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Candida glabrata

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630180/de-novo-acquisition-of-resistance-to-scy-078-in-candida-glabrata-involves-fks-mutations-that-both-overlap-and-are-distinct-from-those-conferring-echinocandin-resistance
#1
Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, Winder B Perez, David Angulo, Katyna Borroto-Esoda, David S Perlin
SCY-078 is an orally active antifungal whose target is the β-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase (GS). We evaluated the spontaneous emergence of SCY-078 resistant Candida glabrata isolates following drug exposure in vitro Resistant isolates were analyzed using broth microdilution methodology and FKS sequencing. The kinetic inhibition parameter IC50 was also determined from GS complexes. The spectrum of resistance mutations found suggested a partially overlapping but independent binding site for SCY-078 relative to echinocandins on GS...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626746/frequency-of-cutaneous-fungal-infections-and-azole-resistance-of-the-isolates-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Omid Raiesi, Mansour Siavash, Faezeh Mohammadi, Javaher Chabavizadeh, Behzad Mahaki, Mehrnoush Maherolnaghsh, Parvin Dehghan
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal infections. The higher blood sugar levels cause increasing the cutaneous fungal infections in these patients. The main objective of this study was to find the frequency of fungal infections among cutaneous lesions of diabetic patients and to investigate azole antifungal agent susceptibility of the isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, type 1diabetes (n = 78) and type 2 diabetes (n = 44) comprised 47 cases (38...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622982/comparison-of-the-vitek-2-antifungal-susceptibility-system-with-etest-using-clinical-isolates-of-candida-species
#3
Wadha Alfouzan, Tahani Al-Enezi, Ebteehal AlRoomi, Vayalil Sandhya, Rachel Chandy, Zia Uddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. AIMS: To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest...
June 13, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622460/antifungal-activity-of-tyrosol-and-farnesol-used-in-combination-against-candida-species-in-the-planktonic-state-or-forming-biofilms
#4
Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Laís Salomão Arias, Renan Aparecido Fernandes, Lucas Fernando Deszo da Silva, Manoel Olavo Valentim Fernandes de Castilho, Thaís Oliveira da Rosa, Ana Paula Miranda Vieira, Fabiana Gouveia Straioto, Débora Barros Barbosa, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
AIM: This study examined the antifungal activity of the combination of tyrosol and farnesol against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the planktonic state or forming biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of drug association against Candida planktonic cells was assessed by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Mono and dual-species biofilms were developed (24 h) and the compounds, applied during 3 days, with 2 daily treatments of 1 minute each...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616054/an-investigation-on-non-invasive-fungal-sinusitis-molecular-identification-of-etiologic-agents
#5
Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa Hashemi, Sayed Hamidreza Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Lajevardi, Sahar Kianipour, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Fungal sinusitis is increasing worldwide in the past two decades. It is divided into two types including invasive and noninvasive. Noninvasive types contain allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) and fungus ball. AFS is a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal allergens in the mucosa of the sinonasal tract in atopic individuals. The fungus ball is a different type of noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis which is delineated as an accumulation of debris and fungal elements inside a paranasal sinus...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615656/the-ccaat-binding-complex-controls-respiratory-gene-expression-and-iron-homeostasis-in-candida-glabrata
#6
Antonin Thiébaut, Thierry Delaveau, Médine Benchouaia, Julia Boeri, Mathilde Garcia, Gaëlle Lelandais, Frédéric Devaux
The CCAAT-binding complex (CBC) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, CBC positively controls the expression of respiratory pathway genes. This role involves interactions with the regulatory subunit Hap4. In many pathogenic fungi, CBC interacts with the HapX regulatory subunit to control iron homeostasis. HapX is a bZIP protein which only shares with Hap4 the Hap4Like domain (Hap4L) required for its interaction with CBC. Here, we show that CBC has a dual role in the pathogenic yeast C...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603107/anti-fungal-and-anti-mycobacterial-activity-of-plants-of-nuevo-leon-mexico
#7
Blanca Alicia Alanis Garza, Joel López Arroyo, Gloria González González, Elvira Garza González, Elvira Garza González, Noemí Waksman de Torres, Ricardo Salazar Aranda
Severe fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida spp, have increased in recent decades and are associated with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality. Since plants are an important source of potentially bioactive compounds, in this work the antifungal activity of the methanol extracts of 10 plants (Acacia rigidula, Buddleja cordata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Parkinsonia aculeata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Quercus canbyi, Ricinus communis, Salvia coccinea and Teucrium bicolor) were evaluated...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600071/synthetic-antimicrobial-peptides-of-the-halictines-family-disturb-the-membrane-integrity-of-candida-cells
#8
Marie Kodedová, Hana Sychrová
We compared the potency of four derivatives of the antimicrobial peptide halictine-2 against six Candida species. Observed activity was peptide and species specific. Halictines rapidly permeabilized cell membranes and caused the leakage of cytosolic components. Their killing potential was enhanced by the commercial antimicrobial agent octenidine dihydrochloride. The effect on C. glabrata cells did not depend on the activity of Cdr pumps, but was influenced by their lipid composition. The pre-treatment of cells with myriocin, an inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis, enhanced the peptides' activity, whereas pre-treatment with terbinafine and fluconazole, inhibitors of sterol synthesis, significantly weakened their efficacy...
June 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597394/invasive-candidiasis-in-brescia-italy-analysis-of-species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibilities-during-seven-years
#9
M A De Francesco, G Piccinelli, M Gelmi, F Gargiulo, G Ravizzola, G Pinsi, L Peroni, C Bonfanti, A Caruso
The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia in a large teaching hospital in Brescia, Italy, and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of isolates. We analyzed 196 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted in our hospital, between January 2009 and December 2015. Strains were identified by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS. MICs were determined by Sensititre Yeast OneTM. The resistance was defined by using the revised CLSI breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility or wild type to systemic antifungal agents...
June 8, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595940/glabridin-triggers-over-expression-of-mca1-and-nuc1-genes-in-candida-glabrata-is-it-an-apoptosis-inducer
#10
M Moazeni, M T Hedayati, M Nabili, S J Mousavi, A Abdollahi Gohar, S Gholami
The growing trends of emergence of antifungal-resistant Candida strains has recently been inspired the researchers to design new antifungal agents with novel mechanisms of action. Glabridin is an originally natural substrate with multiple biological activities which propose it as a novel anticancer, antimicrobial and antifungal agent. In the present study, the antifungal effect of glabridin against Candida glabrata isolates and its possible mechanism of action were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for glabridin against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-SDD strains of C...
June 5, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594779/clinical-validation-of-a-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-vaginitis
#11
Charlotte A Gaydos, Sajo Beqaj, Jane R Schwebke, Joel Lebed, Bonnie Smith, Thomas E Davis, Kenneth H Fife, Paul Nyirjesy, Timothy Spurrell, Dorothy Furgerson, Jenell Coleman, Sonia Paradis, Charles K Cooper
OBJECTIVE: Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588560/molecular-epidemiology-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-glabrata-in-china-august-2009-to-july-2014-a-multi-center-study
#12
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, He Wang, Yun-Zhuo Chu, Mei Kang, Zi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Dong Hu, Ruo-Yu Li, Juan Lu, Kang Liao, Tie-Shi Hu, Yu-Xing Ni, Gui-Ling Zou, Ge Zhang, Xin Fan, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida glabrata is an increasingly important cause of invasive candidiasis. In China, relatively little is known of the molecular epidemiology of C. glabrata and of its antifungal susceptibility patterns. Here we studied 411 non-duplicate C. glabrata isolates from 411 patients at 11 hospitals participating in the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET; 2010-2014). Genotyping was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing six genetic loci and by microsatellite analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587870/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-saudi-scorpion-venoms-tested-against-multidrug-resistant-micro-organisms
#13
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Meshref Ali Alamri, Aqeel Salman Almasoudi, Rajamohamed Abbasmanthiri, Maysa Mahfoud
OBJECTIVES: Scorpion venoms are a rich source of bioactive peptides with promising clinical value that may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the venoms extracted from three medically important Saudi scorpions (Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus bicolor and Leiurus quinquestriatus). METHODS: Antimicrobial assays were performed using a microplate growth inhibition assay against 10 multidrug-resistant (MDR) micro-organisms (4 Gram-negative bacteria, 2 Gram-positive bacteria and 4 fungi and yeasts) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20mg/mL of each venom...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584138/initial-treatment-of-cancer-patients-with-fluconazole-susceptible-dose-dependent-candida-glabrata-fungemia-better-outcome-with-an-echinocandin-or-polyene-compared-to-an-azole
#14
Audrey Le, Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Jeffrey J Tarrand, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
28-day crude mortality in 68 cancer patients with fluconazole susceptible dose-dependent Candida glabrata fungemia started on treatment (within 48 hours after blood culture collection) with an echinocandin or liposomal amphotericin-B was better (30%), compared to those treated with azole monotherapy (52%, p=0.07). After adjusting for confounders, azole monotherapy was associated with worse 28-day survival (hazard ratio 3.8, p=0.003).
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582496/vaginal-candida-spp-genomes-from-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#15
L Latéy Bradford, Marcus Chibucos, Bing Ma, Vincent Bruno, Jacques Ravel
Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four Candida albicans and one Candida glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. A SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related, however phylogenetic distances between them suggest there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments...
June 4, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578925/identification-of-candida-species-in-vaginal-flora-using-conventional-and-molecular-methods
#16
F Ameen, M Moslem, M Al Tami, H Al-Ajlan, N Al-Qahtani
Vaginal swab samples were collected both from women with signs of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; n=270) and from healthy controls (n=100). The microscopic examination revealed a significant difference in the proportion of positive cultures of Candida between the VVC (33%) and control (21%) groups. To determine the frequency of different species, positive cultures were analyzed using the germ tube test, CHROMagar medium, API 20 AUX System and DNA analysis. CHROMagar and API 20 AUX System tests identified 67% of samples as C...
June 1, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578870/the-essential-oil-of-allium-sativum-as-an-alternative-agent-against-candida-isolated-from-dental-prostheses
#17
Alejandro Mendoza-Juache, Saray Aranda-Romo, Josué R Bermeo-Escalona, Araceli Gómez-Hernández, Amaury Pozos-Guillén, Luis Octavio Sánchez-Vargas
BACKGROUND: The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells...
June 1, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572725/synthesis-characterization-and-in-vitro-activity-against-candida-spp-of-fluconazole-encapsulated-on-cationic-and-conventional-nanoparticles-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid
#18
Nicolás Gómez-Sequeda, Rodrigo Torres, Claudia Ortiz
In this study, nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) loaded with fluconazole (FLZ) and FLZ-NPs coated with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) (FLZ-NP-PEI) were synthetized in order to improve antimycotic activity against four strains of Candida spp. of clinical relevance. FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI were synthesized by double emulsion solvent-diffusion (DES-D) and characterized. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined in vitro by culturing Candida strains in the presence of these nanocompounds...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571137/auxanographic-carbohydrate-assimilation-method-for-large-scale-yeast-identification
#19
Suganthi Martena Devadas, Mamatha Ballal, Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash, Manjunath H Hande, Geetha V Bhat, Vinitha Mohandas
INTRODUCTION: The auxanographic carbohydrate assimilation had been an important method for differentiation of yeasts. Prevailing methods described in the literature for carbohydrate assimilation has limited scope for use in large scale yeast identification. AIM: To optimize the large scale auxanographic carbohydrate assimilation method for yeast identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A modified auxanographic carbohydrate assimilation method was developed and a total of 35 isolates of Candida species comprising of four ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) Candida strains (Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida tropicalis ATCC 90018, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 750, Candida krusei ATCC 6258) and 31 clinical isolates of Candida tropicalis (n=13), Candida krusei (n=7), Candida glabrata (n=3), Candida kefyr (n=3), Candida albicans (n=5) were validated...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566663/promising-therapies-for-fungal-infection-based-on-the-study-to-elucidate-mechanisms-to-cope-with-stress-in-candida-species-translated-article
#20
Kazuyuki Hirai, Tatsuya Inukai, Hironobu Nakayama
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections has been increasing, particularly among patients with immune systems compromised by human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and/or chemotherapy for cancer. Current therapies for treating systemic fungal infection have limited effectiveness and have created problems of adverse reactions and drug resistance. These issues therefore motivate us to develop novel antifungals. Elucidation of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors in pathogenic fungi is required in developing an effective antifungal strategy...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
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