense were investigated. We also studied the impacts of Cd on the mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism, protein metabolism, and metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH) synthesis...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#2
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634240/leucine-biosynthesis-is-involved-in-regulating-high-lipid-accumulation-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#3
Eduard J Kerkhoven, Young-Mo Kim, Siwei Wei, Carrie D Nicora, Thomas L Fillmore, Samuel O Purvine, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Richard D Smith, Scott E Baker, Thomas O Metz, Jens Nielsen
The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation of lipogenesis in Y. lipolytica and identified how two opposite regulatory states both result in lipid accumulation. This study involved comparison of a strain overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) with a control strain grown under either nitrogen or carbon limitation conditions...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634175/interrelations-between-3-hydroxypropionate-and-propionate-metabolism-in-rat-liver-relevance-to-disorders-of-propionyl-coa-metabolism
#4
Kirkland A Wilson, Yong Han, Miaoqi Zhang, Jeremy Hess, Kimberly A Chapman, Gary W Cline, Gregory P Tochtrop, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
Propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), methylcitrate, related compounds and ammonium accumulate in body fluids of patients with disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism, such as propionic acidemia. Although liver transplantation alleviates hyperammonemia, high concentrations of propionate, 3HP and methylcitrate persist in body fluids. We hypothesized that conserved metabolic perturbations occurring in transplanted patients result from the simultaneous presence of propionate and 3HP in body fluids. We investigated the interrelations of propionate and 3HP metabolism in perfused livers from normal rats using metabolomic and stable isotopic technologies...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630930/real-time-quantitative-analysis-of-metabolic-flux-in-live-cells-using-a-hyperpolarized-micromagnetic-resonance-spectrometer
#5
Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Sun Mi Park, Julio Alvarez, Sui Seng Tee, Ralph Weissleder, Michael G Kharas, Hakho Lee, Kayvan R Keshari
Metabolic reprogramming is widely considered a hallmark of cancer, and understanding metabolic dynamics described by the conversion rates or "fluxes" of metabolites can shed light onto biological processes of tumorigenesis and response to therapy. For real-time analysis of metabolic flux in intact cells or organisms, magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and imaging methods have been developed in conjunction with hyperpolarization of nuclear spins. These approaches enable noninvasive monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy and are being tested in multiple clinical trials...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629793/the-effects-of-hypoxia-on-active-ionic-transport-processes-in-the-gill-epithelium-of-hyperregulating-crab-carcinus-maneas
#6
Čedomil Lucu, Andreas Ziegler
Effects of hypoxia on the osmorespiratory functions of the posterior gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to 12ppt seawater (DSW) were studied. Short-circuit current (Isc) across the hemilamella (one epithelium layer supported by cuticle) was substantially reduced under exposure to 1.6, 2.0, or 2.5mg O2/L hypoxic saline (both sides of epithelium) and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc was reduced equally in the epithelium exposed to 1.6mg O2/L on both sides and when the apical side was oxygenated and the basolateral side solely exposed to hypoxia...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#7
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627424/channeling-in-native-microbial-pathways-implications-and-challenges-for-metabolic-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Mary H Abernathy, Lian He, Yinjie J Tang
Intracellular enzymes can be organized into a variety of assemblies, shuttling intermediates from one active site to the next. Eukaryotic compartmentalization within mitochondrion and peroxisomes and substrate tunneling within multi-enzyme complexes have been well recognized. Intriguingly, the central pathways in prokaryotes may also form extensive channels, including the heavily branched glycolysis pathway. In vivo channeling through cascade enzymes is difficult to directly measure, but can be inferred from in vitro tests, reaction thermodynamics, transport/reaction modeling, analysis of molecular diffusion and protein interactions, or steady state/dynamic isotopic labeling...
June 13, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627057/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-growing-pigs-influence-of-uvb-irradiation-and-dietary-vitamin-d-supply-on-calcium-homeostasis-its-regulation-and-bone-metabolism
#9
E Kolp, M R Wilkens, W Pendl, B Eichenberger, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to prove whether pigs are able to synthesize vitamin D (vitD) in the skin and to investigate the influence of ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) on vitD status and calcium (Ca) homeostasis of growing pigs. Thirty-two 11-week-old pigs were kept without access to sunlight and divided into four groups receiving the following treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (i) UVB irradiation or not and (ii) vitD in feed or not. Blood, urine and faeces were sampled every third week. In serum, vitD metabolites, Ca, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and bone markers were analysed...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626421/divergent-metabolic-regulation-of-autophagy-and-mtorc1-early-events-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Mai A Shafei, Matthew Harris, Myra E Conway
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease associated with the production and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles, which lead to synaptic and neuronal damage. Reduced autophagic flux has been widely associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AV), which has been proposed to contribute to aggregate build-up observed in AD. As such, targeting autophagy regulation has received wide review, where an understanding as to how this mechanism can be controlled will be important to neuronal health...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625987/metabolic-engineering-of-actinobacillus-succinogenes-provides-insights-into-succinic-acid-biosynthesis
#11
Michael T Guarnieri, Yat-Chen Chou, Davinia Salvachúa, Ali Mohagheghi, Peter C St John, Darren J Peterson, Yannick J Bomble, Gregg T Beckham
Actinobacillus succinogenes, a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. In this work, we report the development of facile metabolic engineering capabilities in A...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625755/multilevel-engineering-of-the-upstream-module-of-aromatic-amino-acid-biosynthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-high-production-of-polymer-and-drug-precursors
#12
Miguel Suástegui, Chiam Yu Ng, Anupam Chowdhury, Wan Sun, Mingfeng Cao, Emma House, Costas D Maranas, Zengyi Shao
A multilevel approach was implemented in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to optimize the precursor module of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, which is a rich resource for synthesizing a great variety of chemicals ranging from polymer precursor, to nutraceuticals and pain-relief drugs. To facilitate the discovery of novel targets to enhance the pathway flux, we incorporated the computational tool YEASTRACT for predicting novel transcriptional repressors and OptForce strain-design for identifying non-intuitive pathway interventions...
June 15, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625541/plant-derived-antifungal-compounds-trigger-a-common-transcriptional-response
#13
Zhe Wang
Understanding the mechanism of action of antifungal drugs is vital for better control of mycosis, which kills >1.3 million lives every year thus remains a major health problem worldwide. In this study, we investigate the activities of three different categories of plant-derived antifungal compounds (resveratrol, honokiol and osthole) via transcriptomics and bioinformatics analysis, with the goal of discovering the common Mode-of-Action (MoA) at molecular level. The result shows that a common transcriptional response (72 gene are up-regulated while 10 genes are down-regulated, commonly) are triggered by above representative antifungal compounds in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625352/rna-seq-and-metabolic-flux-analysis-of-tetraselmis-sp-m8-during-nitrogen-starvation-reveals-a-two-stage-lipid-accumulation-mechanism
#14
David K Y Lim, Holger Schuhmann, Skye R Thomas-Hall, Kenneth C K Chan, Taylor J Wass, Felipe Aguilera, T Catalina Adarme-Vega, Cristiana G O Dal'Molin, Glen J Thorpe, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Peer M Schenk
To map out key lipid-related pathways that lead to rapid triacylglyceride accumulation in oleaginous microalgae, RNA-Seq was performed with Tetraselmis sp. M8 at 24h after exhaustion of exogenous nitrogen to reveal molecular changes during early stationary phase. Further gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR at 16-72h revealed a distinct shift in expression of the fatty acid/triacylglyceride biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways, when cells transitioned from log-phase into early-stationary and stationary phase...
June 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625351/challenges-of-non-flocculating-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-haploid-strain-against-inhibitory-chemical-complex-for-ethanol-production
#15
Prihardi Kahar, Eny Ida Riyanti, Hiromi Otsuka, Hana Matsumoto, Chie Kihira, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
This study provides insight observation based on the gene expression and the metabolomic analysis of the natural robust yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NBRC849 during the fermentation in the medium containing inhibitory chemical complexes (ICC) at different concentrations. The tolerance mechanisms involved in the strain might have existed through the upregulation of genes involved in NAD(H)/NADP(H) cofactors generations (ALD6, ZWF1, GND1), membrane robustness for efflux pump (YOR1, PDR5, TPO3) and cation/polyamine transport (TPO3)...
June 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624189/mir30c-is-involved-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-regulation-of-cardiac-autophagy-via-becn1
#16
Chen Chen, Shenglan Yang, Huaping Li, Zhongwei Yin, Jiahui Fan, Yanru Zhao, Wei Gong, Mengwen Yan, Dao Wen Wang
Multiple factors have been shown to promote the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. A link has previously been found between Mir30 and autophagy in cancer cells and in the heart, but the role of Mir30 in diabetic heart has not been studied. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we found that the depletion of Mir30c and induction of BECN1 enhanced autophagy in diabetic (db/db) hearts and in cardiomyocytes treated with the fatty acid palmitate. We verified that Mir30c repressed BECN1 expression by direct binding to the BECN1 3' UTRs...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623722/recent-advances-in-synthetic-biology-for-engineering-isoprenoid-production-in-yeast
#17
REVIEW
Claudia E Vickers, Thomas C Williams, Bingyin Peng, Joel Cherry
Isoprenoids (terpenes/terpenoids) have many useful industrial applications, but are often not produced at industrially viable level in their natural sources. Synthetic biology approaches have been used extensively to reconstruct metabolic pathways in tractable microbial hosts such as yeast and re-engineer pathways and networks to increase yields. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing on central carbon metabolism engineering to increase precursor supply, re-directing carbon flux for production of C10, C15, or C20 isoprenoids, and chemical decoration of high value diterpenoids (C20)...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622697/vitamin-c-and-doxycycline-a-synthetic-lethal-combination-therapy-targeting-metabolic-flexibility-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#18
Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Gloria Bonuccelli, Marcello Maggiolini, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we developed a new synthetic lethal strategy for further optimizing the eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Briefly, we show that chronic treatment with the FDA-approved antibiotic Doxycycline effectively reduces cellular respiration, by targeting mitochondrial protein translation. The expression of four mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins (MT-ND3, MT-CO2, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8) is suppressed, by up to 35-fold. This high selection pressure metabolically synchronizes the surviving cancer cell sub-population towards a predominantly glycolytic phenotype, resulting in metabolic inflexibility...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622295/high-autophagic-flux-guards-esc-identity-through-coordinating-autophagy-machinery-gene-program-by-foxo1
#19
Pinglei Liu, Kun Liu, Haifeng Gu, Weixu Wang, Jiaqi Gong, Yingjie Zhu, Qian Zhao, Jiani Cao, Chunseng Han, Fei Gao, Quan Chen, Wei Li, Jianwei Jiao, Baoyang Hu, Qi Zhou, Tongbiao Zhao
Although much is known about transcriptional networks that control embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and differentiation, the metabolic regulation of ESC is less clear. Autophagy is a catabolic process that is activated under both stress and normal conditions to degrade damaged organelles and aggregated proteins, and thus plays pivotal roles in somatic and adult stem cell function. However, if and how ESCs harness autophagy to regulate stemness remains largely unknown. Recently, we have defined that autophagy is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619231/endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperones-tweak-the-mitochondrial-calcium-rheostat-to-control-metabolism-and-cell-death
#20
REVIEW
Tomas Gutiérrez, Thomas Simmen
The folding of secretory proteins is a well-understood mechanism, based on decades of research on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones. These chaperones interact with newly imported polypeptides close to the ER translocon. Classic examples for these proteins include the immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and the lectins calnexin and calreticulin. Although not considered chaperones per se, the ER oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family complete the folding job by catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds through cysteine oxidation...
May 31, 2017: Cell Calcium
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