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Candida glabrata

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907120/structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-yeast-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-in-complex-with-agrochemical-antifungals
#1
Joel D A Tyndall, Manya Sabherwal, Alia A Sagatova, Mikhail V Keniya, Jacopo Negroni, Rajni K Wilson, Matthew A Woods, Klaus Tietjen, Brian C Monk
Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904062/promising-therapies-for-fungal-infection-based-on-the-study-to-elucidate-mechanisms-to-cope-with-stress-in-candida-species
#2
Kazuyuki Hirai, Tatsuya Inukai, Hironobu Nakayama
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections has been increasing, particularly among patients with immune systems compromised by human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and/or chemotherapy for cancer. Current therapies for treating systemic fungal infection have limited effectiveness and have created problems of adverse reactions and drug resistance. These issues therefore motivate us to develop novel antifungals. Elucidation of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors in pathogenic fungi is required in developing an effective antifungal strategy...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902377/comparison-of-susceptibility-patterns-using-commercially-available-susceptibility-testing-methods-performed-on-prevalent-candida-species
#3
David Cretella, Katie E Barber, S Travis King, Kayla R Stover
The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014-March 2015 using broth microdilution (BMD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method, Etest, Vitek2 (YS-05), and Sensititre...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886119/synthesis-and-antifungal-screening-of-2-1-5-alkyl-arylalkylpyrazin-2-yl-ethylidene-hydrazono-1-3-thiazolidin-4-ones
#4
Veronika Opletalova, Jan Dolezel, Jiri Kunes, Vladimir Buchta, Marcela Vejsova, Marta Kucerova-Chlupacova
Two novel thiosemicarbazones and eight novel 2-{[1-(5-alkyl/arylalkylpyrazin-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazono}-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were prepared and tested against a panel of eight fungal strains-Candida albicans ATCC 44859, Candida tropicalis 156, Candida krusei E 28, Candida glabrata 20/I, Trichosporon asahii 1188, Aspergillus fumigatus 231, Lichtheimia corymbifera 272, and Trichophyton interdigitale 445. 1,3-Thiazolidin-4-ones exhibited activity against all strains, the most potent derivative was 2-{[1-(5-butylpyrazin-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazono}e-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one...
November 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882253/candida-glabrata-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Onur Yazici, Mustafa Cortuk, Hasan Casim, Erdogan Cetinkaya, Ali Mert, Ali Ramazan Benli
Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae and viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia. Candidiasis in such patients has been associated with haemodialysis, fungal colonization, exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics, intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, and immunocompromised patients. The most common cause of infection is C. albicans. The case presented here is of a 66-year-old male patient diagnosed with C. glabrata. The patient suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880665/the-current-treatment-landscape-candidiasis
#6
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Jean-Francois Timsit
The epidemiology of Candida species infection has changed over recent decades, influenced by local hospital-related factors, patient predisposing conditions and type of antifungal agents administered. A shift from Candida albicans as the predominant pathogen towards an increasing prevalence of the species Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis amongst critically ill patients has been documented. Changes in Candida species distribution may impact treatment recommendations due to differences in susceptibility to antifungal agents among species...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872063/in-vitro-exposure-to-increasing-micafungin-concentrations-easily-promotes-echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-glabrata-isolates
#7
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Pilar Escribano, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Rafael Cantón, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of five echinocandin-susceptible C. glabrata isolates after exposure to micafungin. The direct exposure to plates at different micafungin concentrations resulted in the inhibition of growth at 0.062 μg/ml. The progressive exposure was performed on plates with 0.031 μg/ml of micafungin and sequentially propagated on plates containing the next two-fold concentration; the MICs of micafungin and anidulafungin increased sequentially and all the isolates became echinocandin-resistant showing fks2 mutations...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864011/molecular-characterization-of-candida-isolates-from-intensive-care-unit-patients-krakow-poland
#8
Marianna Małek, Paulina Paluchowska, Bożena Bogusz, Alicja Budak
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 15, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858242/epidemiology-and-reporting-of-candidaemia-in-belgium-a-multi-centre-study
#9
C Trouvé, S Blot, M-P Hayette, S Jonckheere, S Patteet, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, F Symoens, E Van Wijngaerden, K Lagrou
The primary aim of this study was to collect national epidemiological data on candidaemia and to determine the reporting time of species identification and antifungal susceptibility in clinical practice. During a 1-year period (March 2013 until February 2014), every first Candida isolate from each episode of candidaemia was included prospectively from 30 Belgian hospitals. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed according to local procedures and isolates were sent to the National Reference Center for Mycosis...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855078/echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-spp-isolated-from-liver-transplant-recipients
#10
Gwénolé Prigent, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Eric Levesque, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Costa, Sarra El Anbassi, Françoise Foulet, Christophe Duvoux, Jean-Claude Merle, Eric Dannaoui, Françoise Botterel
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest® and EUCAST reference method...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837519/molecular-detection-of-resistance-to-azole-components
#11
Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Fungal infections have increased significantly in the last few years, and their outcomes are in part complicated by the emergence of antifungal drug-resistant pathogens. Together with Candida species, the mould Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most prevalent organisms to cause invasive fungal disease. The molecular detection of (tri)azole resistance in both Candida and Aspergillus species may represent a useful means of monitoring the incidence of clinical isolates with antifungal resistance-associated gene alterations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837518/molecular-detection-of-resistance-to-echinocandins
#12
Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Maurizio Sanguinetti
In the last years, life-threatening fungal diseases have increased significantly, due to the rising number of human individuals susceptible to fungal infections, which are in part complicated by the emergence of antifungal drug-resistant pathogens. Among yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the most common organisms responsible for invasive fungal diseases. The molecular detection of echinocandin resistance in Candida species may represent a useful means of monitoring the incidence of clinical isolates with antifungal resistance-associated gene alterations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837513/t2-magnetic-resonance-for-fungal-diagnosis
#13
Fainareti N Zervou, Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Jaclynn Kurpewski, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Rapid diagnostic methods for fungal infections are long awaited and are expected to improve outcomes through early initiation of targeted antifungal therapy. T2Candida panel is a novel qualitative diagnostic platform that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for diagnosis of candidemia with a mean time to species identification of less than 5 h. T2Candida panel is performed on the fully automated T2Dx instrument in whole blood K2EDTA specimens and is able to detect 5 Candida spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833023/p2x7-from-j774-murine-macrophages-acts-as-a-scavenger-receptor-for-bacteria-but-not-yeast
#14
Gabriela Pérez-Flores, Cesar Hernández-Silva, Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Escobedo, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño, Jorge Arreola, Patricia Pérez-Cornejo
We studied the effects of extracellular ATP and Ca(2+) on uptake of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli) and live yeast (Candida glabrata) by J774 macrophages to determine the role of endogenous P2X7 receptors in phagocytosis. Our findings show that phagocytosis of bio-particles coated with S. aureus or E. coli was blocked by ATP and the P2X7 receptor agonist BzATP, while yeast phagocytosis was not. A438079, an antagonist of P2X7 receptors, partially reverted the effects of ATP on bacterial phagocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821139/micafungin-versus-caspofungin-in-the-treatment-of-candida-glabrata-infection-a-case-report
#15
Shoko Merrit Yamada, Yusuke Tomita, Tomotsugu Yamaguchi, Toshiaki Matsuki
BACKGROUND: Micafungin and caspofungin, which are both echinocandins, elicit their antifungal effects by suppressing the synthesis of β-D-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. If micafungin is not effective against a fungal infection, is it unreasonable to switch to caspofungin? CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with brain and lung abscesses. Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were identified by sputa culture and Streptococcus mitis was identified in the brain abscess culture obtained by drainage surgery...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816327/nkp46-is-an-nk-cell-fungicidal-pattern-recognition-receptor
#16
Shu Shun Li, Christopher H Mody
Natural killer (NK) cells are an important contributor to innate host defense because of their role in direct microbial recognition and killing. Vitenshtein et al. make an important contribution by demonstrating that NK cells kill Candida glabrata using the NK activating receptor, NKp46, which recognizes the Epa adhesins.
November 2, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815348/the-cghaa1-regulon-mediates-response-and-tolerance-to-acetic-acid-stress-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#17
Ruben T Bernardo, Diana V Cunha, Can Wang, Leonel Pereira, Sónia Silva, Sara B Salazar, Markus S Schröder, Michiyo Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Toshihiro Aoyama, Isabel Sá-Correia, Joana Azeredo, Geraldine Butler, Nuno Pereira Mira
To thrive in the acidic vaginal tract C. glabrata has to cope with high concentrations of acetic acid. The mechanisms underlying C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid at low pH remain largely uncharacterized. In this work it is demonstrated the essential role of the CgHaa1 transcription factor (encoded by ORF CAGL0L09339g) in the response and tolerance of C. glabrata to acetic acid. Transcriptomic analysis showed that CgHaa1 regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of about 75% of the genes activated under acetic acid stress...
November 4, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812511/transcriptional-control-of-drug-resistance-virulence-and-immune-system-evasion-in-pathogenic-fungi-a-cross-species-comparison
#18
REVIEW
Pedro Pais, Catarina Costa, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Daniela Romão, Miguel C Teixeira
Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810263/multiplex-pcr-designed-to-differentiate-species-within-the-candida-glabrata-complex
#19
Catiana Dudiuk, Soraya E Morales-López, Virginia Podesta, Daiana Macedo, Florencia Leonardelli, Roxana G Vitale, María E Tosello, Matías S Cabeza, Marisa Biasoli, Soledad Gamarra, Guillermo Garcia-Effron
BACKGROUND: No phenotypic methods are available to unequivocally differentiate species within the Candida glabrata complex. AIMS: To develop a new multiplex PCR method to differentiate between the three species of the C. glabrata species complex, as well as using it to study a C. glabrata collection to discover strains of the newly described species. METHODS: The method was developed based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence differences between the species...
October 31, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801810/novel-halogenated-pyrazine-based-chalcones-as-potential-antimicrobial-drugs
#20
Marta Kucerova-Chlupacova, Veronika Vyskovska-Tyllova, Lenka Richterova-Finkova, Jiri Kunes, Vladimir Buchta, Marcela Vejsova, Pavla Paterova, Lucia Semelkova, Ondrej Jandourek, Veronika Opletalova
Chalcones, i.e., compounds with the chemical pattern of 1,3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-ones, exert a wide range of bio-activities, e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-infective etc. Our research group has been focused on pyrazine analogues of chalcones; several series have been synthesized and tested in vitro on antifungal and antimycobacterial activity. The highest potency was exhibited by derivatives with electron withdrawing groups (EWG) in positions 2 and 4 of the ring B. As halogens also have electron withdrawing properties, novel halogenated derivatives were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation...
October 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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